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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Nationality:
noun: Italian(s)
adjective: Italian

Ethnic divisions: Italian (includes small clusters of German-,
French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and
Greek-Italians in the south), Sicilians, Sardinians

Religions: Roman Catholic 98%, other 2%

Languages: Italian, German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are
predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority
in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the
Trieste-Gorizia area)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 96%

Labor force: 23.988 million
by occupation: services 58%, industry 32.2%, agriculture 9.8% (1988)

@Italy:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Italian Republic
conventional short form: Italy
local long form: Repubblica Italiana
local short form: Italia
former: Kingdom of Italy

Digraph: IT

Type: republic

Capital: Rome

Administrative divisions: 20 regions (regioni, singular - regione);
Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna,
Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise,
Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige,
Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto

Independence: 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)

Constitution: 1 January 1948

Legal system: based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law
influence; appeals treated as trials de novo; judicial review under
certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections,
where minimum age is 25)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Oscar Luigi SCALFARO (since 28 May 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the
President of the Council of Ministers) Lamberto DINI (since 1 February
1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the President of the
Council (i.e., Prime Minister) and approved by the President of the
Republic

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlamento)
Senate (Senato della Repubblica): elections last held 27-28 March 1994
(next must be held by spring 1999, but may be held by end of 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (326 total, 315
elected, 11 appointed senators-for-life) PDS 61, Northern League 60,
National Alliance 48, Forza Italia 36, Italian Popular Party 31,
Communist Refoundation 18, Greens and The Network 13, Italian
Socialists 13, Christian Democratic Center 12, Democratic Alliance 8,
Christian Socialists 5, Pact for Italy 4, Radical Party (Pannella
List) 1, others 5
Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati): elections last held 27-28
March 1994 (next must be held by spring 1999, but may be held by end
of 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (630 total)
Northern League 117, PDS 114, Forza Italia 113, National Alliance 109,
Communist Refoundation 39, Christian Democratic Center 33, Italian
Popular Party 33, Greens and The Network 20, Democratic Alliance 18,
Italian Socialists 16, Pact for Italy 13, Christian Socialists 5

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale)

Political parties and leaders: Forza Italia (FI), Silvio BERLUSCONI;
National Alliance, Gianfranco FINI, party secretary; Northern League -
Federal Italy (NL), Umberto BOSSI, president; Italian Social Movement,
Pino RAUTI; Democratic Party of the Left (PDS, Massimo D'ALEMA,
secretary; Communist Refoundation (RC), Fausto BERTINOTTI; Greens,
Gianni MATTIOLI; Italian Socialists, Ottaviano DELTURCO; Rete (The
Network), Leoluca ORLANDO; Christian Socialists, Ermanno GORRIERI;
Pact for Italy, Mario SEGNI; Italian Popular Party (PPI), Rocco
BUTTIGLIONE, Gerardo BIANCO; Christian Democratic Center (CCD), Pier
Ferdinando CASINI; Union of the Democratic Center (UDC), Raffaele
COSTA; Pannella List, Marco PANNELLA

Other political or pressure groups: the Roman Catholic Church; three
major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del
Lavoro or CGIL which is PDS-dominated, Confederazione Italiana dei
Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL which is centerist, and Unione Italiana
del Lavoro or UIL which is center-left); Italian manufacturers and
merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm
groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura)

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CDB
(non-regional), CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-
7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG,
OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNOMOZ, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Boris BIANCHERI-CHIAPPORI
chancery: 1601 Fuller Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 328-5500
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los
Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
consulate(s): Detroit and New Orleans

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Reginald BARTHOLOMEW
embassy: Via Veneto 119/A, 00187-Rome
mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, Rome; APO AE 09624
telephone: [39] (6) 46741
FAX: [39] (6) 4882672
consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and
red; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green
(hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote
d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white,
and green

@Italy:Economy

Overview: Since World War II the Italian economy has changed from one
based on agriculture into a ranking industrial economy, with
approximately the same total and per capita output as France and the
UK. The country is still divided into a developed industrial north,
dominated by private companies, and an undeveloped agricultural south,
dominated by large public enterprises. Services account for 48% of
GDP, industry 35%, agriculture 4%, and public administration 13%. Most
raw materials needed by industry and over 75% of energy requirements
must be imported. After growing at an average annual rate of 3% in
1983-90, growth slowed to about 1% in 1991 and 1992, fell by 0.7% in
1993, and recovered to 2% in 1994. In the second half of 1992, Rome
became unsettled by the prospect of not qualifying to participate in
EU plans for economic and monetary union later in the decade; thus it
finally began to address its huge fiscal imbalances. Subsequently, the
government has adopted fairly stringent budgets, abandoned its highly
inflationary wage indexation system, and started to scale back its
extremely generous social welfare programs, including pension and
health care benefits. Monetary officials were forced to withdraw the
lira from the European monetary system in September 1992 when it came
under extreme pressure in currency markets. For the 1990s, Italy faces
the problems of pushing ahead with fiscal reform, refurbishing a
tottering communications system, curbing pollution in major industrial
centers, and adjusting to the new competitive forces accompanying the
ongoing expansion and economic integration of the European Union.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $998.9 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $17,180 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 12.2% (January 1995)

Budget:
revenues: $339 billion
expenditures: $431 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Exports: $190.8 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: metals, textiles and clothing, production machinery,
motor vehicles, transportation equipment, chemicals, other
partners: EU 53.4%, US 7.8%, OPEC 3.8% (1994)

Imports: $168.7 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: industrial machinery, chemicals, transport equipment,
petroleum, metals, food, agricultural products
partners: EU 56.3%, OPEC 5.3%, US 4.6% (1994)

External debt: $67 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.3% (1994 est.); accounts for 35%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 61,630,000 kW
production: 209 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 4,033 kWh (1993)

Industries: machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing,
textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics

Agriculture: accounts for about 4% of GDP; self-sufficient in foods
other than meat, dairy products, and cereals; principal crops -
fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain,
olives; fish catch of 525,000 metric tons in 1990

Illicit drugs: important gateway country for Latin American cocaine
and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $25.9 billion

Currency: 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,609.5 (January 1995),
1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993), 1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991),
1,198.1 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Italy:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 19,503 km
standard gauge: 18,230 km 1.435-m gauge (10,499 km electrified; 2,112
km privately owned)
narrow gauge: 1,273 km 0.950-m to 1.000-m gauge (224 km electrified;
1,273 km privately owned)

Highways:
total: 305,388 km
paved: 277,388 km (6,940 km of expressways)
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 23,000 km; earth 5,000 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 2,400 km for various types of commercial traffic,
although of limited overall value

Pipelines: crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural
gas 19,400 km

Ports: Ancona, Augusta, Bari, Cagliari (Sardinia), Catania, Gaeta,
Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples, Oristano (Sardinia), Palermo
(Sicily), Piombino, Porto Torres (Sardinia), Ravenna, Savona, Trieste,
Venice

Merchant marine:
total: 441 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,767,969 GRT/8,547,221
DWT
ships by type: bulk 40, cargo 62, chemical tanker 34, combination
ore/oil 3, container 18, liquefied gas tanker 37, multifunction
large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 136, passenger 7, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 54, short-sea passenger 30, specialized tanker 11, vehicle
carrier 8

Airports:
total: 138
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 34
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 26
with paved runways under 914 m: 34
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 22

@Italy:Communications

Telephone system: 25,600,000 telephones; modern, well-developed, fast;
fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
local: NA
intercity: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks
international: international service by 21 submarine cables, 3
satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT with 3 Atlantic Ocean
antennas and 2 Indian Ocean antennas; also participates in INMARSAT
and EUTELSAT systems

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 135, FM 28 (repeaters 1,840), shortwave 0
radios: 16 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 83 (repeaters 1,000)
televisions: 18 million

@Italy:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 14,934,657; males fit for
military service 12,962,594; males reach military age (18) annually
382,142 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $21.5 billion, 2% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

JAMAICA

@Jamaica:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 10,990 sq km
land area: 10,830 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,022 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Natural resources: bauxite, gypsum, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 6%
meadows and pastures: 18%
forest and woodland: 28%
other: 29%

Irrigated land: 350 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial
waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in
Kingston results from vehicle emissions
natural hazards: hurricanes (especially July to November)
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law
of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

Note: strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel,
the main sea lanes for Panama Canal

@Jamaica:People

Population: 2,574,291 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (female 412,565; male 431,043)
15-64 years: 60% (female 786,700; male 770,681)
65 years and over: 7% (female 96,348; male 76,954) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.78% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 22.03 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.62 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.65 years
male: 72.39 years
female: 77.01 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.42 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Jamaican(s)
adjective: Jamaican

Ethnic divisions: African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, East Indian and
Afro-East Indian 3%, white 3.2%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%, other
1.2%

Religions: Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%,
Anglican 7.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist
3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other,
including some spiritual cults 39.1% (1982)

Languages: English, Creole

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1987)
total population: 82%
male: 77%
female: 86%

Labor force: 1,062,100
by occupation: services 41%, agriculture 22.5%, industry 19%,
unemployed 17.5% (1989)

@Jamaica:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Jamaica

Digraph: JM

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Kingston

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston,
Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint
Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny,
Westmoreland

Independence: 6 August 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day (first Monday in August) (1962)

Constitution: 6 August 1962

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Howard COOKE (since 1 August 1991)

head of government: Prime Minister P. J. PATTERSON (since 30 March
1992); Deputy Prime Minister Seymour MULLINGS (since NA 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate: consists of a 21-member body appointed by the governor general

House of Representatives: elections last held 30 March 1993 (next to
be held by March 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(60 total) PNP 52, JLP 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: People's National Party (PNP) P. J.
PATTERSON; Jamaica Labor Party (JLP), Edward SEAGA

Other political or pressure groups: Rastafarians (black
religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists); New Beginnings Movement
(NBM)

Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard Leighton BERNAL
chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660
FAX: [1] (202) 452-0081
consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador J. Gary COOPER (since October 1994)
embassy: Jamaica Mutual Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, 3rd floor,
Kingston
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [1] (809) 929-4850 through 4859
FAX: [1] (809) 926-6743

Flag: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles -
green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)

@Jamaica:Economy

Overview: Key sectors in this island economy are bauxite (alumina and
bauxite account for more than half of exports) and tourism. The
government's tight fiscal and monetary policies, which have been
partially successful in curbing inflation, have held growth to 1.2% in
1993 and 2.0% in 1994.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $7.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,050 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 26.7% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 15.7% (1992)

Budget:
revenues: $600 million
expenditures: $736 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY90/91 est.)

Exports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: alumina, bauxite, sugar, bananas, rum
partners: US 47%, UK 11%, Canada 9%, Norway 7%; France 4% (1993)

Imports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, construction
materials, fuel, food, chemicals
partners: US 54%, Japan 4.0%, Mexico 6%, UK 4%, Venezuela 3% (1993)

External debt: $3.6 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.4% (1992); accounts for almost
30% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 730,000 kW
production: 2.6 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 988 kWh (1993)

Industries: bauxite mining, tourism, textiles, food processing, light
manufactures

Agriculture: accounts for about 7% of GDP, 22% of work force, and 17%
of exports; commercial crops - sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus,
potatoes, vegetables; livestock and livestock products include
poultry, goats, milk; not self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy
products

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine from Central and South
America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation of cannabis;
government has an active cannabis eradication program

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.2 billion;
other countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6
billion

Currency: 1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1 - 33.195 (December
1994), 33.986 (1994), 24.949 (1993), 22.960 (1992), 12.116 (1991),
7.184 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Jamaica:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 370 km
standard gauge: 370 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 18,200 km
paved: 12,600 km
unpaved: gravel 3,200 km; improved earth 2,400 km

Pipelines: petroleum products 10 km

Ports: Alligator Pond, Discovery Bay, Kingston, Montego Bay, Ocho
Rios, Port Antonio, Longs Wharf, Rocky Point

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,931 GRT/10,545 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Airports:
total: 41
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 31
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@Jamaica:Communications

Telephone system: 127,000 telephones; fully automatic domestic
telephone network
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations; 3 coaxial
submarine cables

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 8
televisions: NA

@Jamaica:Defense Forces

Branches: Jamaica Defense Force (includes Ground Forces, Coast Guard
and Air Wing), Jamaica Constabulary Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 670,958; males fit for military
service 475,235; males reach military age (18) annually 26,244 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $19.3 million, 1% of
GDP (FY91/92)

________________________________________________________________________

JAN MAYEN

(territory of Norway)

@Jan Mayen:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the
Norwegian Sea, northeast of Iceland

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
total area: 373 sq km
land area: 373 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 124.1 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 10 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 4 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog

Terrain: volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers; Beerenberg is
the highest peak, with an elevation of 2,277 meters

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: dominated by the volcano Beerenberg; volcanic
activity resumed in 1970
international agreements: NA

Note: barren volcanic island with some moss and grass

@Jan Mayen:People

Population: no permanent inhabitants; note - there are personnel who
man the LORAN C base and the weather and coastal services radio
station

@Jan Mayen:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Jan Mayen

Digraph: JN

Type: territory of Norway

Capital: none; administered from Oslo, Norway, through a governor
(sysselmann) resident in Longyearbyen (Svalbard)

Independence: none (territory of Norway)

@Jan Mayen:Economy

Overview: Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable natural
resources. Economic activity is limited to providing services for
employees of Norway's radio and meteorological stations located on the
island.

Electricity:
capacity: 15,000 kW
production: 40 million kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh (1992)

@Jan Mayen:Transportation

Highways:
total: NA
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports:
total: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Jan Mayen:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA
note: radio and meteorological station

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Jan Mayen:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway

________________________________________________________________________

JAPAN

@Japan:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean
and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean peninsula

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 377,835 sq km
land area: 374,744 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than California
note: includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto,
Minami-jima, Okinotori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and
Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29,751 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm; 3 nm in the international straits - La Perouse
or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea
or Tsushima Strait

International disputes: islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and
the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now
administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed
with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and
Taiwan

Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous

Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 1%
forest and woodland: 67%
other: 18%

Irrigated land: 28,680 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from power plant emissions results in
acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water
quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan's appetite for fish and
tropical timber is contributing to the depletion of these resources in
Asia and elsewhere
natural hazards: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500
seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; tsunamis
international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: strategic location in northeast Asia

@Japan:People

Population: 125,506,492 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (female 9,955,603; male 10,542,973)
15-64 years: 69% (female 43,377,425; male 43,843,645)
65 years and over: 15% (female 10,514,017; male 7,272,829) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.32% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 10.66 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.46 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.44 years
male: 76.6 years
female: 82.42 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.56 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Japanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Japanese

Ethnic divisions: Japanese 99.4%, other 0.6% (mostly Korean)

Religions: observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including
0.7% Christian)

Languages: Japanese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
total population: 99%

Labor force: 65.87 million (December 1994)
by occupation: trade and services 54%, manufacturing, mining, and
construction 33%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7%, government 3%
(1988)

@Japan:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Japan

Digraph: JA

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Tokyo

Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba,
Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido,
Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi,
Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara,
Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane,
Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama,
Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

Independence: 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

Constitution: 3 May 1947

Legal system: modeled after European civil law system with
English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the
Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Tomiichi MURAYAMA (since 30 June
1994); Deputy Prime Minister Yohei KONO (since 30 June 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consists of an upper house
or House of Councillors and a lower house or House of Representatives
House of Councillors (Sangi-in): half of the members elected every
three years to six-year terms; elections last held on 26 July 1992
(next set to be held 23 July 1995); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (252 total) LDP 106, SDPJ 73, Komeito 24, DSP 12, JCP 11,
JNP 4, others 16, independents 6; note - the distribution of seats as
of 1 April 1995 is as follows - LDP 94, SDPJ 68, Heisei-kai 47, Shin
Ryokufu-kai 16, JCP 11, others 15, vacant 1
House of Representatives (Shugi-in): all members elected every four
years to four-year terms; elections last held on 18 July 1993 (next to
be held by 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (511
total) LDP 223, SDPJ 70, Shinseito 55, Komeito 51, JNP 35, JCP 15, DSP
15, Sakigake 13, others 4, independents 30; note - the distribution of
seats as of 1 April 1995 is as follows - LDP 207, Shinshinto 173, SDPJ
70, Sakigake 21, JCP 15, others 19, vacant 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Yohei
KONO, president and Yoshiro MORI, secretary general; Social Democratic
Party of Japan (SDPJ), Tomiichi MURAYAMA; Japan Communist Party (JCP),
Tetsuzo FUWA, Presidium chairman; Sakigake (Harbinger), Masayoshi
TAKEMURA, chairman; Shinshinto (New Frontier Party, NFP), Toshiki
KAIFU, chairman and Ichiro OZAWA, secretary general
note: Shinshinto was formed in December 1994 by the merger of
Shinseito (Japan Renewal Party, JRP), Komeito (Clean Government Party,
CGP), Japan New Party (JNP), Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), and
several minor groups; Shin Ryokufu-kai is a parliamentary alliance
which exists only in the upper house, it includes remnants of
Shinseito, JNP, DSP, and a minor labor group; Heisei-kai is a joint
bloc of Shinshinto and Komei members; Komei is a group formed from
what remains of Komeito in the upper house

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC,
CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 2, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NEA, NSG,
OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR,
UNOMOZ, UNRWA, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Takakazu KURIYAMA
chancery: 2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 328-2187
consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston,
Chicago, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los
Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Portland (Oregon), San
Francisco, and Seattle
consulate(s): Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Walter F. MONDALE
embassy: 10-5, Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo
mailing address: Unit 45004, Box 258, Tokyo; APO AP 96337-0001
telephone: [81] (3) 3224-5000
FAX: [81] (3) 3505-1862
consulate(s) general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo
consulate(s): Fukuoka, Nagoya

Flag: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays)
in the center

@Japan:Economy

Overview: Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic,
mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense
allocation (roughly 1% of GDP) have helped Japan advance with
extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second most powerful economy in
the world. Industry, the most important sector of the economy, is
heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. Usually
self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its
requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of
the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the
global catch. Overall economic growth has been spectacular: a 10%
average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. Economic
growth came to a halt in 1992-93 largely because of contractionary
domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the
stock and real estate markets. Growth resumed at a 0.6% pace in 1994
largely because of consumer demand. As for foreign trade, the stronger
yen and slower global growth are containing export growth.
Unemployment and inflation remain remarkably low in comparison with
the other industrialized nations. Japan continues to run a huge trade
surplus - $121 billion in 1994, roughly the same size as in 1993 -
which supports extensive investment in foreign assets. Prime Minister
MURAYAMA has yet to formalize his government's plans for
administrative and economic reform, including reduction in the trade
surplus. As leader of a coalition government, he has softened his own
socialist positions. The crowding of the habitable land area and the
aging of the population are two major long-run problems.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2.5274 trillion
(1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 0.6% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $20,200 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.7% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 2.9% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $569 billion
expenditures: $671 billion, including capital expenditures (public
works only) of about $126 billion (1994 est.)

Exports: $395.5 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: manufactures 97% (including machinery 46%, motor vehicles
20%, consumer electronics 10%)
partners: Southeast Asia 33%, US 29%, Western Europe 18%, China 5%

Imports: $274.3 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: manufactures 52%, fossil fuels 20%, foodstuffs and raw
materials 28%
partners: Southeast Asia 25%, US 23%, Western Europe 15%, China 9%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 1% (1994); accounts for 30% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 205,140,000 kW
production: 840 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 6,262 kWh (1993)

Industries: steel and non-ferrous metallurgy, heavy electrical
equipment, construction and mining equipment, motor vehicles and
parts, electronic and telecommunication equipment and components,
machine tools and automated production systems, locomotives and
railroad rolling stock, shipbuilding, chemicals, textiles, food
processing

Agriculture: accounts for only 2% of GDP; highly subsidized and
protected sector, with crop yields among highest in world; principal
crops - rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include
pork, poultry, dairy and eggs; about 50% self-sufficient in food
production; shortages of wheat, corn, soybeans; world's largest fish
catch of 10 million metric tons in 1991

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-94), $132 billion
note: ODA outlay of $9.9 billion in 1994 (est.)

Currency: yen (Y)

Exchange rates: yen (Y) per US$1 - 99.75 (January 1995), 102.21
(1994), 111.20 (1993), 126.65 (1992), 134.71 (1991), 144.79 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Japan:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 27,327 km (5,724 km double track and multitrack sections)
standard gauge: 2,012 km 1.435-m gauge (2,012 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 25,315 km predominantly 1.067-m gauge (9,038 km
electrified) (1987)

Highways:
total: 1,111,974 km
paved: 754,102 km (including 4,869 km of national expressways)
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, or earth 357,872 km (1991)

Inland waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal
inland seas

Pipelines: crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas
1,800 km

Ports: Akita, Amagasaki, Chiba, Hachinohe, Hakodate, Higashi-Harima,
Himeji, Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kinuura, Kobe, Kushiro, Mizushima, Moji,
Nagoya, Osaka, Sakai, Sakaide, Shimizu, Tokyo, Tomakomai

Merchant marine:
total: 851 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,195,386
GRT/27,292,044 DWT
ships by type: bulk 210, cargo 63, chemical tanker 7, combination
ore/oil 7, container 41, liquefied gas tanker 41, multifunction
large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 264, passenger 10, passenger-cargo 5,
refrigerated cargo 48, roll-on/roll-off cargo 43, short-sea passenger
30, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 79
note: Japan owns an additional 1,537 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 45,490,202 DWT that operate under Panamanian, Liberian,
Vanuatu, Bahamian, Singaporian, Cypriot, Philippines, Hong Kong, and
Maltese registry

Airports:
total: 175
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 6
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 31
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 30
with paved runways under 914 m: 70
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Japan:Communications

Telephone system: 64,000,000 telephones; excellent domestic and
international service
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 5 INTELSAT (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth
stations; submarine cables to US (via Guam), Philippines, China, and
Russia

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 318, FM 58, shortwave 0
radios: 95 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 12,350 (1 kW or greater 196)
televisions: 100 million

@Japan:Defense Forces

Branches: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan Maritime
Self-Defense Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 31,947,532; males fit for
military service 27,494,758; males reach military age (18) annually
910,970 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $47.2 billion, 1% of
GDP (FY95/96)

________________________________________________________________________

JARVIS ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Jarvis Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half
of the way from Hawaii to the Cook Islands

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 4.5 sq km
land area: 4.5 sq km
comparative area: about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: no natural fresh water resources
natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard
international agreements: NA

Note: sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs;
primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats

@Jarvis Island:People

Population: uninhabited; note - Millersville settlement on western
side of island occasionally used as a weather station from 1935 until
World War II, when it was abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the
International Geophysical Year by scientists who left in 1958; public
entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to
scientists and educators

@Jarvis Island:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Jarvis Island

Digraph: DQ

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

@Jarvis Island:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Jarvis Island:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one boat landing
area in the middle of the west coast and another near the southwest
corner of the island

Note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

@Jarvis Island:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the
US Coast Guard

________________________________________________________________________

JERSEY

(British crown dependency)

@Jersey:Geography

Location: Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of
France

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 117 sq km
land area: 117 sq km
comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 70 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast

Natural resources: agricultural land

Land use:
arable land: 57%
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: NA%
forest and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of
population concentrated in Saint Helier

@Jersey:People

Population: 86,649 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (female 7,029; male 7,450)
15-64 years: 69% (female 30,156; male 29,916)
65 years and over: 14% (female 7,202; male 4,896) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.7% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.83 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.97 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.9 years
male: 73.81 years
female: 80.32 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.44 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Channel Islander(s)
adjective: Channel Islander

Ethnic divisions: UK and Norman-French descent

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New
Church, Methodist, Presbyterian

Languages: English (official), French (official), Norman-French
dialect spoken in country districts

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

@Jersey:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey
conventional short form: Jersey

Digraph: JE

Type: British crown dependency

Capital: Saint Helier

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice

Legal system: English law and local statute

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
Chief of State: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government: Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Air
Marshal Sir John SUTTON (since NA 1990); Bailiff Sir Peter L. CRILL
(since NA)
cabinet: committees; appointed by the States

Legislative branch: unicameral
Assembly of the States: elections last held NA (next to be held NA);
results - no percent of vote by party since all are independents;
seats - (56 total, 52 elected) 52 independents

Judicial branch: Royal Court

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

Member of: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (British crown dependency)

US diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

Flag: white with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint
of Ireland) extending to the corners of the flag

@Jersey:Economy

Overview: The economy is based largely on financial services,
agriculture, and tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and
especially flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the
UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents
an important export earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU
countries. In 1986 the finance sector overtook tourism as the main
contributor to GDP, accounting for 40% of the island's output. In
recent years the government has encouraged light industry to locate in
Jersey, with the result that an electronics industry has developed
alongside the traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material
and energy requirements are imported, as well as a large share of
Jersey's food needs.

National product: GDP $NA

National product real growth rate: 8% (1987 est.)

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $308 million
expenditures: $284.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1985)

Exports: $NA
commodities: light industrial and electrical goods, foodstuffs,
textiles
partners: UK

Imports: $NA
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals
partners: UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 50,000 kW standby
production: power supplied by France
consumption per capita: NA kWh (1992)

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy

Agriculture: potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; dairy and cattle
farming

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Jersey pound (#J) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Jersey pounds (#J) per US$1 - 0.6250 (January 1995),
0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603
(1990); the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Jersey:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

@Jersey:Communications

Telephone system: 63,700 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 3 submarine cables

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Jersey:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

JOHNSTON ATOLL

(territory of the US)

@Johnston Atoll:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third
of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 2.8 sq km
land area: 2.8 sq km
comparative area: about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 10 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds
with little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly flat with a maximum elevation of 4 meters

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until about 1890)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: no natural fresh water resources
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; Johnston Island
and Sand Island are natural islands; North Island (Akau) and East
Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; closed
to the public; former nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston
Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); some low-growing
vegetation

@Johnston Atoll:People

Population: 327 (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: NA

Death rate: NA

Net migration rate: NA

Infant mortality rate: NA

Life expectancy at birth: NA

Total fertility rate: NA

@Johnston Atoll:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Johnston Atoll

Digraph: JQ

Type: unincorportated territory of the US administered by the US
Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA and the
Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part
of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Capital: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of the US)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: the flag of the US is used

@Johnston Atoll:Economy

Overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to US
military personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and
manufactured goods must be imported.

Electricity: supplied by the management and operations contractor

@Johnston Atoll:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Johnston Island

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

@Johnston Atoll:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; excellent system including 60-channel
submarine cable, Autodin/SRT terminal, digital telephone switch,
Military Affiliated Radio System (MARS station), and UHF/VHF
air-ground radio
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: commercial satellite television system
televisions: NA

@Johnston Atoll:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US

________________________________________________________________________

JORDAN

(also see separate West Bank entry)

@Jordan:Geography

Location: Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 89,213 sq km
land area: 88,884 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: total 1,619 km, Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi
Arabia 728 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km

Coastline: 26 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain: mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great
Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 0.5%
meadows and pastures: 1%
forest and woodland: 0.5%
other: 94%

Irrigated land: 570 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

@Jordan:People

Population: 4,100,709 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (female 884,462; male 930,266)
15-64 years: 53% (female 1,058,060; male 1,119,347)
65 years and over: 3% (female 53,709; male 54,865) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.69% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 37.32 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.02 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 32.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.27 years
male: 70.43 years
female: 74.21 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.25 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Jordanian(s)
adjective: Jordanian

Ethnic divisions: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 8%

Languages: Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper
and middle classes

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
total population: 83%
male: 91%
female: 75%

Labor force: 600,000 (1992)
by occupation: industry 11.4%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels
10.5%, construction 10.0%, transport and communications 8.7%,
agriculture 7.4%, other services 52.0% (1992)

@Jordan:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
conventional short form: Jordan
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah
local short form: Al Urdun
former: Transjordan

Digraph: JO

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Amman

Administrative divisions: 8 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az
Zarqa', Irbid, Ma'an

Independence: 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Constitution: 8 January 1952

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review
of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King HUSSEIN Bin Talal Al Hashimi (since 11 August
1952)
head of government: Prime Minister Zayd BIN SHAKIR (since 8 January
1995)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-'Umma)
House of Notables (Majlis al-A'ayan): consists of a 40-member body
appointed by the king from designated categories of public figures
House of Representatives: elections last held 8 November 1993 (next to
be held NA November 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (80 total) Muslim Brotherhood (fundamentalist) 16, Independent
Islamic bloc (generally traditionalist) 6, Radical leftist 3,
pro-government 55
note: the House of Representatives has been convened and dissolved by
the King several times since 1974 and in November 1989 the first
parliamentary elections in 22 years were held

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders: Al-'Ahd (Pledge) Party, Sec. Gen. 'Abd
al-Hadi al-MAJALI; Al-Ahrar (Liberals) Party, Sec. Gen. Ahmad
al-ZU'BI; Al-Hurriyah (Freedom) Party, Sec. Gen. Fawwaz al-ZUBI;
Al-Watan (Homeland) Party, leader 'Akif al-FAYIZ; Al-Yaqazah
(Awakening) Party, Sec. Gen. 'Abd al-Ra'uf al-RAWABIDAH;
Constitutional Jordanian Arab Front Party, leader Milhim al-TALL;
Democratic Arab Islamic Movement Party-Du'a', Sec. Gen. Yusuf Abu
BAKR; Democratic Arab Unionist Party-Wad, Sec. Gen. Anis al-MU'ASHIR;
Islamic Action Front (IAF), Sec. Gen. Ishaq al-FARHAN; Jordanian Arab
Democratic Party, Sec. Gen. Mu'nis al-RAZZAZ; Jordanian Arab Masses
Party, Sec. Gen. 'Abd al-Khaliq SHATAT; Jordanian Arab Socialist Ba'th
Party, Command First Secretary Taysir al-HIMSI; Jordanian Communist
Party (JCP), Sec. Gen. Ya'qub ZAYADIN; Jordanian Democratic Popular
Unity Party, Sec. Gen. 'Azmi al-KHAWAJA; Jordanian Democratic
Progressive Party, Sec. Gen. 'Ali 'AMIR; Jordanian National Alliance
Party, Sec. Gen. Mijhim al-KHURAYSHAH; Jordanian People's Democratic
Party-Hashd, Sec. Gen. Taysir al-ZIBRI; Jordanian Socialist Democratic
Party, Sec. Gen. 'Isa MADANAT; Pan-Arab Action Front Party, Sec. Gen.
Muhammad al-ZU'BI; Popular Unity Party-the Unionists, Sec. Gen. Talal
al-RAMAHI; Progress and Justice Party, Sec. Gen. 'Ali al-SA'D;
Progressive Arab Ba'th Party, Command Secretary Mahmud al-MA'AYITAH;
Al-Mustaqbal (Future) Party, Sec. Gen. Sulayman 'ARAR

Member of: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent),
ITU, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIL,
UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Fayiz A. TARAWNEH
chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664
FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wesley E. EGAN, Jr.
embassy: Jabel Amman, Amman
mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; APO AE 09892-0200
telephone: [962] (6) 820101
FAX: [962] (6) 820159

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green
with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a small
white seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star represent the
seven fundamental laws of the Koran

@Jordan:Economy

Overview: Jordan benefited from increased Arab aid during the oil boom
of the late 1970s and early 1980s, when its annual real GNP growth
averaged more than 10%. In the remainder of the 1980s, however,
reductions in both Arab aid and worker remittances slowed real
economic growth to an average of roughly 2% per year. Imports - mainly
oil, capital goods, consumer durables, and food - outstripped exports,
with the difference covered by aid, remittances, and borrowing. In
mid-1989, the Jordanian Government began debt-rescheduling
negotiations and agreed to implement an IMF-supported program designed
to gradually reduce the budget deficit and implement badly needed
structural reforms. The Persian Gulf crisis that began in August 1990,
however, aggravated Jordan's already serious economic problems,
forcing the government to shelve the IMF program, stop most debt
payments, and suspend rescheduling negotiations. Aid from Gulf Arab
states, worker remittances, and trade contracted; and refugees flooded
the country, producing serious balance-of-payments problems, stunting
GDP growth, and straining government resources. The economy rebounded
in 1992, largely due to the influx of capital repatriated by workers
returning from the Gulf, but the recovery was uneven throughout 1994.
The government is implementing the reform program adopted in 1992 and
continues to secure rescheduling and write-offs of its heavy foreign
debt. Debt, poverty, and unemployment remain Jordan's biggest on-going
problems.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $17 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $4,280 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2 billion
expenditures: $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $630
million (1995 est.)

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural products,
manufactures
partners: India, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, EU, Indonesia, UAE

Imports: $3.5 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, food, live
animals, manufactured goods
partners: EU, US, Iraq, Japan, Turkey

External debt: $6 billion (March 1995 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1993 est.); accounts for 20% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 1,050,000 kW
production: 4.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,072 kWh (1993)

Industries: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash,
light manufacturing

Agriculture: accounts for about 8% of GDP; wheat, barley, citrus
fruit, tomatoes, melons, olives; sheep, goats, poultry; large net
importer of food

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.5 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $44 million

Currency: 1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.6994 (January
1995), 0.5987 (1994), 0.6928 (1993), 0.6797 (1992), 0.6808 (1991),
0.6636 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Jordan:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 789 km
narrow gauge: 789 km 1.050-m gauge

Highways:
total: 7,500 km
paved: asphalt 5,500 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 2,000 km

Pipelines: crude oil 209 km

Ports: Al'Aqabah

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 61,678 GRT/113,080 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, oil tanker 1

Airports:
total: 17
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Jordan:Communications

Telephone system: 81,500 telephones; adequate telephone system
local: NA microwave, cable, and radio links
intercity: NA
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1
ARABSAT earth station; coaxial cable and microwave to Iraq, Saudi
Arabia, and Syria; microwave link to Lebanon is inactive; participant
in MEDARABTEL, a microwave radio relay network linking Syria, Jordan,
Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 7, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 8 and 1 TV receive-only satellite link
televisions: NA

@Jordan:Defense Forces

Branches: Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF; includes Royal Jordanian Land
Force, Royal Naval Force, and Royal Jordanian Air Force); Ministry of
the Interior's Public Security Force (falls under JAF only in wartime
or crisis situations)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 981,004; males fit for military
service 699,891; males reach military age (18) annually 45,494 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $564.2 million, 9.1%
of GDP (1995 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Juan De Nova Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-third of the way between Madagascar and Mozambique

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 4.4 sq km
land area: 4.4 sq km
comparative area: about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 24.1 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA

Natural resources: guano deposits and other fertilizers

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 90%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: periodic cyclones
international agreements: NA

Note: wildlife sanctuary

@Juan De Nova Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Juan De Nova Island:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Juan de Nova Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Juan de Nova

Digraph: JU

Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic,
resident in Reunion

Capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

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