Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1995 CIA World Factbook

Part 18 out of 45

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.6 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

system of currents) in the southern Indian Ocean; unique reversal of
surface currents in the northern Indian Ocean, low atmospheric
pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in
the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents,
while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air
results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and
currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and
subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean
Ridge, and Ninety East Ridge; maximum depth is 7,258 meters in the
Java Trench

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel
aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules

Environment:
current issues: endangered marine species include the dugong, seals,
turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf,
and Red Sea
natural hazards: ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme
south near Antarctica from May to October
international agreements: NA

Note: major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz,
Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok
Strait

@Indian Ocean:Government

Digraph: XO

@Indian Ocean:Economy

Overview: The Indian Ocean provides major sea routes connecting the
Middle East, Africa, and East Asia with Europe and the Americas. It
carries a particularly heavy traffic of petroleum and petroleum
products from the oilfields of the Persian Gulf and Indonesia. Its
fish are of great and growing importance to the bordering countries
for domestic consumption and export. Fishing fleets from Russia,
Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian Ocean, mainly for
shrimp and tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being tapped in
the offshore areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and western
Australia. An estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil production
comes from the Indian Ocean. Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and
offshore placer deposits are actively exploited by bordering
countries, particularly India, South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and
Thailand.

Industries: based on exploitation of natural resources, particularly
fish, minerals, oil and gas, fishing, sand and gravel

@Indian Ocean:Transportation

Ports: Bombay (India), Calcutta (India), Colombo (Sri Lanka), Durban
(South Africa), Jakarta (Indonesia), Madras (India), Melbourne
(Australia), Richard's Bay (South Africa)

@Indian Ocean:Communications

Telephone system:
international: submarine cables from India to United Arab Emirates and
Malaysia, and from Sri Lanka to Djibouti and Indonesia

________________________________________________________________________

INDONESIA

@Indonesia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and
the Pacific Ocean

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 1,919,440 sq km
land area: 1,826,440 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 2,602 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea
820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor
Province) disputed with Portugal and not recognized by the UN; two
islands in dispute with Malaysia

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior
mountains

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber,
bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 3%
meadows and pastures: 7%
forest and woodland: 67%
other: 15%

Irrigated land: 75,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes,
sewage; air pollution in urban areas
natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Marine Life
Conservation, Tropical Timber 94

Note: archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles
Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from
Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

@Indonesia:People

Population: 203,583,886 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (female 32,548,039; male 33,485,810)
15-64 years: 64% (female 65,394,816; male 64,914,362)
65 years and over: 4% (female 4,027,367; male 3,213,492) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.56% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.06 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.48 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 65 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.22 years
male: 59.13 years
female: 63.42 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.74 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic divisions: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal
Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Religions: Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%,
Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985)

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official),
English, Dutch, local dialects the most widely spoken of which is
Javanese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 82%
male: 88%
female: 75%

Labor force: 67 million
by occupation: agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%, construction 4%,
transport and communications 3% (1985 est.)

@Indonesia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Digraph: ID

Type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular -
propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular -
daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus
ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi,
Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan
Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa
Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi
Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera
Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December
1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949
and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of
age

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO
(since 27 March 1968); Vice President Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO (since
11 March 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral
House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR): elections
last held on 8 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - GOLKAR
68%, PPP 17%, PDI 15%; seats - (500 total, 400 elected, 100 military
representatives appointed) GOLKAR 282, PPP 62, PDI 56
note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan
Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly elected members
who meet every five years to elect the president and vice president
and, theoretically, to determine national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)

Political parties and leaders: GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on
functional groups), Lt. Gen. (Ret.) HARMOKO, general chairman;
Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI - federation of former Nationalist and
Christian Parties), Megawati SUKARNOPUTRI, chairman; Development Unity
Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan
METAREUM, chairman

Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIH,
UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arifin Mohamad SIREGAR
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San
Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert L. BARRY
embassy: Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Box 1, Jakarta
mailing address: APO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 360360
FAX: [62] (21) 3862259
consulate(s) general: Medan, Surabaya

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to
the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of
Poland, which is white (top) and red

@Indonesia:Economy

Overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with some socialist
institutions and central planning but with a recent emphasis on
deregulation and private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural
wealth, yet, with a large and rapidly increasing population, it
remains a rather poor country. Real GDP growth in 1985-94 averaged
about 6%, quite impressive, but not sufficient to both slash
underemployment and absorb the 2.3 million workers annually entering
the labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is an
important sector, accounting for 21% of GDP and over 50% of the labor
force. The staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice
importer, Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops -
rubber and palm oil - and textiles and plywood are being encouraged
for both export and job generation. Industrial output now accounts for
almost 40% of GDP and is based on a supply of diverse natural
resources, including crude oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal.
Foreign investment has also boosted manufacturing output and exports
in recent years. Indeed, the economy's growth is highly dependent on
the continuing expansion of nonoil exports. Japan remains Indonesia's
most important customer and supplier of aid. Rapid growth in the money
supply in 1989-90 prompted Jakarta to implement a tight monetary
policy in 1991, forcing the private sector to go to foreign banks for
investment financing. Real interest rates remained above 10% and
off-shore commercial debt grew. The growth in off-shore debt prompted
Jakarta to limit foreign borrowing beginning in late 1991. Despite the
continued problems in moving toward a more open financial system and
the persistence of a fairly tight credit situation, GDP growth in
1992-94 has matched the government target of 6%-7% annual growth.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $619.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 6.7% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,090 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.3% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3% official rate; underemployment 40% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $32.8 billion
expenditures: $32.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $12.9
billion (FY94/95)

Exports: $41.3 billion (f.o.b, 1994 est.)
commodities: manufactures 56.7%, fuels 24.8%, foodstuffs 11.1%, raw
materials 7.4% (1994 est.)
partners: Japan 30%, US 14%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 6%, Taiwan 4%
(1993)

Imports: $31.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: capital equipment 44.2%, intermed and raw materials
37.0%, consumer goods 11.5%, fuels 7.2% (1994 est.)
partners: Japan 22%, US 11%, South Korea 7%, Germany 7%, Singapore 6%,
Australia 5%, Taiwan 5% (1993)

External debt: $87 billion (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.4% (1993 est.); accounts for 40%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 12,100,000 kW
production: 44 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 207 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, mining, cement,
chemical fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber

Agriculture: accounts for 21% of GDP; subsistence food production;
small-holder and plantation production for export; main products are
rice, cassava, peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other
tropical products, poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug
trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating
plantings and prosecuting traffickers; growing role as transshipment
point for Golden Triangle heroin; increasing indigenous
methamphetamine abuse

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $25.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $175 million

Currency: 1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen (sen no longer used)

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 2,203.6 (January
1995), 2,160.7 (1994), 2,087.1 (1993), 2,029.9 (1992), 1,950.3 (1991),
1,842.8 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Indonesia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 6,964 km
narrow gauge: 6,389 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km
double track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge; 78 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways:
total: 119,500 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA
undifferentiated: provincial 34,180 km; district 73,508 km; state
11,812 km

Inland waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura
820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas
1,703 km (1989)

Ports: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Semarang,
Surabaya, Ujungpandang

Merchant marine:
total: 438 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,942,527 GRT/2,818,296
DWT
ships by type: bulk 26, cargo 259, chemical tanker 7, container 11,
liquefied gas tanker 6, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 85, passenger
6, passenger-cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger
7, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 4

Airports:
total: 450
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 35
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 42
with paved runways under 914 m: 324
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 4
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 32

@Indonesia:Communications

Telephone system: 763,000 telephones (1986); domestic service fair,
international service good
local: NA
intercity: interisland microwave system and HF police net; 1 earth
station for a domestic satellite
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 618, FM 38, shortwave 0
radios: NA
note: radiobroadcast coverage good

Television:
broadcast stations: 9
televisions: NA

@Indonesia:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 55,883,688; males fit for
military service 32,952,204; males reach military age (18) annually
2,247,586 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, 1.5% of
GNP (FY94/95)

________________________________________________________________________

IRAN

@Iran:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian
Gulf, between Iraq and Pakistan

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 1.648 million sq km
land area: 1.636 million sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: total 5,440 km, Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km,
Azerbaijan (north) 432 km, Azerbaijan (northwest) 179 km, Iraq 1,458
km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

Coastline: 2,440 km
note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: natural prolongation
exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements, or median lines in the
Persian Gulf
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in
1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling
outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border
demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and
sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway; Iran occupies two islands
in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Tunb as Sughra (Arabic),
Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek (Persian) or Lesser Tunb, and Tunb al Kubra
(Arabic), Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg (Persian) or Greater Tunb; it
jointly administers with the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed
by the UAE, Abu Musa (Arabic) or Jazireh-ye Abu Musa (Persian); in
1992 the dispute over Abu Musa and the Tunb islands became more acute
when Iran unilaterally tried to control the entry of third country
nationals into the UAE portion of Abu Musa island, Tehran subsequently
backed off in the face of significant diplomatic support for the UAE
in the region, but in 1994 it increased its military presence on the
disputed islands; periodic disputes with Afghanistan over Helmand
water rights; Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts,
mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 27%
forest and woodland: 11%
other: 54%

Irrigated land: 57,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle
emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents;
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the
Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water
natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; duststorms, sandstorms;
earthquakes along the Western border
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed,
but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

@Iran:People

Population: 64,625,455 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (female 14,113,933; male 14,995,015)
15-64 years: 51% (female 16,237,810; male 16,803,943)
65 years and over: 4% (female 1,197,869; male 1,276,885) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 2.29% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 34.85 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.85 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 54.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.97 years
male: 65.77 years
female: 68.22 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.93 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Iranian(s)
adjective: Iranian

Ethnic divisions: Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani
8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 95%, Sunni Muslim 4%, Zoroastrian, Jewish,
Christian, and Baha'i 1%

Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic
dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Baloch 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%,
other 2%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
total population: 66%
male: 74%
female: 56%

Labor force: 15.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21%
note: shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.)

@Iran:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran
conventional short form: Iran
local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
local short form: Iran

Digraph: IR

Type: theocratic republic

Capital: Tehran

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan);
Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari (West Azerbaijan), Azarbayjan-e Khavari (East
Azerbaijan), Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan,
Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Khorasan, Khuzestan,
Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran,
Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan
note: there may be a new province named Ardabil formed from a part of
Azarbayjan-e Khavari (East Azerbaijan) which may have been renamed
Azarbayjan-e Markazi (Central Azerbaijan); the name Bakhtaran may have
been changed to Kermanshahan

Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)

National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the
presidency and eliminate the prime ministership

Legal system: the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of
government

Suffrage: 15 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
supreme leader (rahbar) and functional chief of state: Leader of the
Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)
head of government: President Ali Akbar Hashemi-RAFSANJANI (since 3
August 1989); election last held June 1993 (next to be held June
1997); results - Ali Akbar Hashemi-RAFSANJANI was elected with 63% of
the vote
cabinet: Council of Ministers; selected by the president with
legislative approval

Legislative branch: unicameral
Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami): elections
last held 8 April 1992 (next to be held April 1996); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (270 seats total) number of seats by
party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: there are at least 76 licensed parties;
the three most important are - Tehran Militant Clergy Association,
Mohammad Reza MAHDAVI-KANI; Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi
MAHDAVI-KARUBI and Mohammad Asqar MUSAVI-KHOINIHA; Fedaiyin Islam
Organization, Sadeq KHALKHALI

Other political or pressure groups: groups that generally support the
Islamic Republic include Hizballah, Mojahedin of the Islamic
Revolution, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam; armed
political groups that have been almost completely repressed by the
government include Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People's
Fedayeen, Kurdish Democratic Party; the Society for the Defense of
Freedom

Member of: CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Iran has an Interests Section in the Pakistani
Embassy in Washington, DC
chancery: Iranian Interests Section, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 965-4990

US diplomatic representation: protecting power in Iran is Switzerland

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the
national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red
is centered in the white band; Allah Alkbar (God is Great) in white
Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green
band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band

@Iran:Economy

Overview: Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state
ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and
small-scale private trading and service ventures. Over the past
several years, the government has introduced several measures to
liberalize the economy and reduce government intervention, but most of
these changes have moved slowly because of political opposition. Iran
has faced increasingly severe financial difficulties since mid-1992
due to an import surge that began in 1989 and general financial
mismanagement. At yearend 1993 the Iranian Government estimated that
it owed foreign creditors about $30 billion; an estimated $8 billion
of this debt was in arrears. At yearend 1994, Iran rescheduled $12
billion in debt. Earnings from oil exports - which provide 90% of
Iran's export revenues - are providing less relief to Iran than usual
because of reduced oil prices.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $310 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $4,720 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1994)

Unemployment rate: over 30% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $16 billion (f.o.b., FY92/93 est.)
commodities: petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides
partners: Japan, Italy, France, Netherlands, Belgium/Luxembourg,
Spain, and Germany

Imports: $18 billion (c.i.f., FY92/93 est.)
commodities: machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs,
pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products
partners: Germany, Japan, Italy, UK, UAE

External debt: $30 billion (December 1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.6% (1993 est.); accounts for
almost 30% of GDP, including petroleum

Electricity:
capacity: 19,080,000 kW
production: 50.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 745 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other
building materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and
vegetable oil production), metal fabricating, armaments and military
equipment

Agriculture: accounts for about 20% of GDP; principal products -
wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy
products, wool, caviar; not self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and
international drug trade; produced 35-70 metric tons in 1993; net
opiate importer but also a key transshipment point for Southwest Asian
heroin to Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.675 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $976 million

note: aid fell sharply following the 1979 revolution

Currency: 10 Iranian rials (IR) = 1 toman; note - domestic figures are
generally referred to in terms of the toman

Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1 - 1,749.04 (January 1995),
1,748.75 (1994), 1,267.77 (1993), 65.552 (1992), 67.505 (1991); black
market rate: 3,000 rials per US$1 (December 1994)

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March

@Iran:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 4,850 km; note - 480 km under construction from Bafq to
Bandar-e 'Abbas; segment from Bafq to Sirjan has been completed and is
operational; section from Sirjan to Bandar-e 'Abbas still under
construction
broad gauge: 90 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 4,760 km 1.432-m gauge

Highways:
total: 140,200 km
paved: 42,694 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 46,866 km; improved earth 49,440 km;
unimproved earth 1,200 km

Inland waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by
maritime traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3
meters and is in use

Pipelines: crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural
gas 4,550 km

Ports: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war),
Ahvaz, Bandar Beheshti, Bandar-e 'Abbas, Bandar-e Anzali, Bandar-e
Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni, Bandar-e Mah Shahr, Bandar-e Torkeman,
Jazireh-ye Khark, Jazireh-ye Lavan, Jazireh-ye Sirri, Khorramshahr
(limited operation since November 1992), Now Shahr

Merchant marine:
total: 132 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,816,820 GRT/6,991,693
DWT
ships by type: bulk 48, cargo 38, chemical tanker 5, combination bulk
2, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 26, refrigerated cargo 3,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 8, short-sea passenger 1

Airports:
total: 261
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 28
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 32
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 20
with paved runways under 914 m: 46
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 18
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 101

@Iran:Communications

Telephone system: 2,143,000 telephones; 35 telephones/1,000 persons
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay extends throughout country; system
centered in Tehran
international: 3 INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth
stations; HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Pakistan,
Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber optic cable
to UAE

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 77, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 28
televisions: NA

@Iran:Defense Forces

Branches: Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air
Defense Force, Revolutionary Guards (includes Basij militia with its
ground, air, and naval forces), Law Enforcement Forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 14,639,290; males fit for
military service 8,703,732; males reach military age (21) annually
615,096 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: according to official Iranian data, Iran spent
1,785 billion rials, including $808 million in hard currency, in 1992
and budgeted 2,507 billion rials, including $850 million in hard
currency, for 1993
note: conversion of rial expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

IRAQ

@Iraq:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and
Kuwait

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 437,072 sq km
land area: 432,162 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho

Land boundaries: total 3,631 km, Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait
242 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km

Coastline: 58 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in
1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling
outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border
demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and
sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway; in November 1994, Iraq
formally accepted the UN-demarcated border with Kuwait which had been
spelled out in Security Council Resolutions 687 (1991), 773 (1993),
and 883 (1993); this formally ends earlier claims to Kuwait and to
Bubiyan and Warbah islands; potential dispute over water development
plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Climate: mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless
summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish
borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows which
melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central
and southern Iraq

Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in
south; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 9%
forest and woodland: 3%
other: 75%

Irrigated land: 25,500 sq km (1989 est)

Environment:
current issues: government water control projects have drained most of
the inhabited marsh areas west of Al Qurnah by drying up or diverting
the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Shi'a
Muslims, who have inhabited these areas for thousands of years, has
been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat
poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate
supplies of potable water; development of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers
system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Turkey; air
and water pollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion;
desertification
natural hazards: duststorms, sandstorms, floods
international agreements: party to - Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban;
signed, but not ratified - Environmental Modification

@Iraq:People

Population: 20,643,769 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 4,850,028; male 5,009,513)
15-64 years: 49% (female 5,021,710; male 5,125,191)
65 years and over: 3% (female 338,790; male 298,537) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.72% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 43.6 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.82 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 62.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.52 years
male: 65.54 years
female: 67.56 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.56 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Iraqi(s)
adjective: Iraqi

Ethnic divisions: Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or
other 5%

Religions: Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or
other 3%

Languages: Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian,
Armenian

Literacy: age 15-45 can read and write (1985)
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88%

Labor force: 4.4 million (1989)
by occupation: services 48%, agriculture 30%, industry 22%
note: severe labor shortage; expatriate labor force was about
1,600,000 (July 1990); since then, it has declined substantially

@Iraq:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Iraq
conventional short form: Iraq
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah
local short form: Al Iraq

Digraph: IZ

Type: republic

Capital: Baghdad

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf,
Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar,
Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit

Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)

Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (provisional
Constitution); new constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted

Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil
law system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice
President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974); Vice
President Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister SADDAM Husayn (since NA May 1994);
Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Mikhail AZIZ (since NA 1979)
Revolutionary Command Council: Chairman SADDAM Husayn, Vice Chairman
Izzat IBRAHIM al-Duri
cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Majlis al-Watani): elections last held on 1 April
1989 (next to be held NA); results - Sunni Arabs 53%, Shi'a Arabs 30%,
Kurds 15%, Christians 2% (est.); seats - (250 total) number of seats
by party NA
note: in northern Iraq, a "Kurdish Assembly" was elected in May 1992
and calls for Kurdish self-determination within a federated Iraq; the
assembly is not recognized by the Baghdad government

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders: Ba'th Party

Other political or pressure groups: political parties and activity
severely restricted; opposition to regime from disaffected members of
the Ba'th Party, Army officers, and Shi'a religious and ethnic Kurdish
dissidents; the Green Party (government-controlled)

Member of: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Iraq has an Interest Section in the Algerian Embassy
in Washington, DC
chancery: Iraqi Interests Section, 1801 P Street NW, Washington, DC
20036
telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500
FAX: [1] (202) 462-5066

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: (vacant); note - operations have been temporarily
suspended; a US Interests Section is located in Poland's embassy in
Baghdad
embassy: Masbah Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad
mailing address: P. O. Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad
telephone: [964] (1) 719-6138, 719-6139, 718-1840, 719-3791
FAX: Telex 212287

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with
three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the
white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic
script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left
of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf
crisis; similar to the flag of Syria that has two stars but no script
and the flag of Yemen that has a plain white band; also similar to the
flag of Egypt that has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

@Iraq:Economy

Overview: The Ba'thist regime engages in extensive central planning
and management of industrial production and foreign trade while
leaving some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to
private enterprise. The economy has been dominated by the oil sector,
which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange
earnings. In the 1980s, financial problems caused by massive
expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export
facilities by Iran, led the government to implement austerity measures
and to borrow heavily and later reschedule foreign debt payments.
After the end of hostilities in 1988, oil exports gradually increased
with the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged
facilities. Agricultural development remained hampered by labor
shortages, salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land
reform and collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although
accorded high priority by the government, also was under financial
constraints. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent
international economic embargoes, and military action by an
international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically changed
the economic picture. Industrial and transportation facilities, which
suffered severe damage, have been partially restored. Oil exports
remain at less than 5% of the previous level. Shortages of spare parts
continue. Living standards deteriorated even further in 1993 and 1994;
consumer prices have more than doubled in both 1993 and 1994. The
UN-sponsored economic embargo has reduced exports and imports and has
contributed to the sharp rise in prices. The Iraqi government has been
unwilling to abide by UN resolutions so that the economic embargo can
be removed. The government's policies of supporting large military and
internal security forces and of allocating resources to key supporters
of the regime have exacerbated shortages. In brief, per capita output
in 1993-94 is far below the 1989-90 level, but no precise estimate is
available.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: crude oil and refined products, fertilizer, sulfur
partners: US, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, Netherlands, Spain (1990)

Imports: $6.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: manufactures, food
partners: Germany, US, Turkey, France, UK (1990)

External debt: $50 billion (1989 est.), excluding debt of about $35
billion owed to Gulf Arab states

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; manufacturing accounts for 10%
of GNP (1989)

Electricity:
capacity: 7,170,000 kW
production: 25.7 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,247 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, chemicals, textiles,
construction materials, food processing

Agriculture: accounted for 11% of GNP and 30% of labor force before
the Gulf war; principal products - wheat, barley, rice, vegetables,
dates, other fruit, cotton, wool; livestock - cattle, sheep; not
self-sufficient in food output

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $647 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.9 billion

Currency: 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 3.2 (fixed official rate
since 1982); black-market rate (March 1995) US$1 = 1200 Iraqi dinars;
semi-official rate US$1 = 650 Iraqi dinars

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Iraq:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 2,457 km
standard gauge: 2,457 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 45,550 km
paved: 38,400 km
unpaved: 7,150 km (1989 est.)

Inland waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by
maritime traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3
meters and is in use; Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable
sections for shallow-draft watercraft; Shatt al Basrah canal was
navigable by shallow-draft craft before closing in 1991 because of the
Persian Gulf war

Pipelines: crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas
1,360 km

Ports: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, and Al Basrah have limited
functionality

Merchant marine:
total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 795,346 GRT/1,431,154 DWT

ships by type: cargo 14, oil tanker 16, passenger 1, passenger-cargo
1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3

Airports:
total: 121
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 21
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 34
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7
with paved runways under 914 m: 22
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 5
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 16

@Iraq:Communications

Telephone system: 632,000 telephones; reconstitution of damaged
telecommunication facilities began after the Gulf war; most damaged
facilities have been rebuilt
local: NA
intercity: the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio
relay links
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1
GORIZONT (Atlantic Ocean) in the Intersputnik system, and 1 ARABSAT
earth station; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordan,
Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; Kuwait line is probably non-operational

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 13
televisions: NA

@Iraq:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Republican Guard and Special Republican Guard, Navy,
Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border Guard Force, Internal Security
Forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 4,626,610; males fit for
military service 2,597,687; males reach military age (18) annually
229,015 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GNP

________________________________________________________________________

IRELAND

@Ireland:Geography

Location: Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of
Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 70,280 sq km
land area: 68,890 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total 360 km, UK 360 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall
continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK
(Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall
area)

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild
winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the
time

Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged
hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, petroleum, barite, copper,
gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 71%
forest and woodland: 5%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: water pollution, especially of lakes, from
agricultural runoff
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Note: strategic location on major air and sea routes between North
America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within
60 miles of Dublin

@Ireland:People

Population: 3,550,448 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (female 415,640; male 440,468)
15-64 years: 64% (female 1,125,638; male 1,155,823)
65 years and over: 12% (female 237,098; male 175,781) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.33% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 14.04 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.48 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.99 years
male: 73.15 years
female: 79 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.95 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(men), Irish (collective plural)
adjective: Irish

Ethnic divisions: Celtic, English

Religions: Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%, other
1% (1981)

Languages: Irish (Gaelic), spoken mainly in areas located along the
western seaboard, English is the language generally used

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1981 est.)
total population: 98%

Labor force: 1.37 million
by occupation: services 57.0%, manufacturing and construction 28%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 13.5%, energy and mining 1.5%
(1992)

@Ireland:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ireland

Digraph: EI

Type: republic

Capital: Dublin

Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork,
Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim,
Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon,
Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK)

National holiday: Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March

Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1 July 1937 by plebescite

Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme
Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November
1990); election last held 9 November 1990 (next to be held November
1997); results - Mary Bourke ROBINSON 52.8%, Brian LENIHAN 47.2%
head of government: Prime Minister John BRUTON (since 15 December
1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by president with previous nomination of
the prime minister and approval of the House of Representatives

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas)
Senate (Seanad Eireann): elections last held NA February 1992 (next to
be held NA February 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 26, Fine Gael 16, Labor 9,
Progressive Democrats 2, Democratic Left 1, independents 6
House of Representatives (Dail Eireann): elections last held on 25
November 1992 (next to be held by November 1997); results - Fianna
Fail 39.1%, Fine Gael 24.5%, Labor Party 19.3%, Progressive Democrats
4.7%, Democratic Left 2.8%, Sinn Fein 1.6%, Workers' Party 0.7%,
independents 5.9%; seats - (166 total) Fianna Fail 68, Fine Gael 45,
Labor Party 33, Progressive Democrats 10 Democratic Left 4, Greens 1,
independents 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Left, Proinsias DE ROSSA;
Fianna Fail, Bertie AHERN; Labor Party, Richard SPRING; Fine Gael,
John BRUTON; Communist Party of Ireland, Michael O'RIORDAN; Sinn Fein,
Gerry ADAMS; Progressive Democrats, Desmond O'MALLEY; The Workers'
Party, Marion DONNELLY; Green Alliance, Bronwen MAHER
note: Prime Minister BRUTON heads a three-party coalition consisting
of the Fine Gael, the Labor Party, and the Democratic Left

Member of: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA,
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NEA,
NSG, OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO,
WIPO, WMO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dermot A. GALLAGHER
chancery: 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-3939
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jean Kennedy SMITH
embassy: 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [353] (1) 6687122
FAX: [353] (1) 6689946

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and
orange; similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter and
has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also
similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of green
(hoist side), white, and red

@Ireland:Economy

Overview: The economy is small and trade dependent. Agriculture, once
the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts
for 37% of GDP, about 80% of exports, and employs 28% of the labor
force. Although exports remain the primary engine for Ireland's robust
growth, the economy is also benefiting from a rise in consumer
spending and recovery in both construction and business investment.
Ireland has substantially reduced its external debt since 1987, to 40%
of GDP in 1994. Over the same period, inflation has fallen sharply and
chronic trade deficits have been transformed into annual surpluses.
Unemployment remains a serious problem, however, and job creation is
the main focus of government policy. To ease unemployment, Dublin
aggressively courts foreign investors and recently created a new
industrial development agency to aid small indigenous firms.
Government assistance is constrained by Dublin's continuing deficit
reduction measures.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $49.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $14,060 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $16 billion
expenditures: $16.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994)

Exports: $28 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial
machinery, live animals, animal products
partners: EU 75% (UK 32%, Germany 13%, France 10%), US 9%

Imports: $26 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: food, animal feed, data processing equipment, petroleum
and petroleum products, machinery, textiles, clothing
partners: EU 66% (UK 41%, Germany 8%, France 4%), US 15%

External debt: $20 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.5% (1994 est.); accounts for 37%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 3,930,000 kW
production: 14.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,938 kWh (1993)

Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and
crystal

Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP; principal crops - turnips,
barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; livestock - meat and dairy
products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food shortages include bread
grain, fruits, vegetables

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to
the UK and Netherlands

Economic aid:
donor: ODA commitments (1980-89), $90 million

Currency: 1 Irish pound (#Ir) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Irish pounds (#Ir) per US$1 - 0.6420 (January 1995),
0.6676 (1994), 0.6816 (1993), 0.5864 (1992), 0.6190 (1991), 0.6030
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Ireland:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,947 km
broad gauge: 1,947 km 1.600-m gauge (36 km electrified; 485 km double
track)

Highways:
total: 92,327 km
paved: 86,787 km (32 km of expressways)
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 5,540 km (1992)

Inland waterways: limited for commercial traffic

Pipelines: natural gas 225 km

Ports: Arklow, Cork, Drogheda, Dublin, Foynes, Galway, Limerick, New
Ross, Waterford

Merchant marine:
total: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 129,996 GRT/160,419 DWT
ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 33, chemical tanker 2, container 2, oil
tanker 1, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2

Airports:
total: 44
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 32
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@Ireland:Communications

Telephone system: 900,000 telephones; modern digital system using
cable and microwave radio relay
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 45, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 86
televisions: NA

@Ireland:Defense Forces

Branches: Army (includes Naval Service and Air Corps), National Police
(Garda Siochana)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 926,831; males fit for military
service 749,646; males reach military age (17) annually 34,215 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $500 million, 1.3% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

ISRAEL

(also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries) Note: The
territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included in
the data below. In keeping with the framework established at the
Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations are being
conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives, Syria, and
Jordan to determine the final status of the occupied territories. On
25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979
Israel-Egypt Peace treaty. Outstanding territorial and other disputes
with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty
of Peace.

@Israel:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt
and Lebanon

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 20,770 sq km
land area: 20,330 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than New Jersey

Land boundaries: total 1,006 km, Egypt 255 km, Gaza Strip 51 km,
Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km

Coastline: 273 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: separated from Lebanon, Syria, and the West
Bank by the 1949 Armistice Line; the Gaza Strip and Jericho area,
formerly occupied by Israel, are now administered largely by the
Palestinian Authority; other areas of the West Bank outside Jericho
are administered jointly by Israel and the Palestinian Authority;
Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli troops in southern Lebanon
since June 1982

Climate: temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central
mountains; Jordan Rift Valley

Natural resources: copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand,
sulfur, asphalt, manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 5%
meadows and pastures: 40%
forest and woodland: 6%
other: 32%

Irrigated land: 2,140 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: limited arable land and natural fresh water resources
pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from
industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from
industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
natural hazards: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Desertification,
Marine Life Conservation

Note: there are 199 Jewish settlements and civilian land use sites in
the West Bank, 42 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 24 in the
Gaza Strip, and 25 in East Jerusalem (August 1994 est.)

@Israel:People

Population: 5,433,134 (July 1995 est.)
note: includes 122,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, 14,500 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 4,800 in the Gaza Strip, and 149,000
in East Jerusalem (August 1994 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29%
15-64 years: 61%
65 years and over: 10%

Population growth rate: 1.4% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 20.39 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.38 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.14 years
male: 76 years
female: 80.39 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.81 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Israeli(s)
adjective: Israeli

Ethnic divisions: Jewish 82% (Israel born 50%, Europe/Americas/Oceania
born 20%, Africa born 7%, Asia born 5%), non-Jewish 18% (mostly Arab)
(1993 est.)

Religions: Judaism 82%, Islam 14% (mostly Sunni Muslim), Christian 2%,
Druze and other 2%

Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab
minority, English most commonly used foreign language

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992)
total population: 95%
male: 97%
female: 93%

Labor force: 1.9 million (1992)
by occupation: public services 29.3%, industry 22.1%, commerce 13.9%,
finance and business 10.4%, personal and other services 7.4%,
construction 6.5%, transport, storage, and communications 6.3%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.5%, other 0.6% (1992)

@Israel:Government

Names:
conventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el

Digraph: IS

Type: republic

Capital: Jerusalem
note: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem its capital in 1950, but the US,
like nearly all other countries, does not recognize this status, and
maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv

Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz);
Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv

Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May 1948 (Israel declared
independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the
holiday may occur in April or May)

Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a
constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948),
the basic laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli
citizenship law

Legal system: mixture of English common law, British Mandate
regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim
legal systems; in December 1985, Israel informed the UN Secretariat
that it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ezer WEIZMAN (since 13 May 1993) election
last held 24 March 1993 (next to be held NA March 1999); results -
Ezer WEIZMAN elected by Knesset
head of government: Prime Minister Yitzhak RABIN (since NA July 1992)
cabinet: Cabinet; selected from and approved by the Knesset

Legislative branch: unicameral
parliament (Knesset): elections last held NA June 1992 (next to be
held by NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120
total) Labor 44, Likud 32, MERETZ 12, Tzomet 8, National Religious
Party 6, SHAS 6, United Torah Jewry 4, Democratic Front for Peace and
Equality (Hadash) 3, Moledet 3, Arab Democratic Party 2; note - in
1994 four legislators broke party ranks, resulting in the following
new distribution of seats - Labor Party 44, Likud bloc 32, MERETZ 12,
National Religious Party 6, SHAS 6, Tzomet 5, United Torah Jewry 4,
Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (Hadash) 3, Moledet 2, Arab
Democratic Party 2, independents 4 (1 in coalition, 3 voting with
opposition)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
members of the government: Labor Party, Prime Minister Yitzhak RABIN;
MERETZ, Minister of Communications Shulamit ALONI; independent, Gonen
SEGEV
not in coalition, but voting with the government: Democratic Front for
Peace and Equality (Hadash), Hashim MAHAMID; Arab Democratic Party,
Abd al Wahab DARAWSHAH
opposition parties: Likud Party, Binyamin NETANYAHU; Tzomet, Rafael
EITAN; National Religious Party, Zevulun HAMMER; United Torah Jewry,
Avraham SHAPIRA; Moledet, Rehavam ZEEVI; Peace Guard (independent),
Shaul GUTMAN; SHAS, Arieh DERI
note: Israel currently has a coalition government comprising 2 parties
and an independent that hold 57 seats of the Knesset's 120 seats

Other political or pressure groups: Gush Emunim, Israeli nationalists
advocating Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace
Now supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and is critical
of government's Lebanon policy

Member of: AG (observer), CCC, CE (observer), CERN (observer), EBRD,
ECE, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS
(observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Itamar RABINOVICH
chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 364-5610
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Martin INDYK
embassy: 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv
mailing address: PSC 98, Box 100, Tel Aviv; APO AE 09830
telephone: [972] (3) 517-4338
FAX: [972] (3) 663-449
consulate(s) general: Jerusalem

Flag: white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as
the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal
horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag

@Israel:Economy

Overview: Israel has a market economy with substantial government
participation. It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw
materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources,
Israel has intensively developed its agricultural and industrial
sectors over the past 20 years. Industry employs about 22% of Israeli
workers, construction 6.5%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.5%,
and services most of the rest. Israel is largely self-sufficient in
food production except for grains. Diamonds, high-technology
equipment, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are
leading exports. Israel usually posts current account deficits, which
are covered by large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign
loans. Roughly half of the government's external debt is owed to the
United States, which is its major source of economic and military aid.
To earn needed foreign exchange, Israel has been targeting
high-technology niches in international markets, such as medical
scanning equipment. The influx of Jewish immigrants from the former
USSR, which topped 450,000 during the period 1990-94, increased
unemployment, intensified housing problems, and strained the
government budget. At the same time, the immigrants bring to the
economy valuable scientific and professional expertise.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $70.1 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 6.8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $13,880 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14.5% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $42.3 billion
expenditures: $45.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $11.1
billion (FY92/93)

Exports: $16.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, cut diamonds, chemicals,
textiles and apparel, agricultural products, metals
partners: US, EU, Japan

Imports: $22.5 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds,
oil, other productive inputs, consumer goods
partners: EU, US, Japan

External debt: $25.9 billion (November 1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 8% (1994 est.); accounts for about
30% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 4,140,000 kW
production: 23 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 4,290 kWh (1993)

Industries: food processing, diamond cutting and polishing, textiles
and apparel, chemicals, metal products, military equipment, transport
equipment, electrical equipment, miscellaneous machinery, potash
mining, high-technology electronics, tourism

Agriculture: citrus and other fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef,
poultry, dairy products

Illicit drugs: increasingly concerned about cocaine and heroin abuse
and trafficking

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $18.2 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $2.8 billion

Currency: 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 3.070 (December
1994), 3.0111 (1994), 2.8301 (1993), 2.4591 (1992), 2.2791 (1991),
2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

@Israel:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 520 km (diesel operated; single track)
standard gauge: 520 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 13,461 km
paved: 13,461 km

Pipelines: crude oil 708 km; petroleum products 290 km; natural gas 89
km

Ports: Ashdod, Ashqelon, Elat, Hadera, Haifa, Tel Aviv-Yafo

Merchant marine:
total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 624,861 GRT/720,765 DWT
ships by type: cargo 7, container 22, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Airports:
total: 57
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7
with paved runways under 914 m: 31
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@Israel:Communications

Telephone system: 1,800,000 telephones; most highly developed in the
Middle East although not the largest
local: NA
intercity: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
international: 3 submarine cables; 3 INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1
Indian Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 45, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 20
televisions: NA

@Israel:Defense Forces

Branches: Israel Defense Forces (includes ground, naval, and air
components), Pioneer Fighting Youth (Nahal), Frontier Guard, Chen
(women); note - historically there have been no separate Israeli
military services

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,309,502; females age 15-49
1,283,923; males fit for military service 1,072,501; females fit for
military service 1,047,575; males reach military age (18) annually
47,950; females reach military age (18) annually 45,839 (1995 est.)
note: military service mandatory for men and women

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $6.5 billion, about
10% of GDP (1995)

________________________________________________________________________

ITALY

@Italy:Geography

Location: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central
Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 301,230 sq km
land area: 294,020 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona
note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

Land boundaries: total 1,899.2 km, Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy
See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199 km,
Switzerland 740 km

Coastline: 4,996 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in
south

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

Natural resources: mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling natural
gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal

Land use:
arable land: 32%
permanent crops: 10%
meadows and pastures: 17%
forest and woodland: 22%
other: 19%

Irrigated land: 31,000 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur
dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and
agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate
industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
natural hazards: regional risks include landslides, mudflows,
avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence
in Venice
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur
94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Desertification

Note: strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as
southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

@Italy:People

Population: 58,261,971 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15% (female 4,352,325; male 4,603,083)
15-64 years: 68% (female 19,969,086; male 19,874,528)
65 years and over: 17% (female 5,630,747; male 3,832,202) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.21% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 10.89 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.78 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.85 years
male: 74.67 years
female: 81.23 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.41 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Book of the day: