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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

Part 17 out of 45

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Constitution: Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

Executive branch:
chief of state: Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYLA; since 16 October
1978); election last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the
death of the current pope); results - Karol WOJTYLA was elected for
life by the College of Cardinals
head of government: Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo Cardinal
SODANO (since NA 1991)
cabinet: Pontifical Commission; appointed by Pope

Legislative branch: unicameral Pontifical Commission

Judicial branch: none; normally handled by Italy

Political parties and leaders: none

Other political or pressure groups: none (exclusive of influence
exercised by church officers)

Member of: IAEA, ICFTU, INTELSAT, IOM (observer), ITU, OAS (observer),
OSCE, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WIPO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Agostino
CACCIAVILLAN
chancery: 3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7121

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond L. FLYNN
embassy: Via Delle Terme Deciane 26, Rome 00153
mailing address: PSC 59, APO AE 09624
telephone: [39] (6) 46741
FAX: [39] (6) 6380159

Flag: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the
crossed keys of Saint Peter and the papal miter centered in the white
band

@Holy See (vatican City):Economy

Overview: This unique, noncommercial economy is supported financially
by contributions (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman Catholics
throughout the world, the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos,
fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications. The
incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to, or
somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work in the city of
Rome.

Budget:
revenues: $169 million
expenditures: $167.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993)

Electricity:
capacity: 5,000 kW standby
production: power supplied by Italy
consumption per capita: NA kWh (1992)

Industries: printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and
staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities

Currency: 1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1 - 1,609.5 (January 1995),
1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993), 1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991),
1,198.1 (1990); note - the Vatican lira is at par with the Italian
lira which circulates freely

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Holy See (vatican City):Transportation

Railroads:
total: 862 meters; note - connects to Italy's network at Rome's Saint
Peter's station
narrow gauge: 862 meters 1.435-m gauge

Highways: none; all city streets

Ports: none

Airports: none

@Holy See (vatican City):Communications

Telephone system: 2,000 telephones; automatic exchange
local: NA
intercity: tied into Italian system
international: uses Italian system

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Holy See (vatican City):Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are
posted at entrances to the Vatican City

________________________________________________________________________

HONDURAS

@Honduras:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
El Salvador and Nicaragua

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 112,090 sq km
land area: 111,890 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: total 1,520 km, Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km,
Nicaragua 922 km

Coastline: 820 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: land boundary dispute with El Salvador mostly
resolved by 11 September 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ)
decision; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de
Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and
advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras
and Nicaragua likely would be required

Climate: subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

Terrain: mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains

Natural resources: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore,
antimony, coal, fish

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 30%
forest and woodland: 34%
other: 20%

Irrigated land: 900 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: urban population expanding; deforestation results from
logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further
land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development
and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands;
mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest
source of freshwater) with heavy metals as well as several rivers and
streams
natural hazards: frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; damaging
hurricanes and floods along Caribbean coast
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change

@Honduras:People

Population: 5,459,743 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (female 1,159,846; male 1,201,927)
15-64 years: 53% (female 1,468,950; male 1,444,959)
65 years and over: 4% (female 95,361; male 88,700) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.66% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 34.12 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 43.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.04 years
male: 65.64 years
female: 70.55 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.55 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Honduran(s)
adjective: Honduran

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and European) 90%, Indian 7%,
black 2%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant minority

Languages: Spanish, Indian dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 73%
male: 76%
female: 71%

Labor force: 1.3 million
by occupation: agriculture 62%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%,
construction 3%, other 6% (1985)

@Honduras:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Honduras
conventional short form: Honduras
local long form: Republica de Honduras
local short form: Honduras

Digraph: HO

Type: republic

Capital: Tegucigalpa

Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes,
El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la
Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle,
Yoro

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982

Legal system: rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of
English common law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Carlos Roberto REINA
Idiaquez (since 27 January 1994); election last held 28 November 1993
(next to be held November 1997); results - Carlos Roberto REINA
Idiaquez (PLH) 53%, Oswaldo RAMOS Soto (PNH) 41%, other 6%
cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Congress (Congreso Nacional): elections last held on 27
November 1993 (next to be held November 1997); results - PNH 53%, PLH
41%, PDCH 1.0%, PINU-SD 2.5%, other 2.5%; seats - (134 total) PNH 55,
PLH 77, PINU-SD 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party (PLH), Rafael PINEDA
Ponce, president; National Party of Honduras (PNH), Oswaldo RAMOS
Soto, president; National Innovation and Unity Party (PINU), Olban
VALLADARES, president; Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Efrain DIAZ
Arrivillaga, president

Other political or pressure groups: National Association of Honduran
Campesinos (ANACH); Honduran Council of Private Enterprise (COHEP);
Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH); National Union of Campesinos
(UNC); General Workers Confederation (CGT); United Federation of
Honduran Workers (FUTH); Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in
Honduras (CODEH); Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations
(CCOP)

Member of: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto FLORES Bermudez
chancery: 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-7702, 2604, 5008, 4596
FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Boston, Detroit, and Jacksonville

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador William T. PRYCE
embassy: Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No 3453, Tegucigalpa
mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
telephone: [504] 36-9320, 38-5114
FAX: [504] 36-9037

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with
five blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the
white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal
Republic of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, and Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which
features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL
SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also
similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled
by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the
bottom, centered in the white band

@Honduras:Economy

Overview: Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western
Hemisphere. Agriculture, the most important sector of the economy,
accounts for 28% of GDP, employs 62% of the labor force, and produces
two-thirds of exports. Productivity remains low. Manufacturing, still
in its early stages, employs 9% of the labor force, accounts for 15%
of GDP, and generates 20% of exports. The service sectors, including
public administration, account for 50% of GDP and employ 20% of the
labor force. Many basic problems face the economy, including rapid
population growth, high unemployment, inflation, a lack of basic
services, a large and inefficient public sector, and the dependence of
the export sector mostly on coffee and bananas, which are subject to
sharp price fluctuations. A far-reaching reform program, initiated by
former President CALLEJAS in 1990 and scaled back by President REINA,
is beginning to take hold.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $9.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -1.9% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,820 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10%; underemployed 30%-40% (1992)

Budget:
revenues: $527 million
expenditures: $668 million, including capital expenditures of $166
million (1993 est.)

Exports: $850 million (f.o.b., 1993 est)
commodities: bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, meat, lumber
partners: US 53%, Germany 11%, Belgium 8%, UK 5%

Imports: $990 million (c.i.f. 1994 est)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemical products,
manufactured goods, fuel and oil, foodstuffs
partners: US 50%, Mexico 8%, Guatemala 6%

External debt: $4 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 10% (1992 est.); accounts for 22%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 290,000 kW
production: 2.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 445 kWh (1993)

Industries: agricultural processing (sugar and coffee), textiles,
clothing, wood products

Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for 28% of GDP, more
than 60% of the labor force, and two-thirds of exports; principal
products include bananas, coffee, timber, beef, citrus fruit, shrimp;
importer of wheat

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics; illicit producer of
cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local
consumption

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.1 billion

Currency: 1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: lempiras (L) per US$1 - 9.1283 (October 1994), 7.2600
(1993), 5.8300 (1992), 5.4000 (1991); 2.0000 (fixed rate until 1991)
5.70 parallel black-market rate (November 1990); the lempira was
allowed to float in 1992

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Honduras:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 785 km
narrow gauge: 508 km 1.067-m gauge; 277 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
total: 8,950 km
paved: 1,700 km
unpaved: otherwise improved 5,000 km; unimproved earth 2,250 km

Inland waterways: 465 km navigable by small craft

Ports: La Ceiba, Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo, Tela,
Puerto Lempira

Merchant marine:
total: 271 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 802,990 GRT/1,210,553
DWT
ships by type: bulk 31, cargo 171, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk
1, container 6, liquefied gas tanker 2, livestock carrier 3, oil
tanker 21, passenger 2, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 19,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 1,
vehicle carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; Russia owns 14 ships, Vietnam 7,
North Korea 4, US 3, Hong Kong 2, South Korea 2, Greece 1

Airports:
total: 159
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4
with paved runways under 914 m: 118
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 4
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 27

@Honduras:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; 7 telephones/1,000 persons;
inadequate system
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations and the
Central American microwave radio relay system

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 176, FM 0, shortwave 7
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 28
televisions: NA

@Honduras:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, Public Security
Forces (FUSEP)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,275,670; males fit for
military service 760,113; males reach military age (18) annually
62,405 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $41 million, about
0.4% of GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

HONG KONG

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Hong Kong:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 1,040 sq km
land area: 990 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than six times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: total 30 km, China 30 km

Coastline: 733 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy
from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north

Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 1%
forest and woodland: 12%
other: 79%

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: air and water pollution from rapid urbanization
natural hazards: occasional typhoons
international agreements: NA

Note: more than 200 islands

@Hong Kong:People

Population: 5,542,869 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 499,460; male 549,734)
15-64 years: 70% (female 1,866,540; male 2,016,684)
65 years and over: 11% (female 331,391; male 279,060) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.12% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.02 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 80.18 years
male: 76.78 years
female: 83.78 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.39 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chinese
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic divisions: Chinese 95%, other 5%

Religions: eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%

Languages: Chinese (Cantonese), English

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1971)
total population: 77%
male: 90%
female: 64%

Labor force: 2.8 million (1990)
by occupation: manufacturing 28.5%, wholesale and retail trade,
restaurants, and hotels 27.9%, services 17.7%, financing, insurance,
and real estate 9.2%, transport and communications 4.5%, construction
2.5%, other 9.7% (1989)

@Hong Kong:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Hong Kong

Abbreviation: HK

Digraph: HK

Type: dependent territory of the UK scheduled to revert to China in
1997

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK; the UK signed an
agreement with China on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China
on 1 July 1997; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect
Hong Kong's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice; new Basic Law approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: direct election 21 years of age; universal for permanent
residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven
years; indirect election limited to about 100,000 professionals of
electoral college and functional constituencies

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor Chris PATTEN (since 9 July 1992); Chief
Secretary Anson CHAN Fang On-Sang (since 29 November 1993)
cabinet: Executive Council; appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Council: indirect elections last held 12 September 1991
and direct elections were held for the first time 15 September 1991
(next to be held 17 September 1995 when the number of directly-elected
seats increases to 50); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(60 total; 21 indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 18
directly elected, 18 appointed by governor, 3 ex officio members);
indirect elections - number of seats by functional constituency NA;
direct elections - UDHK 12, Meeting Point 3, ADPL 1, other 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party, Martin LEE, chairman;
Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong, TSANG Yuk-shing,
chairman; Hong Kong Democratic Foundation, Dr. Patrick SHIU Kin-ying,
chairman
note: in April 1994, the United Democrats of Hong Kong (UDHK) and
Meeting Point merged to form the Democratic Party; the merger became
effective in October 1994

Other political or pressure groups: Liberal Party, Allen LEE,
chairman; Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood (ADPL),
Frederick FUNG Kin Kee, chairman; Liberal Democratic Federation, HU
Fa-kuang, chairman; Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China), LEE
Chark-tim, president; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council
(pro-Taiwan); Confederation of Trade Unions (pro-democracy), LAU
Chin-shek, chairman; Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Chinese
General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Federation of Hong Kong
Industries; Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Hong Kong
Professional Teachers' Union, CHEUNG Man-kwong, president; Hong Kong
Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China,
Szeto WAH, chairman

Member of: APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP (associate), GATT, ICFTU, IMO
(associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Consul General Richard W. MUELLER
consulate(s) general: 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong
mailing address: PSC 464, Box 30, Hong Kong, or FPO AP 96522-0002
telephone: [852] 523-9011
FAX: [852] 845-4845

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
with the Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer
half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two
junks below a crown) held by a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon
(representing China) with another lion above the shield and a banner
bearing the words HONG KONG below the shield

@Hong Kong:Economy

Overview: Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy with few
tariffs or nontariff barriers. Natural resources are limited, and food
and raw materials must be imported. Manufacturing accounts for about
17% of GDP. Goods and services exports account for about 50% of GDP.
Real GDP growth averaged a remarkable 8% in 1987-88, slowed to 3.0% in
1989-90, and picked up to 4.2% in 1991, 5.0% in 1992, 5.2% in 1993,
and 5.5% in 1994. Unemployment, which has been declining since the
mid-1980s, is now about 2%. A shortage of labor continues to put
upward pressure on prices and the cost of living. Prospects for
1995-96 remain bright so long as major trading partners continue to be
reasonably prosperous and so long as investors feel China will support
free market practices after the takeover in 1997.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $136.1 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $24,530 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 1.9% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $19.2 billion
expenditures: $19.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY93/94)

Exports: $168.7 billion (including re-exports of $121.0 billion
)(f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: clothing, textiles, yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical
appliances, watches and clocks, toys
partners: China 32%, US 23%, Germany 5%, Japan 5%, UK 3% (1993 est.)

Imports: $160 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials,
semimanufactures, petroleum; a large share is re-exported
partners: China 36%, Japan 19%, Taiwan 9%, US 7% (1993 est.)

External debt: none (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 2% (1993 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 8,930,000 kW
production: 33 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 4,628 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys,
watches, clocks

Agriculture: minor role in the economy; local farmers produce 26%
fresh vegetables, 27% live poultry; 8% of land area suitable for
farming

Illicit drugs: a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade; transshipment
and major financial and money-laundering center; increasing indigenous
amphetamine and cocaine abuse

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $152 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $923 million

Currency: 1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$ - 7.800 (1994), 7.800
(1993), 7.741 (1992), 7.771 (1991), 7.790 (1990); note - linked to the
US dollar at the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Hong Kong:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 35 km
standard gauge: 35 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 1,100 km
paved: 794 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 306 km

Ports: Hong Kong

Merchant marine:
total: 217 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,657,749 GRT/13,181,496
DWT
ships by type: bulk 116, cargo 29, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk
2, combination ore/oil 6, container 28, liquefied gas tanker 5, oil
tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 7, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle
carrier 3
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 15 countries among
which are UK with 53 ships, China 15, Bermuda 7, Japan 6, Belgium 3,
Germany 3, Greece 3, Canada 2, Netherlands 2, Singapore 2

Airports:
total: 3
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2

@Hong Kong:Communications

Telephone system: 3,000,000 telephones; modern facilities provide
excellent domestic and international services
local: NA
intercity: microwave transmission links and extensive optical fiber
transmission network
international: 3 INTELSAT (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean) earth
stations; coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; links to 5 international
submarine cables providing access to ASEAN member nations, Japan,
Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 6, shortwave 0
radios: 2.5 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 4 (British Broadcasting Corporation repeater 1;
British Forces Broadcasting Service repeater 1)
televisions: 1.312 million (1,224,000 color TV sets)

@Hong Kong:Defense Forces

Branches: Headquarters of British Forces, Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air
Force, Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police
Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,634,559; males fit for
military service 1,245,905; males reach military age (18) annually
40,996 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $207 million, 0.2% of
GDP (FY92/93); this represents 65% of the total cost of defending the
colony, the remainder being paid by the UK

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

HOWLAND ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Howland Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half
of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 1.6 sq km
land area: 1.6 sq km
comparative area: about 2.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 6.4 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a
narrow fringing reef; depressed central area

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 5%
other: 95%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: no natural fresh water resources
natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard
international agreements: NA

Note: almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and
low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; primarily a
nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and
marine wildlife; feral cats

@Howland Island:People

Population: uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942
after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by
US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public
entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to
scientists and educators

@Howland Island:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Howland Island

Digraph: HQ

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

@Howland Island:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Howland Island:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one boat landing
area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on
the round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan - they
left Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again;
the airstrip is no longer serviceable

Note: Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast
that was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been
rebuilt in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart

@Howland Island:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the
US Coast Guard

________________________________________________________________________

HUNGARY

@Hungary:Geography

Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area:
total area: 93,030 sq km
land area: 92,340 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: total 1,989 km, Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km,
Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia),
Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 82 km, Ukraine 103 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Slovakia

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the
Slovakian border

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils

Land use:
arable land: 50.7%
permanent crops: 6.1%
meadows and pastures: 12.6%
forest and woodland: 18.3%
other: 12.3%

Irrigated land: 1,750 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution; industrial and municipal pollution of
Lake Balaton
natural hazards: levees are common along many streams, but flooding
occurs almost every year
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not
ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between
Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and
Mediterranean basin

@Hungary:People

Population: 10,318,838 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (female 918,281; male 958,027)
15-64 years: 68% (female 3,534,218; male 3,440,036)
65 years and over: 14% (female 914,221; male 554,055) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.02% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.65 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.44 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.9 years
male: 67.94 years
female: 76.06 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic divisions: Hungarian 89.9%, Gypsy 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%,
Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%

Religions: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist
and other 7.5%

Languages: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98%

Labor force: 5.4 million
by occupation: services, trade, government, and other 44.8%, industry
29.7%, agriculture 16.1%, construction 7.0% (1991)

@Hungary:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form: Magyarorszag

Digraph: HU

Type: republic

Capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 38 counties (megyek, singular - megye) and 1
capital city* (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba,
Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros,
Eger, Fejer, Gyor, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves,
Hodmezovasarhely, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar, Kecskemet,
Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs,
Pest, Somogy, Sopron, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged, Szekesfehervar,
Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala,
Zalaegerszeg

Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)

National holiday: St. Stephen's Day (National Day), 20 August
(commemorates the founding of Hungarian state circa 1000 A.D.)

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19
April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for
individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime
minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight

Legal system: in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based
on Western model

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously
interim president from 2 May 1990); election last held 3 August 1990
(next to be held NA 1995); results - President GONCZ elected by
parliamentary vote; note - President GONCZ was elected by the National
Assembly with a total of 295 votes out of 304 as interim President
from 2 May 1990 until elected President
head of government: Prime Minister Gyula HORN (since 15 July 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly on
recommendation of the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Orszaggyules): elections last held on 8 and 29 May
1994 (next to be held spring 1998); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (386 total) MSzP 209, SzDSz 70, MDF 37, FKgP 26, KDNP 22,
FiDeSz 20, other 2

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF), Lajos
FUR, chairman; Independent Smallholders (FKgP), Jozsef TORGYAN,
president; Hungarian Socialist Party (MSzP), Gyula HORN, president;
Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP), Dr. Lazlo SURJAN,
president; Federation of Young Democrats (FiDeSz), Viktor ORBAN,
chairman; Alliance of Free Democrats (SzDSz), Ivan PETO, chairman
note: the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party (MSzMP)
renounced Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSzP) in
October 1989; there is still a small MMP

Member of: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, FAO,
G- 9, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG,
OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNU, UPU, WEU (associate
partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gyorgy BANLAKI (since 27 October 1994)
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald M. BLINKEN
embassy: V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest
mailing address: Am Embassy, Unit 1320, Budapest; APO AE 09213-1320
telephone: [36] (1) 112-6450
FAX: [36] (1) 132-8934

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

@Hungary:Economy

Overview: Since 1989 Hungary has been a leader in the transition from
a socialist command economy to a market economy - thanks in large part
to its initial economic reforms during the Communist era. The private
sector now accounts for about 55% of GDP. Nonetheless, the
transformation is proving difficult, and many citizens say life was
better under the old system. On the bright side, the four-year decline
in output finally ended in 1994, as real GDP increased an estimated
3%. This growth helped reduce unemployment to just over 10% by
yearend, down from a peak of 13%. However, no progress was made
against inflation, which remained stuck at about 20%, and the
already-large current account deficit in the balance of payments
actually got worse, reaching almost $4 billion. Underlying Hungary's
other economic problems is the large budget deficit, which probably
exceeded 7% of GDP in 1994, despite some late-year budget cutting by
the new leftist government. In 1995 the government has pledged to
accelerate privatization and lower the budget deficit to 5.5% of GDP.
It believes this fiscal tightening will reduce the current account
deficit to $2.5 billion but at the cost of holding economic growth to
only 1%.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $58.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $5,700 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 21% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 10.4% (yearend 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $11.3 billion
expenditures: $14.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994)

Exports: $10.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: raw materials and semi-finished goods 30.0%, machinery
and transport equipment 20.1%, consumer goods 25.2%, food and
agriculture 21.4%, fuels and energy 3.4% (1993)
partners: Germany 25.3%, Italy 8.3%, Austria 10.5%, the FSU 14.0%, US
4.3% (1993)

Imports: $14.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: fuels and energy 12.6%, raw materials and semi-finished
goods 27.3%, machinery and transport equipment 33.0%, consumer goods
21.2%, food and agriculture 5.9% (1993)
partners: Germany 21.5%, Italy 6.1%, Austria 11.8%, the FSU 20.9%, US
4.3% (1993); note - about one-fourth of the imports from the FSU were
MiGs delivered as a debt payment

External debt: $27 billion (September 1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 7% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 6,740,000 kW
production: 31 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,012 kWh (1993)

Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed
foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), buses,
automobiles

Agriculture: including forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 16% of
employment; highly diversified crop and livestock farming; principal
crops - wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock -
hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in food output

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southeast Asia heroin and South
American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of
precursor chemicals

Economic aid:
recipient: assistance pledged by OECD countries since 1989 about $9
billion

Currency: 1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler

Exchange rates: forints per US$1 - 112 (January 1995), 105.16 (1994),
91.93 (1993), 78.99 (1992), 74.74 (1991), 63.21 (1990), 59.07 (1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Hungary:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 7,785 km
broad gauge: 35 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,574 km 1.435-m gauge (2,277 km electrified; 1,236 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 176 km mostly 0.760-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 158,711 km
paved: 69,992 km (441 km expressways)
unpaved: 88,719 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 1,622 km (1988)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)

Ports: Budapest, Dunaujvaros

Merchant marine:
total: 10 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 46,121 GRT/61,613
DWT

Airports:
total: 78
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with paved runways under 914 m: 1
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 9
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 14
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 34

@Hungary:Communications

Telephone system: 1,520,000 phones; 14.7 telephones/100 inhabitants
(1993); 14,213 telex lines; automatic telephone network based on
microwave radio relay system; 608,000 telephones on order; 12-15 year
wait for a telephone; 49% of all phones are in Budapest (1991)
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay
international: 1 INTELSAT and Intersputnik earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 32, FM 15, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 41 (Russian repeaters 8)
televisions: NA

@Hungary:Defense Forces

Branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guard,
Territorial Defense

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,639,860; males fit for
military service 2,105,632; males reach military age (18) annually
86,298 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 66.5 billion forints, NA% of GDP (1994 est.);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
prevailing exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

ICELAND

@Iceland:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the
North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the UK

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
total area: 103,000 sq km
land area: 100,250 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Kentucky

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,988 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving
Denmark, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Climate: temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy
winters; damp, cool summers

Terrain: mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields;
coast deeply indented by bays and fiords

Natural resources: fish, hydropower, geothermal power, diatomite

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 20%
forest and woodland: 1%
other: 78%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: water pollution from fertilizer runoff; inadequate
wastewater treatment
natural hazards: earthquakes and volcanic activity
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not
ratified - Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation

Note: strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost
European country; more land covered by glaciers than in all of
continental Europe

@Iceland:People

Population: 265,998 (July 1995 est.)
note: population data estimates based on average growth rate may
differ slightly from official population data because of volatile
migration rates

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (female 31,482; male 32,912)
15-64 years: 65% (female 84,559; male 87,089)
65 years and over: 11% (female 16,554; male 13,402) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.92% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.85 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.7 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.98 years
male: 76.69 years
female: 81.39 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.06 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Icelander(s)
adjective: Icelandic

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and
Celts

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 3%, none 1% (1988)

Languages: Icelandic

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.)
total population: 100%

Labor force: 127,900
by occupation: commerce, transportation, and services 60.0%,
manufacturing 12.5%, fishing and fish processing 11.8%, construction
10.8%, agriculture 4.0% (1990)

@Iceland:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Iceland
conventional short form: Iceland
local long form: Lyoveldio Island
local short form: Island

Digraph: IC

Type: republic

Capital: Reykjavik

Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular - sysla) and
14 independent towns* (kaupstadhir, singular - kaupstadhur); Akranes*,
Akureyri*, Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
Austur-Hunavatnssysla, Austur-Skaftafellssysla, Borgarfjardharsysla,
Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*,
Husavik*, Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla,
Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-la,
Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla, Reykjavik*,
Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*, Skagafjardharsysla,
Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla, Sudhur-Mulasysla,
Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*, Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
Vestur-Hunavatnssysla, Vestur-Isafjardharsysla,
Vestur-Skaftafellssysla

Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic, 17
June (1944)

Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944

Legal system: civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1 August 1980);
election last held on 29 June 1988 (next scheduled for June 1996);
results - there was no election in 1992 as President Vigdis
FINNBOGADOTTIR was unopposed
head of government: Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991)

cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament (Althing): elections last held on 8 April 1995 (next to be
held by April 1999); results - Independence Party 37.1%, Progressive
Party 23.3%, Social Democratic Party 11.4%, Socialists 14.3%, People's
Movement 7.2%, Women's Party 4.9%; seats - (63 total) Independence 25,
Progressive 15, Social Democratic 7, Socialists 9, People's Movement
4, Women's Party 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Haestirettur)

Political parties and leaders: Independence Party (conservative),
David ODDSSON; Progressive Party, Halldor ASGRIMSSON; Social
Democratic Party, Jon Baldvin HANNIBALSSON; People's Alliance (left
socialist), Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON; Women's Party; People's Movement
(moderate left); National Awakening, Johanna SIGURDARDOTTIR

Member of: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC,
NEA, NIB, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNU, UPU, WEU
(associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Einar BENEDIKTSSON
chancery: Suite 1200, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 265-6653 through 6655
FAX: [1] (202) 265-6656
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Parker W. BORG
embassy: Laufasvegur 21, Box 40, Reykjavik
mailing address: US Embassy, PSC 1003, Box 40, Reykjavik; FPO AE
09728-0340
telephone: [354] (1) 629100
FAX: [354] (1) 629139

Flag: blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the
edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the
hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Iceland:Economy

Overview: Iceland's Scandinavian-type economy is basically
capitalistic, but with an extensive welfare system, relatively low
unemployment, and comparatively even distribution of income. The
economy is heavily dependent on the fishing industry, which provides
nearly 75% of export earnings and employs 12% of the work force. In
the absence of other natural resources - except energy - Iceland's
economy is vulnerable to changing world fish prices. The economy, in
recession since 1988, began to recover in 1993, posting 0.4% growth,
but was still hampered by cutbacks in fish quotas as well as falling
world prices for its main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum,
and ferrosilicon. Real GDP grew by perhaps 2.4% in 1994. The
center-right government plans to continue its policies of reducing the
budget and current account deficits, limiting foreign borrowing,
containing inflation, revising agricultural and fishing policies,
diversifying the economy, and privatizing state-owned industries. The
government, however, remains divided on the issue of EU membership,
primarily because of Icelanders' concern about losing control over
their fishing resources.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.5 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $17,250 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.9 billion
expenditures: $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum,
ferrosilicon, diatomite
partners: EC 68% (UK 25%, Germany 12%), US 11%, Japan 8% (1992)

Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum
products, foodstuffs, textiles
partners: EC 53% (Germany 14%, Denmark 10%, UK 9%), Norway 14%, US 9%
(1992)

External debt: $2.5 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.75% (1991 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 1,070,000 kW
production: 4.7 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 16,458 kWh (1993)

Industries: fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon
production, geothermal power

Agriculture: accounts for about 15% of GDP; fishing is most important
economic activity, contributing nearly 75% to export earnings;
principal crops - potatoes, turnips; livestock - cattle, sheep; fish
catch of about 1.1 million metric tons in 1992

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1 million

Currency: 1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar

Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1 - 67.760 (January
1995), 69.944 (1994), 67.603 (1993), 57.546 (1992), 58.996 (1991),
58.284 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Iceland:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 11,373 km
paved: 2,513 km
unpaved: gravel, earth 8,860 km (1992)

Ports: Akureyri, Hornafjordur, Isafjordur, Keflavik, Raufarhofn,
Reykjavik, Seydhisfjordhur, Straumsvik, Vestmannaeyjar

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 30,025 GRT/40,410 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, oil tanker 1, refrigerated
cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2

Airports:
total: 90
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6
with paved runways under 914 m: 53
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 23

@Iceland:Communications

Telephone system: 140,000 telephones; adequate domestic service
local: NA
intercity: the trunk network consists of coaxial and fiber-optic
cables and microwave radio relay links
international: 2 earth stations carry all international traffic
through an Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT satellite

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 147 (transmitters and repeaters),
shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 202 (transmitters and repeaters)
televisions: NA

@Iceland:Defense Forces

Branches: no regular armed forces; Police, Coast Guard; note -
Iceland's defense is provided by the US-manned Icelandic Defense Force
(IDF) headquartered at Keflavik

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 70,743; males fit for military
service 62,698 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: none

________________________________________________________________________

INDIA

@India:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of
Bengal, between Bangladesh and Pakistan

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 3,287,590 km2
land area: 2,973,190 km2
comparative area: slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Land boundaries: total 14,103 km, Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km,
Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

Coastline: 7,000 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: boundaries with Bangladesh and China; status
of Kashmir with Pakistan; water-sharing problems with downstream
riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges and Pakistan over the Indus

Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain
along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron
ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas,
diamonds, petroleum, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 55%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 4%
forest and woodland: 23%
other: 17%

Irrigated land: 430,390 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing;
desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle
emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural
pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and
rapidly growing population is overstraining natural resources
natural hazards: droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common;
earthquakes
international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of
the Sea

Note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean
trade routes

@India:People

Population: 936,545,814 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (female 159,921,309; male 168,812,255)
15-64 years: 61% (female 274,105,407; male 296,145,798)
65 years and over: 4% (female 18,870,762; male 18,690,283) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.77% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 27.78 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.07 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 76.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.04 years
male: 58.5 years
female: 59.61 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian

Ethnic divisions: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other
3%

Religions: Hindu 80%, Muslim 14%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist
0.7%, Jains 0.5%, other 0.4%

Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most important
language for national, political, and commercial communication, Hindi
the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people, Bengali
(official), Telugu (official), Marathi (official), Tamil (official),
Urdu (official), Gujarati (official), Malayalam (official), Kannada
(official), Oriya (official), Punjabi (official), Assamese (official),
Kashmiri (official), Sindhi (official), Sanskrit (official),
Hindustani a popular variant of Hindu/Urdu, is spoken widely
throughout northern India
note: 24 languages each spoken by a million or more persons; numerous
other languages and dialects, for the most part mutually
unintelligible

Literacy: age 7 and over can read and write (1991)
total population: 52%
male: 64%
female: 39%

Labor force: 314.751 million (1990)
by occupation: agriculture 65% (1993 est.)

@India:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India

Digraph: IN

Type: federal republic

Capital: New Delhi

Administrative divisions: 25 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman
and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar,
Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa,
Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka,
Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya,
Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim,
Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal

Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 26
January (1950)

Constitution: 26 January 1950

Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 25 July 1992);
Vice President Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN (since 21 August 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha RAO (since 21 June
1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on
recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Sansad)
Council of States (Rajya Sabha): body consisting of not more than 250
members, up to 12 appointed by the president, the remainder chosen by
the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies
People's Assembly (Lok Sabha): elections last held 21 May, 12 and 15
June 1991 (next to be held by 1996); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (545 total, 543 elected, 2 appointed) Congress (I)
Party 245, BJP 119, Janata Dal Party 39, Janata Dal (Ajit Singh) 20,
CPI/M 35, CPI 14, Telugu Desam 13, AIADMK 11, Samajwadi Janata Party
5, Shiv Sena 4, RSP 4, BSP 1, Congress (S) Party 1, other 23, vacant
9; note - the distribution of seats as of 18 January 1995 is as
follows: Congress (I) Party 260, BJP 117, CPI/M 36, Janata Dal Party
24, Samta Party 14, CPI 14, AIADMK 12, Janata Dal (Ajit) 7, Telugu
Desam 7, RSP 4, Janata Dal (Ex-Ajit) 3, Samajwadi Party 3, BSP 3, AIFB
3, Shiv Sena 2, Congress (S) Party 1, Kerala Congress (Mani faction)
1, Bihar Peoples Party 1, India National League 1, other 14, vacant 16

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Congress (I) Party, P. V. Narasimha
RAO, president; Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), L.K. ADVANI; Janata Dal
Party, S.R. BOMMAI; Janata Dal (Ajit), Ajit SINGH; Janata Dal
(Ex-Ajit), leader NA; Communist Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M),
Harkishan Singh SURJEET; Communist Party of India (CPI), Indrajit
GUPTA; Telugu Desam (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh), N. T. Rama
RAO; All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK; a regional
party in Tamil Nadu), Jayaram JAYALALITHA; Samajwadi Party (SP),
Mulayam Singh YADAV (President), Om Prakash CHAUTALA, Devi LAL; Shiv
Sena, Bal THACKERAY; Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Tridip
CHOWDHURY; Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM; Congress (S) Party,
leader NA; Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Vinod
MISHRA; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party in Tamil Nadu), M.
KARUNANIDHI; Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community
in the Punjab; National Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and
Kashmir), Farooq ABDULLAH; Bihar Peoples Party, Lovely ANAND; Samta
Party (formerly Janata Dal members), Natish KUMAR; Indian National
League, Suliaman SAIT; Kerala Congress (Mani faction), K.M. MANI; All
India Forward Bloc (AIFB), Prem Dutta PALIWAL (Chairman), Chitta BASU
(General Secretary)

Other political or pressure groups: various separatist groups seeking
greater communal and/or regional autonomy; numerous religious or
militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Adam Sena, Ananda Marg,
Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G- 6,
G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAVEM
II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM,
UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Siddhartha Shankar RAY
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Frank G. WISNER
embassy: Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri 110021, New Delhi
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [91] (11) 600651
FAX: [91] (11) 6872028
consulate(s) general: Bombay, Calcutta, Madras

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green
with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band;
similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered
in the white band

@India:Economy

Overview: India's economy is a mixture of traditional village farming,
modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries,
and a multitude of support services. Faster economic growth in the
1980s permitted a significant increase in real per capita private
consumption. A large share of the population, perhaps as much as 40%,
remains too poor to afford an adequate diet. Financial strains in 1990
and 1991 prompted government austerity measures that slowed industrial
growth but permitted India to meet its international payment
obligations without rescheduling its debt. Production, trade, and
investment reforms since 1991 have provided new opportunities for
Indian businessmen and an estimated 100 million to 200 million middle
class consumers. New Delhi has always paid its foreign debts on
schedule and has stimulated exports, attracted foreign investment, and
revived confidence in India's economic prospects. Foreign exchange
reserves, precariously low three years ago, now total more than $19
billion. Positive factors for the remainder of the 1990s are India's
strong entrepreneurial class and the central government's recognition
of the continuing need for market-oriented approaches to economic
development, for example in upgrading the wholly inadequate
communications facilities. Negative factors include the desperate
poverty of hundreds of millions of Indians and the impact of the huge
and expanding population on an already overloaded environment.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.2539 trillion
(1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,360 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $30.85 billion
expenditures: $48.35 billion, including capital expenditures of $10.5
billion (FY93/94)

Exports: $24.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: clothing, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals,
leather manufactures, cotton yarn, and fabric
partners: US, Japan, Germany, UK, Hong Kong

Imports: $25.5 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, machinery, gems,
fertilizer, chemicals
partners: US, Germany, Saudi Arabia, UK, Belgium, Japan

External debt: $89.2 billion (November 1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 7% (1994 est.); accounts for 28% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 81,200,000 kW
production: 314 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 324 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel,
transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery

Agriculture: accounts for 34% of GDP; principal crops - rice, wheat,
oilseeds, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; livestock - cattle,
buffaloes, sheep, goats, poultry; fish catch of about 3 million metric
tons ranks India among the world's top 10 fishing nations

Illicit drugs: licit producer of opium poppy for the pharmaceutical
trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit
international drug markets; major transit country for illicit
narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit producer of
hashish and methaqualone; produced 82 metric tons of illicit opium in
1994

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-89), $31.7 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $315 million;
USSR (1970-89), $11.6 billion; Eastern Europe (1970-89), $105 million

Currency: 1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise

Exchange rates: Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1 - 31.374 (January 1995),
31.374 (1994), 30.493 (1993), 25.918 (1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504
(1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@India:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 62,211 km (6,500 km electrified; 12,617 km double track)
broad gauge: 34,544 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,599 km 1.000-m gauge; 4,068 km 0.762-m and 0.610-m
gauge (1994 est.)

Highways:
total: 1.97 million km
paved: 960,000 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 1.01 million km (1989)

Inland waterways: 16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 3,497 km; petroleum products 1,703 km; natural
gas 902 km (1989)

Ports: Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Haldia, Kandla, Madras, Mormugao, New
Mangalore, Pondicherry, Port Blair (Andaman Islands), Tuticorin,
Vishakhapatnam

Merchant marine:
total: 299 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,288,902 GRT/10,454,178
DWT
ships by type: bulk 114, cargo 78, chemical tanker 9, combination bulk
2, combination ore/oil 5, container 10, liquefied gas tanker 6, oil
tanker 68, passenger-cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea
passenger 1

Airports:
total: 352
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 11
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 48
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 85
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 72
with paved runways under 914 m: 81
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 7
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 46

@India:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; 5 telephones/1,000 persons; domestic
telephone system is poor; long-distance telephoning has been improved
by a domestic satellite system which also carries TV
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 3 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth stations and submarine
cables to Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 96, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 274 (government controlled)
televisions: NA

@India:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, various security or paramilitary
forces (includes Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, and Coast Guard)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 253,134,487; males fit for
military service 148,814,104; males reach military age (17) annually
9,461,907 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $7.8 billion, 2.8% of
GDP (FY94/95)

________________________________________________________________________

INDIAN OCEAN

@Indian Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, Antarctica, Asia, and
Australia

Map references: World

Area:
total area: 73.6 million sq km
comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of the US;
third-largest ocean (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but
larger than the Arctic Ocean)
note: includes Arabian Sea, Bass Straight, Bay of Bengal, Great
Australian Bight, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of
Malacca, and other tributary water bodies

Coastline: 66,526 km

International disputes: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

Climate: northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon
(June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and
October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in
the southern Indian Ocean

Terrain: surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular

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