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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Population: 10,998,602 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (female 2,324,041; male 2,424,686)
15-64 years: 53% (female 2,939,170; male 2,934,334)
65 years and over: 4% (female 198,807; male 177,564) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.53% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 34.65 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.33 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 52.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.85 years
male: 62.27 years
female: 67.56 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.63 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Guatemalan(s)
adjective: Guatemalan

Ethnic divisions: Mestizo - mixed Amerindian-Spanish ancestry (in
local Spanish called Ladino) 56%, Amerindian or predominently
Amerindian 44%

Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, traditional Mayan

Languages: Spanish 60%, Indian language 40% (23 Indian dialects,
including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 55%
male: 63%
female: 47%

Labor force: 3.2 million (1994 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 60%, services 13%, manufacturing 12%,
commerce 7%, construction 4%, transport 3%, utilities 0.7%, mining
0.3% (1985)

@Guatemala:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala
conventional short form: Guatemala
local long form: Republica de Guatemala
local short form: Guatemala

Digraph: GT

Type: republic

Capital: Guatemala

Administrative divisions: 22 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula,
El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa,
Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San
Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986
note: suspended 25 May 1993 by President SERRANO; reinstated 5 June
1993 following ouster of president

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Ramiro DE LEON Carpio
(since 6 June 1993); Vice President Arturo HERBRUGER (since 18 June
1993); election runoff held on 11 January 1991 (next to be held
November 1995); results - Jorge SERRANO Elias (MAS) 68.1%, Jorge
CARPIO Nicolle (UCN) 31.9%
note: President SERRANO resigned on 1 June 1993 shortly after
dissolving Congress and the judiciary; on 6 June 1993, Ramiro DE LEON
Carpio was chosen as the new president by a vote of Congress; he will
finish off the remainder of SERRANO's term which expires 14 January
1996
cabinet: Council of Ministers; named by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica): by agreement of
11 November 1993, a special election was held on 14 August 1994 to
select 80 new congressmen (next election to be held in November 1995
for full four year terms); results - percent of vote by party; FRG
40%, PAN 31.25%, DCG 15%, UCN 10%, MLN 2.5%, UD 1.25%; seats - (80
total) FRG 32, PAN 25, DCG 12, UCN 8, MLN 2, UD 1
note: on 11 November 1993 the congress approved a procedure that would
reduce its membership from 116 seats to 80; the procedure provided for
a special election in mid-1994 to elect an interim congress of 80
members to serve until replaced in a general election in November
1995; the plan was approved in a general referendum in January 1994
and the special election was held on 14 August 1994

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia);
additionally the Court of Constitutionality is presided over by the
President of the Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: National Centrist Union (UCN),
(vacant); Solidarity Action Movement (MAS), Oliverio GARCIA Rodas;
Christian Democratic Party (DCG), Alfonso CABRERA Hidalgo; National
Advancement Party (PAN), Alvaro ARZU Irigoyen; National Liberation
Movement (MLN), Mario SANDOVAL Alarcon; Social Democratic Party (PSD),
Mario SOLORZANO Martinez; Revolutionary Party (PR), Carlos CHAVARRIA
Perez; Guatemalan Republican Front (FRG), Efrain RIOS Montt;
Democratic Union (UD)

Other political or pressure groups: Coordinating Committee of
Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations
(CACIF); Mutual Support Group (GAM); Agrarian Owners Group (UNAGRO);
Committee for Campesino Unity (CUC); leftist guerrilla movement known
as Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union (URNG) has four main
factions - Guerrilla army of the Poor (EGP); Revolutionary
Organization of the People in Arms (ORPA); Rebel Armed Forces (FAR);
Guatemalan Labor Party (PGT/O)

Member of: BCIE, CACM, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edmond MULET
chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-4952 through 4954
FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marilyn McAFEE
embassy: 7-01 Avenida de la Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
mailing address: APO AA 34024
telephone: [502] (2) 311541
FAX: [502] (2) 318885

Flag: three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white,
and light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the
coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and
a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821
(the original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a
pair of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords and framed by a
wreath

@Guatemala:Economy

Overview: The economy is based on family and corporate agriculture,
which accounts for 25% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force,
and supplies two-thirds of exports. Manufacturing, predominantly in
private hands, accounts for about 15% of GDP and 12% of the labor
force. In both 1990 and 1991, the economy grew by 3%, the fourth and
fifth consecutive years of mild growth. In 1992 growth picked up to
almost 5% as government policies favoring competition and foreign
trade and investment took stronger hold. In 1993-94, despite political
unrest, this momentum continued, foreign investment held up, and
annual growth was 4%.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $33 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,080 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.9%; underemployment 30%-40% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $604 million (1990)
expenditures: $808 million, including capital expenditures of $134
million (1990)

Exports: $1.38 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: coffee, sugar, bananas, cardamon, beef
partners: US 30%, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Germany, Honduras

Imports: $2.6 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: fuel and petroleum products, machinery, grain,
fertilizers, motor vehicles
partners: US 44%, Mexico, Venezuela, Japan, Germany

External debt: $2.2 billion ( 1992 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.9% (1991 est.); accounts for 18%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 700,000 kW
production: 2.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 211 kWh (1993)

Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals,
petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP; most important sector of
economy; contributes two-thirds of export earnings; principal crops -
sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; livestock - cattle,
sheep, pigs, chickens; food importer

Illicit drugs: transit country for cocaine shipments; illicit producer
of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; the
government has an active eradication program for cannabis and opium
poppy

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $1.1 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $7.92 billion

Currency: 1 quetzal (Q) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: free market quetzales (Q) per US$1 - 5.7372 (January
1995), 5.7512 (1994), 5,6354 (1993), 5.1706 (1992), 5.0289 (1991),
4.4858 (1990); note - black-market rate 2.800 (May 1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Guatemala:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,019 km (102 km privately owned)
narrow gauge: 1,019 km 0.914-m gauge (single track)

Highways:
total: 26,429 km
paved: 2,868 km
unpaved: gravel 11,421 km; unimproved earth 12,140 km

Inland waterways: 260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km
navigable during high-water season

Pipelines: crude oil 275 km

Ports: Champerico, Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, San Jose, Santo
Tomas de Castilla

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 528
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
with paved runways under 914 m: 360
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 12
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 146

@Guatemala:Communications

Telephone system: 97,670 telephones; fairly modern network centered in
the city of Guatemala
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: connection into Central American Microwave System; 1
INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 91, FM 0, shortwave 15
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 25
televisions: NA

@Guatemala:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,574,501; males fit for
military service 1,683,028; males reach military age (18) annually
123,715 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $121 million, 1% of
GDP (1993)

________________________________________________________________________

GUERNSEY

(British crown dependency)

@Guernsey:Geography

Location: Western Europe, islands in the English Channel, northwest of
France

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 194 sq km
land area: 194 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC
note: includes Alderney, Guernsey, Herm, Sark, and some other smaller
islands

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 50 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of
days are overcast

Terrain: mostly level with low hills in southwest

Natural resources: cropland

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: NA%
forest and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: large, deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port

@Guernsey:People

Population: 64,353 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (female 5,664; male 5,892)
15-64 years: 66% (female 21,574; male 21,030)
65 years and over: 16% (female 6,059; male 4,134) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.98% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.29 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.93 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.34 years
male: 75.63 years
female: 81.07 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Channel Islander(s)
adjective: Channel Islander

Ethnic divisions: UK and Norman-French descent

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist,
Congregational, Methodist

Languages: English, French; Norman-French dialect spoken in country
districts

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

@Guernsey:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Bailiwick of Guernsey
conventional short form: Guernsey

Digraph: GK

Type: British crown dependency

Capital: Saint Peter Port

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice

Legal system: English law and local statute; justice is administered
by the Royal Court

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief
Vice-Admiral Sir John COWARD (since NA 1994); Bailiff Mr. Graham
Martyn DOREY (since February 1992)
cabinet: Advisory and Finance Committee (other committees); appointed
by the States

Legislative branch: unicameral
Assembly of the States: elections last held NA (next to be held NA);
results - no percent of vote by party since all are independents;
seats - (60 total, 33 elected), all independents

Judicial branch: Royal Court

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

Member of: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (British crown dependency)

US diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

Flag: white with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of
England) extending to the edges of the flag

@Guernsey:Economy

Overview: Financial services account for more than 50% of total
income. Tourism, manufacturing, and horticulture, mainly tomatoes and
cut flowers, have been declining. Bank profits (1992) registered a
record 26% growth. Fund management and insurance are the two other
major income generators. Per capita output and living standards are
somewhat lower than the levels of the less affluent EU countries.

National product: GDP $NA

National product real growth rate: 9% (1987)

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $208.9 million
expenditures: $173.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1988)

Exports: $NA
commodities: tomatoes, flowers and ferns, sweet peppers, eggplant,
other vegetables
partners: UK (regarded as internal trade)

Imports: $NA
commodities: coal, gasoline, and oil
partners: UK (regarded as internal trade)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 173,000 kW
production: 525 million kWh
consumption per capita: 9,060 kWh (1992)

Industries: tourism, banking

Agriculture: tomatoes, flowers (mostly grown in greenhouses), sweet
peppers, eggplant, other vegetables, fruit; Guernsey cattle

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Guernsey (#G) pound = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Guernsey pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.6350 (January 1995),
0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603
(1990); note - the Guernsey pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Guernsey:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Saint Peter Port, Saint Sampson

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Guernsey:Communications

Telephone system: 41,900 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 submarine cable

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Guernsey:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

GUINEA

@Guinea:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 245,860 sq km
land area: 245,860 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: total 3,399 km, Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Cote d'Ivoire
610 km, Liberia 563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652
km

Coastline: 320 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to
November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with
northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain: generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior

Natural resources: bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium,
hydropower, fish

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 12%
forest and woodland: 42%
other: 40%

Irrigated land: 240 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; inadequate supplies of potable water;
desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing
natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility
during dry season
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Desertification

@Guinea:People

Population: 6,549,336 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (female 1,450,501; male 1,448,164)
15-64 years: 53% (female 1,784,420; male 1,691,502)
65 years and over: 3% (female 102,735; male 72,014) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.43% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 43.43 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 19.13 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: Guinea has received about 400,000 refugees from the civil wars
in Liberia and Sierra Leone; the continued fighting in Sierra Leone
will likely drive more refugees into Guinea in 1995; on the other
hand, peace may be achieved in Liberia and permit Liberian refugees to
return home

Infant mortality rate: 136.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 44.6 years
male: 42.31 years
female: 46.95 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.79 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean

Ethnic divisions: Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller tribes
10%

Religions: Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%

Languages: French (official); each tribe has its own language

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 24%
male: 35%
female: 13%

Labor force: 2.4 million (1983)
by occupation: agriculture 80.0%, industry and commerce 11.0%,
services 5.4%, civil servants 3.6%

@Guinea:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea

Digraph: GV

Type: republic

Capital: Conakry

Administrative divisions: 33 administrative regions (regions
administratives, singular - region administrative); Beyla, Boffa,
Boke, Conakry, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye, Faranah, Forecariah,
Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane, Kindia, Kissidougou,
Koubia, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe, Lelouma, Lola, Macenta, Mali,
Mamou, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue, Yomou

Independence: 2 October 1958 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Second Republic, 3 April (1984)

Constitution: 23 December 1990 (Loi Fundamentale)

Legal system: based on French civil law system, customary law, and
decree; legal codes currently being revised; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Lansana CONTE,
elected in the first multi-party election 19 December 1993; prior to
the election he had ruled as head of military government since 5 April
1984
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
People's National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Populaire): the
People's National Assembly was dissolved after the 3 April 1984 coup;
framework established in December 1991 for a new National Assembly
with 114 seats; legislative elections, tentatively scheduled for 1994,
were not held and are now rescheduled for 11 June 1995

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel)

Political parties and leaders: political parties were legalized on 1
April 1992
pro-government: Party for Unity and Progress (PUP)
other: Rally for the Guinean People (RPG), Alpha CONDE; Union for a
New Republic (UNR), Mamadou BAH; Party for Renewal and Progress (PRP),
Siradiou DIALLO; Movement of Patriotic Democrats (MDP), Ahmed Tidiane
CISSE

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Elhadj Boubacar BARRY
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-9420
FAX: [1] (202) 483-8688

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph A. SALOOM III
embassy: 2nd Boulevard and 9th Avenue, Conakry
mailing address: B. P. 603, Conakry
telephone: [224] 44 15 20 through 44 15 23
FAX: [224] 44 15 22

Flag: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and
green; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the
flag of Rwanda, which has a large black letter R centered in the
yellow band

@Guinea-bissau:Economy

Overview: Although possessing major mineral and hydropower resources
and considerable potential for agricultural development, Guinea
remains one of the poorest countries in the world. The agricultural
sector contributes about 40% to GDP and employs 80% of the work force,
while industry accounts for 27% of GDP. Guinea possesses over 25% of
the world's bauxite reserves. The mining sector accounted for 85% of
exports in 1991. Long-run improvements in literacy, financial
institutions, and the legal framework are needed if the country is to
move out of poverty. Except in the bauxite industry, foreign
investment remains minimal.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 0.8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $980 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.6% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $449 million
expenditures: $708 million, including capital expenditures of $361
million (1990 est.)

Exports: $622 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: bauxite, alumina, diamonds, gold, coffee, pineapples,
bananas, palm kernels
partners: US 23%, Belgium 12%, Ireland 12%, Spain 12%

Imports: $768 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport
equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, and other grain
partners: France 26%, Cote d'Ivoire 12%, Hong Kong 6%, Germany 6%

External debt: 2.5 billion (1992)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 27% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 180,000 kW
production: 520 million kWh
consumption per capita: 77 kWh (1993)

Industries: mining - bauxite, gold, diamonds; alumina refining; light
manufacturing and agricultural processing industries

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP (includes fishing and forestry);
mostly subsistence farming; principal products - rice, coffee,
pineapples, palm kernels, cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, timber;
livestock - cattle, sheep and goats; not self-sufficient in food
grains

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $227 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.465 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $120 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $446 million

Currency: 1 Guinean franc (FG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Guinean francs (FG) per US$1 - 810.94 (1 July 1993),
922.9 (30 September 1992), 675 (1990), 618 (1989), 515 (1988), 440
(1987), 383 (1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Guinea:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,048 km
standard gauge: 241 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 807 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 30,100 km
paved: 1,145 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 12,955 km (of which barely 4,500 are
currently all-weather roads); unimproved earth 16,000 km (1987)

Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Ports: Boke, Conakry, Kamsar

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 15
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 7
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@Guinea:Communications

Telephone system: 15,000 telephones; poor to fair system of open-wire
lines, small radiocommunication stations, and new radio relay system
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay and radio communication stations
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: 200,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: 65,000

@Guinea:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy (acts primarily as a coast guard), Air Force,
Republican Guard, Presidential Guard, paramilitary National
Gendarmerie, National Police Force (Surete National)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,478,653; males fit for
military service 745,990 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $50 million, 1.6% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

GUINEA-BISSAU

@Guinea-bissau:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Guinea and Senegal

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 36,120 sq km
land area: 28,000 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of
Connecticut

Land boundaries: total 724 km, Guinea 386 km, Senegal 338 km

Coastline: 350 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy
season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season
(December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain: mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east

Natural resources: unexploited deposits of petroleum, bauxite,
phosphates, fish, timber

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 43%
forest and woodland: 38%
other: 7%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishing
natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility
during dry season; brush fires
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification

@Guinea-bissau:People

Population: 1,124,537 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (female 242,518; male 243,093)
15-64 years: 54% (female 320,987; male 286,308)
65 years and over: 3% (female 16,129; male 15,502) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.36% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 40.24 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 16.62 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 117.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.87 years
male: 46.21 years
female: 49.57 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.43 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Guinea-Bissauan(s)
adjective: Guinea-Bissauan

Ethnic divisions: African 99% (Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%,
Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%), European and mulatto less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 65%, Muslim 30%, Christian 5%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Criolo, African languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 36%
male: 50%
female: 24%

Labor force: 403,000 (est.)
by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry, services, and commerce 5%,
government 5%

@Guinea-bissau:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Guinea-Bissau
conventional short form: Guinea-Bissau
local long form: Republica de Guine-Bissau
local short form: Guine-Bissau
former: Portuguese Guinea

Digraph: PU

Type: republic, formerly highly centralized, multiparty since mid-1991

Capital: Bissau

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao);
Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali

Independence: 10 September 1974 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 September (1974)

Constitution: 16 May 1984, amended 4 May 1991 (currently undergoing
revision to liberalize popular participation in the government)

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 15 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau Joao
Bernardo VIEIRA (assumed power 14 November 1980); election last held
August 1994 (next to be held 1999); results - Joao Bernardo VIEIRA
52%, Kumba YALLA 48%
head of government: Prime Minister Manuel SATURNINO, since 5 November
1994
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National People's Assembly: (Assembleia Nacional Popular) elections
last held 3 July and 7 August 1994 (next to be held 1999); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (100 total) PAIGC 62, RGB 19, PRS
12, Union for Change Coalition 6, FLING 1

Judicial branch: none; there is a Ministry of Justice in the Council
of Ministers

Political parties and leaders: African Party for the Independence of
Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC), President Joao Bernardo VIEIRA,
leader; Guinea-Bissau Resistance (RGB); Democratic Front (FD),
Aristides MENEZES, leader; Social Renovation Party (PRS); Union for
Change Coalition; Front for the Liberation and Independence of Guinea
(FLING); Democratic Social Front (FDS), Rafael BARBOSA, leader; Bafata
Movement, Domingos Fernandes GARNER, leader; Guinea-Bissau Resistance
(RGB); Union for Change Coalition; Front for the Liberation and
Independence of Guinea (FLING)

Member of: ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alfredo Lopes CABRAL
chancery: 918 16th Street NW, Mezzanine Suite, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 872-4222
FAX: [1] (202) 872-4226

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Roger A. McGUIRE
embassy: Bairro de Penha, Bissau
mailing address: C.P. 297, 1067 Bissau Codex, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau
telephone: [245] 252273, 252274, 252275, 252276
FAX: [245] 252282

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a
vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed
star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of
Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Cape Verde, which has the black star
raised above the center of the red band and is framed by two corn
stalks and a yellow clam shell

@Guinea:Economy

Overview: Guinea-Bissau ranks among the poorest countries in the
world. Agriculture and fishing are the main economic activities.
Cashew nuts, peanuts, and palm kernels are the primary exports.
Exploitation of known mineral deposits is unlikely at present because
of a weak infrastructure and the high cost of development. With IMF
support the country is committed to an economic reform program
emphasizing monetary stability and private sector growth. This process
will continue at a slow pace because of a heavy foreign debt burden
and internal constraints.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $900 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.9% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $840 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 55% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $33.6 million
expenditures: $44.8 million, including capital expenditures of
$570,000 (1991 est.)

Exports: $19 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: cashews, fish, peanuts, palm kernels
partners: Portugal, Spain, Senegal, India, Nigeria

Imports: $56 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: foodstuffs, transport equipment, petroleum products,
machinery and equipment
partners: Portugal, Netherlands, China, Germany, Senegal

External debt: $462 million (December 1990 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA (1991 est.); accounts for 8% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 22,000 kW
production: 40 million kWh
consumption per capita: 37 kWh (1993)

Industries: agricultural processing, beer, soft drinks

Agriculture: accounts for over 45% of GDP, nearly 100% of exports, and
90% of employment; rice is the staple food; other crops include corn,
beans, cassava, cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, and cotton; not
self-sufficient in food; fishing and forestry potential not fully
exploited

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $49 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $615 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $41 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $68 million

Currency: 1 Guinea-Bissauan peso (PG) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Guinea-Bissauan pesos (PG) per US$1 - 14,482 (December
1994), 12,892 (1994), 10,082 (1993), 6,934 (1992), 3,659 (1991), 2,185
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Guinea-bissau:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 3,218 km
paved: bituminous 2,698 km
unpaved: earth 520 km

Inland waterways: scattered stretches are important to coastal
commerce

Ports: Bissau

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 32
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 22
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6

@Guinea-bissau:Communications

Telephone system: 3,000 telephones; poor system; telephone density -
2.7 telephones/1,000 persons
local: NA
intercity: combination of microwave radio relay, open wire lines and
radiocommunications
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Guinea-bissau:Defense Forces

Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP; includes Army,
Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 251,636; males fit for military
service 143,694 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $9 million, 4.5% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

GUYANA

@Guyana:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between Suriname and Venezuela

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 214,970 sq km
land area: 196,850 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Idaho

Land boundaries: total 2,462 km, Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km,
Venezuela 743 km

Coastline: 459 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental
margin
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: all of the area west of the Essequibo River
claimed by Venezuela; Suriname claims area between New (Upper
Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all headwaters of the
Courantyne)

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two
rainy seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)

Terrain: mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp,
fish

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 6%
forest and woodland: 83%
other: 8%

Irrigated land: 1,300 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: water pollution from sewage and agricultural and
industrial chemicals; deforestation
natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat during rainy
seasons
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
Timber 83

@Guyana:People

Population: 723,774 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (female 118,515; male 123,048)
15-64 years: 62% (female 224,484; male 225,543)
65 years and over: 5% (female 17,540; male 14,644) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.81% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 19.41 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.34 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -20.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 47.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.1 years
male: 61.86 years
female: 68.5 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.23 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Guyanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Guyanese

Ethnic divisions: East Indian 51%, black and mixed 43%, Amerindian 4%,
European and Chinese 2%

Religions: Christian 57%, Hindu 33%, Muslim 9%, other 1%

Languages: English, Amerindian dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1990 est.)
total population: 96%
male: 98%
female: 95%

Labor force: 268,000
by occupation: industry and commerce 44.5%, agriculture 33.8%,
services 21.7%
note: public-sector employment amounts to 60%-80% of the total labor
force (1985)

@Guyana:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Co-operative Republic of Guyana
conventional short form: Guyana
former: British Guiana

Digraph: GY

Type: republic

Capital: Georgetown

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni,
Demerara-Mahaica, East Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West
Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice, Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper
Demerara-Berbice, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo

Independence: 26 May 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Republic Day, 23 February (1970)

Constitution: 6 October 1980

Legal system: based on English common law with certain admixtures of
Roman-Dutch law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Executive President Cheddi JAGAN (since 5 October
1992); election last held 5 October 1992; results - Cheddi JAGAN was
elected president since he was leader of the party with the most votes
in the National Assembly elections
head of government: Prime Minister Sam HINDS (since 5 October 1992)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers; appointed by the president, responsible
to the legislature

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly: elections last held on 5 October 1992 (next to be
held in 1997); results - PPP 53.4%, PNC 42.3%, WPA 2%, TUF 1.2%; seats
- (65 total, 53 elected) PPP 36, PNC 26, WPA 2, TUF 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature

Political parties and leaders: People's Progressive Party (PPP),
Cheddi JAGAN; People's National Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond HOYTE;
Good and Green Georgetown (GGG), Hamilton GREEN; Working People's
Alliance (WPA), Eusi KWAYANA, Rupert ROOPNARINE; Democratic Labor
Movement (DLM), Paul TENNASSEE; People's Democratic Movement (PDM),
Llewellyn JOHN; National Democratic Front (NDF), Joseph BACCHUS; The
United Force (TUF), Manzoor NADIR; United Republican Party (URP),
Leslie RAMSAMMY; National Republican Party (NRP), Robert GANGADEEN;
Guyana Labor Party (GLP), Nanda GOPAUL

Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress (TUC);
Guyana Council of Indian Organizations (GCIO); Civil Liberties Action
Committee (CLAC)
note: the latter two organizations are small and active but not well
organized

Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS,
ONUSAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Ali Odeen ISHMAEL
chancery: 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-6900, 6901
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador George F. JONES
embassy: 99-100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingston, Georgetown
mailing address: P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown
telephone: [592] (2) 54900 through 54909, 57960 through 57969
FAX: [592] (2) 58497

Flag: green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
superimposed on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow black
border between the red and yellow, and a narrow white border between
the yellow and the green

@Guyana:Economy

Overview: Guyana, one of the poorest countries in the Western
Hemisphere, has pushed ahead strongly in 1992-94, with an 8% average
annual economic growth rate, led by gold mining, and rice, sugar, and
forestry products for export. Favorable factors include recovery in
the key agricultural and mining sectors, a more favorable atmosphere
for business initiative, a more realistic exchange rate, a sharp drop
in the inflation rate, and the continued support of international
organizations. Serious underlying economic problems will continue.
Electric power has been in short supply and constitutes a major
barrier to future gains in national output. The government will have
to persist in efforts to manage its large $2.2 billion external debt,
control inflation, and to extend the privatization program.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 8.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,950 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.5% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $23.7 million
expenditures: $19.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Exports: $475 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: sugar, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses
partners: UK 33%, US 31%, Canada 9%, France 5%, Japan 3% (1992)

Imports: $456 million (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food
partners: US 37%, Trinidad and Tobago 13%, UK 11%, Italy 8%, Japan 5%
(1992)

External debt: $2.2 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.6% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 110,000 kW
production: 230 million kWh
consumption per capita: 286 kWh (1993)

Industries: bauxite mining, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing
(shrimp), textiles, gold mining

Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for 25% of GDP and
about half of exports; sugar and rice are key crops; development
potential exists for fishing and forestry; not self-sufficient in
food, especially wheat, vegetable oils, and animal products

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics from South America -
primarily Venezuela - to the US and Europe; producer of cannabis

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $116 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $325 million; Communist countries 1970-89, $242 million

Currency: 1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1 - 142.7 (January 1995),
138.3 (1994), 126.7 (1993), 125.0 (1992), 111.8 (1991), 39.533 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Guyana:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 100 km NA-m gauge industrial lines for the transport of
minerals, including bauxite

Highways:
total: 7,665 km
paved: 550 km
unpaved: gravel 5,000 km; earth 2,115 km

Inland waterways: 6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice,
Demerara, and Essequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for
150 km, 100 km, and 80 km, respectively

Ports: Bartica, Georgetown, Linden, New Amsterdam, Parika

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,317 GRT/2,558 DWT

Airports:
total: 54
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 34
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 14

@Guyana:Communications

Telephone system: over 27,000 telephones; fair system for long
distance calling
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay network for trunk lines
international: tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad; 1 INTELSAT
(Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 3, shortwave 1
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Guyana:Defense Forces

Branches: Guyana Defense Force (GDF; includes Ground Forces, Coast
Guard, and Air Corps), Guyana People's Militia (GPM), Guyana National
Service (GNS)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 198,665; males fit for military
service 150,573 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

HAITI

@Haiti:Geography

Location: Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola,
between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the
Dominican Republic

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 27,750 sq km
land area: 27,560 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 275 km, Dominican Republic 275 km

Coastline: 1,771 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims US-administered Navassa Island

Climate: tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade
winds

Terrain: mostly rough and mountainous

Natural resources: bauxite

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 13%
meadows and pastures: 18%
forest and woodland: 4%
other: 45%

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: extensive deforestation (much of the remaining
forested land is being cleared for agriculture and use as fuel); soil
erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
natural hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject
to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and
earthquakes; periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Note: shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western
one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

@Haiti:People

Population: 6,539,983 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (female 1,490,939; male 1,535,607)
15-64 years: 50% (female 1,692,032; male 1,557,568)
65 years and over: 4% (female 133,291; male 130,546) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.5% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 38.64 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.65 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 107.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 44.77 years
male: 43.04 years
female: 46.59 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Haitian(s)
adjective: Haitian

Ethnic divisions: black 95%, mulatto and European 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 80% (of which an overwhelming majority also
practice Voodoo), Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%,
Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)

Languages: French (official) 10%, Creole

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 35%
male: 37%
female: 32%

Labor force: 2.3 million
by occupation: agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%
note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)

@Haiti:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
conventional short form: Haiti
local long form: Republique d'Haiti
local short form: Haiti

Digraph: HA

Type: republic

Capital: Port-au-Prince

Administrative divisions: 9 departments, (departements, singular -
departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est,
Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Independence: 1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Constitution: approved March 1987, suspended June 1988, most articles
reinstated March 1989; October 1991, government claims to be observing
the Constitution

Legal system: based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE (since 7 February
1991), ousted in a coup in September 1991 but, with US military
support, returned to power on 15 October 1994; election last held 16
December 1990 (next to be held by December 1995); results - Rev.
Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 67.5%, Marc BAZIN 14.2%, Louis DEJOIE 4.9%
head of government: Prime Minister Smarck MICHEL (since October 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; chosen by prime minister in consultation with the
president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Senate: elections last held 18 January 1993, widely condemned as
illegitimate (next to be held 25 June 1994); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (27 total) FNCD 12, MIDH-PANPRA 8, PAIN 2, MRN 1,
RDNP 1, PNT 1, independent 2
Chamber of Deputies: elections last held 16 December 1990, with runoff
held 20 January 1991 (next to be held 25 June 1995); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (83 total) FNCD 27, MIDH-PANPRA 17, PDCH
7, PAIN 6, RDNP 6, MDN 5, PNT 3, MKN 2, MODELH 2, MRN 1, independents
5, other 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)

Political parties and leaders: National Front for Change and Democracy
(FNCD), Evans PAUL, including National Cooperative Action Movement
(MKN), Volvick Remy JOSEPH; National Congress of Democratic Movements
(CONACOM), Victor BENOIT; Movement for the Installation of Democracy
in Haiti (MIDH), Marc BAZIN; National Progressive Revolutionary Party
(PANPRA), Serge GILLES; National Patriotic Movement of November 28
(MNP-28), Dejean BELIZAIRE; National Agricultural and Industrial Party
(PAIN), Louis DEJOIE; Movement for National Reconstruction (MRN), Rene
THEODORE; Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Joseph DOUZE;
Assembly of Progressive National Democrats (RDNP), Leslie MANIGAT;
National Party of Labor (PNT), Thomas DESULME; Mobilization for
National Development (MDN), Hubert DE RONCERAY; Democratic Movement
for the Liberation of Haiti (MODELH), Francois LATORTUE; Haitian
Social Christian Party (PSCH), Gregoire EUGENE; Movement for the
Organization of the Country (MOP), Gesner COMEAU and Jean MOLIERE;
Democratic Unity Confederation (KID), Evans PAUL; National Lavalas
Political Organization (OPL), Gerard PIERRE/CHARLES

Other political or pressure groups: Roman Catholic Church;
Confederation of Haitian Workers (CTH); Federation of Workers Trade
Unions (FOS); Autonomous Haitian Workers (CATH); National Popular
Assembly (APN); Revolutionary Front for Haitian Advancement and
Progress (FRAPH)

Member of: ACCT, ACP, CARICOM (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jean CASIMIR
chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090 through 4092
FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador William Lacy SWING
embassy: Harry Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince
mailing address: P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince
telephone: [509] 22-0354, 22-0368, 22-0200, 22-0612
FAX: [509] 23-1641

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered
white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree
flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto
L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)

@Haiti:Economy

Overview: About 75% of the population live in abject poverty.
Agriculture is mainly small-scale subsistence farming and employs
two-thirds of the work force. The majority of the population does not
have ready access to safe drinking water, adequate medical care, or
sufficient food. The lack of employment opportunities remains one of
the most critical problems facing the economy, along with soil erosion
and political instability. International trade sanctions in response
to the September 1991 coup against President ARISTIDE further damaged
the economy. The restoration of President ARISTIDE, the lifting of
sanctions in late 1994, and foreign aid will alleviate some economic
problems. Haiti will continue to depend heavily on foreign aid.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $5.6 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -15% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $870 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 52% (FY93/94 est.)

Unemployment rate: 50% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $56 million
expenditures: $131 million, including capital expenditures of $6
million (1994 est.)

Exports: $173.3 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: light manufactures 65%, coffee 19%, other agriculture 8%,
other 8%
partners: US 81%, Europe 12% (1993)

Imports: $476.8 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%,
petroleum products 14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%
partners: US 51%, Europe 16%, Latin America 18% (1993)

External debt: $871 million (September 1994)

Industrial production: growth rate -2% (1991 est.); accounts for 15%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 150,000 kW
production: 590 million kWh
consumption per capita: 86 kWh (1993)

Industries: sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement
manufacturing, tourism, light assembly industries based on imported
parts

Agriculture: accounts for 28% of GDP and employs two-thirds of work
force; mostly small-scale subsistence farms; commercial crops -
coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, wood; staple crops - rice, corn, sorghum;
shortage of wheat flour

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana en route
to the US and Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $700 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $770 million

Currency: 1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: gourdes (G) per US$1 - 14.10 (1 December 1994), 12.00
(1 July 1993), 8.4 (December 1991), fixed rate of 5.000 through second
quarter of 1991

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Haiti:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 40 km (single track; privately owned industrial line)
narrow gauge: 40 km 0.760-m gauge

Highways:
total: 4,000 km
paved: 950 km
unpaved: otherwise improved 900 km; unimproved earth 2,150 km

Inland waterways: negligible; less than 100 km navigable

Ports: Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Jeremie, Cayes, Miragoane,
Port-au-Prince, Port-de-Paix, Saint-Marc

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 14
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 6
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5

@Haiti:Communications

Telephone system: 36,000 telephones; domestic facilities barely
adequate, international facilities slightly better
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 33, FM 0, shortwave 2
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 4
televisions: NA

@Haiti:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police
note: the regular Haitian Army, Navy and Air Force are currently
suspended and replaced by the Interim Public Security Force (IPSF)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,323,034; males fit for
military service 716,233; males reach military age (18) annually
64,371 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 1.5% of
GDP (1988 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

HEARD ISLAND AND MCDONALD ISLANDS

(territory of Australia)

@Heard Island And Mcdonald Islands:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Madagascar to Antarctica

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total area: 412 sq km
land area: 412 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 101.9 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: Heard Island - bleak and mountainous, with a quiescent
volcano; McDonald Islands - small and rocky

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: Heard Island is dominated by a dormant volcano called
Big Ben
international agreements: NA

Note: primarily used for research stations

@Heard Island And Mcdonald Islands:People

Population: uninhabited

@Heard Island And Mcdonald Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands

conventional short form: Heard Island and McDonald Islands

Digraph: HM

Type: territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for
Environment, Sport, and Territories

Capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

@Heard Island And Mcdonald Islands:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Heard Island And Mcdonald Islands:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

@Heard Island And Mcdonald Islands:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

________________________________________________________________________

HOLY SEE (VATICAN CITY)

@Holy See (vatican City):Geography

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome (Italy)

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 0.44 sq km
land area: 0.44 sq km
comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: total 3.2 km, Italy 3.2 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with
hot, dry summers (May to September)

Terrain: low hill

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution,
Environmental Modification

Note: urban; landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest
state; outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel
Gandolfo (the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

@Holy See (vatican City):People

Population: 830 (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.15% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: NA

Death rate: NA

Net migration rate: NA

Infant mortality rate: NA

Life expectancy at birth: NA

Total fertility rate: NA

Nationality:
noun: none
adjective: none

Ethnic divisions: Italians, Swiss

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian, Latin, various other languages

Labor force: NA
by occupation: dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay
workers who live outside the Vatican

@Holy See (vatican City):Government

Names:
conventional long form: The Holy See (State of the Vatican City)
conventional short form: Holy See (Vatican City)
local long form: Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano)
local short form: Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano)

Digraph: VT

Type: monarchical-sacerdotal state

Capital: Vatican City

Independence: 11 February 1929 (from Italy)

National holiday: Installation Day of the Pope, 22 October (1978)
(John Paul II)
note: Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978

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