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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 98%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited
islets; strategically located along important sea lanes in
northeastern Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small
coastal lowlands

@Faroe Islands:People

Population: 48,871 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (female 5,673; male 6,119)
15-64 years: 63% (female 14,164; male 16,835)
65 years and over: 13% (female 3,335; male 2,745) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.99% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 17.54 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.59 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.29 years
male: 74.91 years
female: 81.8 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.42 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Faroese (singular and plural)
adjective: Faroese

Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 17,585
by occupation: largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing,
transportation, and commerce

@Faroe Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Faroe Islands
local long form: none
local short form: Foroyar

Digraph: FO

Type: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
division of Denmark

Capital: Torshavn

Administrative divisions: none (self-governing overseas administrative
division of Denmark)

Independence: none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

Legal system: Danish

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972),
represented by High Commissioner Bent KLINTE (since NA)
head of government: Prime Minister Edmund JOENSEN (since 15 September
1994)
cabinet: Landsstyri; elected by the local legislature

Legislative branch: unicameral
Faroese Parliament (Logting): elections last held 8 July 1994 (next to
be held by July 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(32 total) Liberal Party 8, People's Party 6, Social Democrats 5,
Republicans 4, Workers' Party 3, Christian Democrats 2, Center Party
2, Home Rule Party 2
Danish Parliament: elections last held on 21 September 1994 (next to
be held by September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (2 total) Liberals 2

Judicial branch: none

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party, Marita
PETERSEN; Workers Front, Oli JACOBSEN; Home Rule Party, Helena Dam A
NEYSTABOE; The 'Coalition Party', Edmund JOENSEN; Republican Party,
Finnbogir ESAKSON; Centrist Party, Tordur NICLASEN; Christian People's
Party, Niels Pauli DANIELSEN; People's Party, Arnfinn KALLSBERG;
Liberal Party; Christian Democratic Party

Member of: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

Flag: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the
edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the
hoist side in the style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

@Faroe Islands:Economy

Overview: The Faroese, who have long enjoyed the affluent living
standards of the Danes and other Scandinavians, now must cope with the
decline of the all-important fishing industry and one of the world's
heaviest per capita external debts of about $25,000. When the nations
of the world extended their fishing zones to 200 nautical miles in the
early 1970s, the Faroese no longer could continue their traditional
long-distance fishing and subsequently depleted their own nearby
fishing areas. The government's tight controls on fish stocks and its
austerity measures have caused a recession, and subsidy cuts will
force nationalization in the fishing industry, which has already been
plagued with bankruptcies. Copenhagen has threatened to withhold its
annual subsidy of $130 million - roughly one-third of the islands'
budget revenues - unless the Faroese make significant efforts to
balance their budget. To this extent the Faroe government is expected
to continue its tough policies, including introducing a 20%
value-added tax (VAT) in 1993, and has agreed to an IMF
economic-political stabilization plan. In addition to its annual
subsidy, the Danish government has bailed out the second largest Faroe
bank to the tune of $140 million since October 1992.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $662 million (1989
est.)

National product real growth rate: -10.8% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $14,000 (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.8% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 23% (1993)

Budget:
revenues: $407.2 million
expenditures: $482.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993 est.)

Exports: $345.3 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs, transport
equipment (ships) (1989)
partners: Denmark 20%, Germany 18.3%, UK 14.2%, France 11.2%, Spain
7.9%, US 4.5%

Imports: $234.4 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 24.4%, manufactures
24%, food and livestock 19%, fuels 12%, chemicals 6.5%
partners: Denmark 43.8%, Norway 19.8%, Sweden 4.9%, Germany 4.2%, US
1.3%

External debt: $1.2 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 90,000 kW
production: 200 million kWh
consumption per capita: 3,953 kWh (1992)

Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts

Agriculture: accounts for 27% of GDP; principal crops - potatoes and
vegetables; livestock - sheep; annual fish catch about 360,000 metric
tons

Economic aid:
recipient: receives an annual subsidy from Denmark of about $130
million

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.034 (January 1995),
6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Faroe Islands:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 200 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Klaksvick, Torshavn, Tvoroyri

Merchant marine:
total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,879 GRT/18,444 DWT
ships by type: cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger
1

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Faroe Islands:Communications

Telephone system: 27,900 telephones; good international
communications; fair domestic facilities
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 3 coaxial submarine cables

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3 repeaters 10, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 3 (repeaters 29)
televisions: NA

@Faroe Islands:Defense Forces

Branches: no organized native military forces; only a small Police
Force and Coast Guard are maintained

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark

________________________________________________________________________

FIJI

@Fiji:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 18,270 sq km
land area: 18,270 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,129 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation;
rectilinear shelf claim added
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 5%
meadows and pastures: 3%
forest and woodland: 65%
other: 19%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion
natural hazards: cyclonic storms can occur from November to January
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law
of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Tropical Timber 94

Note: includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited

@Fiji:People

Population: 772,891 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (female 136,570; male 142,581)
15-64 years: 61% (female 235,491; male 235,411)
65 years and over: 3% (female 11,943; male 10,895) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 23.69 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.42 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.42 years
male: 63.13 years
female: 67.82 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.87 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Fijian(s)
adjective: Fijian

Ethnic divisions: Fijian 49%, Indian 46%, European, other Pacific
Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5%

Religions: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu
38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%
note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a
Muslim minority (1986)

Languages: English (official), Fijian, Hindustani

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population: 87%
male: 90%
female: 84%

Labor force: 235,000
by occupation: subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary
earners 15% (1987)

@Fiji:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Fiji
conventional short form: Fiji

Digraph: FJ

Type: republic
note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared
Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

Capital: Suva

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new
Constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25
July 1990; the 1990 Constitution is under review; the review is
scheduled to be complete by 1997

Legal system: based on British system

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 12 January
1994); First Vice President Ratu Sir Josaia TAIVAIQIA (since 12
January 1994); Second Vice President Ratu Inoke TAKIVEIKATA (since 12
January 1994); note - President GANILAU died on 15 December 1993 and
Vice President MARA became acting president; MARA was elected
president by the Great Council of Chiefs on 12 January 1994
head of government: Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June 1992)

Presidential Council: appointed by the governor general
Great Council of Chiefs: highest ranking members of the traditional
chiefly system
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by prime minister from members of
Parliament and responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch: the bicameral Parliament was dissolved following
the coup of 14 May 1987
Senate: nonelective body containing 34 seats, 24 reserved for ethnic
Fijians, 9 for Indians and others, 1 for the island of Rotuma;
appointed by President
House of Representatives: elections last held 18-25 February 1994
(next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (70 total, with ethnic Fijians allocated 37 seats, ethnic
Indians 27 seats, and independents and other 6 seats) number of seats
by party SVT 31, NFP 20, FLP 7, FA 5, GVP 4, independents 2, ANC 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Fijian Political Party (SVT - primarily
Fijian), leader Maj. Gen. Sitivini RABUKA; National Federation Party
(NFP; primarily Indian), Jai Ram REDDY; Fijian Nationalist Party
(FNP), Sakeasi BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor Party (FLP), Mahendra CHAUDHRY;
General Voters Party (GVP), Bill SORBY; Fiji Conservative Party (FCP),
Isireli VUIBAU; Conservative Party of Fiji (CPF), Jolale ULUDOLE and
Viliame SAVU; Fiji Indian Liberal Party, Swami MAHARAJ; Fiji Indian
Congress Party, Ishwari BAJPAI; Fiji Independent Labor (Muslim),
leader NA; Four Corners Party, David TULVANUAVOU; Fijian Association
(FA), leader NA; General Electors' Association, leader NA
note: in early 1995, ethnic Fijian members of the All National
Congress (ANC) merged with the Fijian Association (FA); the new FA is
scheduled to hold its first meeting in April 1995 at which time the
leaders of the party will be chosen; it is likely that Josevata
KAMIKAMICA, the leader of the FA before the merger, will be elected
leader and Adi Kuini Bavadra SPEED, the leader of the ANC before the
merger, will be elected deputy leader; the remaining members of the
ANC have renamed their party the General Electors' Association

Member of: ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pita Kewa NACUVA
chancery: Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 337-8320
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1996
consulate(s): New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael W. MARINE
embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva
mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
telephone: [679] 314466
FAX: [679] 300081

Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag;
the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the
cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree,
bananas, and a white dove

@Fiji:Economy

Overview: Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large
subsistence sector. Sugar exports and tourism are the major sources of
foreign exchange. Industry contributes 13% to GDP, with sugar
processing accounting for one-third of industrial activity. Roughly
250,000 tourists visit each year. Political uncertainty and drought,
however, contribute to substantial fluctuations in earnings from
tourism and sugar and to the emigration of skilled workers. In 1992,
growth was approximately 3%, based on growth in tourism and a
lessening of labor-management disputes in the sugar and gold-mining
sectors. In 1993, the government's budgeted growth rate of 3% was not
achieved because of a decline in non-sugar agricultural output and
damage from Cyclone Kina. Growth in 1994 is estimated to be 5%,
largely attributed to increased tourism and expansion in domestic
production, particularly in the manufacturing sector.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $5,650 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 5.4% (1992)

Budget:
revenues: $485 million
expenditures: $579 million, including capital expenditures of $58
million (1994)

Exports: $405 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: sugar 40%, clothing, gold, processed fish, lumber
partners: EC 26%, Australia 15%, Pacific Islands 11%, Japan 6%

Imports: $634 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products,
food, consumer goods, chemicals
partners: Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%

External debt: $670 million (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1993 est.); accounts for 13% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 200,000 kW
production: 480 million kWh
consumption per capita: 581 kWh (1993)

Industries: sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing, lumber,
small cottage industries

Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP; principal cash crop is
sugarcane; coconuts, cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; small
livestock sector includes cattle, pigs, horses, and goats; fish catch
nearly 33,000 tons (1989)

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1980-89), $815 million

Currency: 1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.4140 (January 1995),
1.4641 (1994), 1.5418 (1993), 1.5030 (1992), 1.4756 (1991), 1.4809
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Fiji:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 644 km; note - belongs to the government owned Fiji Sugar
Corporation
narrow gauge: 644 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways:
total: 3,300 km
paved: 1,590 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 1,290 km; unimproved
earth 420 km (1984)

Inland waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
200-metric-ton barges

Ports: Labasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Savusavu, Suva

Merchant marine:
total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,267 GRT/17,884 DWT
ships by type: chemical tanker 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo
2

Airports:
total: 23
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 16
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@Fiji:Communications

Telephone system: 53,228 telephones; 71 telephones/1,000 persons;
modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated)
public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter
facilities; regional radio center
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: important COMPAC cable link between US-Canada and
NZ-Australia; 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Fiji:Defense Forces

Branches: Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; includes army, navy,
and air elements)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 201,441; males fit for military
service 111,046; males reach military age (18) annually 8,466 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $22.4 million, about
2% of GDP (FY91/92)

________________________________________________________________________

FINLAND

@Finland:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 337,030 sq km
land area: 305,470 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries: total 2,628 km, Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia
1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 6 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 4 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild
because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic
Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes
and low hills

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 76%
other: 16%

Irrigated land: 620 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants
contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes,
agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur
94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national
capital on European continent; population concentrated on small
southwestern coastal plain

@Finland:People

Population: 5,085,206 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 469,666; male 491,484)
15-64 years: 67% (female 1,683,371; male 1,716,307)
65 years and over: 14% (female 457,061; male 267,317) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.3% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.22 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.77 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.22 years
male: 72.51 years
female: 80.11 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish

Ethnic divisions: Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other
1%

Languages: Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small
Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 100%

Labor force: 2.533 million
by occupation: public services 30.4%, industry 20.9%, commerce 15.0%,
finance, insurance, and business services 10.2%, agriculture and
forestry 8.6%, transport and communications 7.7%, construction 7.2%

@Finland:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen Tasavalta
local short form: Suomi

Digraph: FI

Type: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani);
Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu,
Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may
request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994);
election last held 31 January-6 February 1994 (next to be held January
2000); results - Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46%
head of government: Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April
1995); Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995)
cabinet: Council of State (Valtioneuvosto); appointed by the
president, responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament (Eduskunta): elections last held 19 March 1995 (next to be
held March 1999); results - Social Democratic Party 28.3%, Center
Party 19.9%, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 17.9%, Leftist
Alliance (Communist) 11.2%, Swedish People's Party 5.1%, Green League
6.5%, Ecology Party 0.3%, Rural 1.3%, Finnish Christian League 3.0%,
Liberal People's Party 0.6%, Young Finns 2.8%; seats - (200 total)
Social Democratic Party 63, Center Party 44, National Coalition
(Conservative) Party 39, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 22, Swedish
People's Party 11, Green League 9, Ecology Party 1, Rural 1, Finnish
Christian League 7, Young Finns 2, Aaland Islands 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)

Political parties and leaders:
government coalition: Social Democratic Party, Paavo LIPPONEN;
National Coalition (conservative) Party, Sauli NIINISTO; Leftist
Alliance (Communist) People's Democratic League and Democratic
Alternative, Claes ANDERSON; Swedish People's Party, (Johan) Ole
NORRBACK; Green League, Pekka HAAVISTO
other: Center Party, Esko AHO; Finnish Christian League, Toimi
KANKAANNIEMI; Rural Party, Tina MAKELA; Liberal People's Party,
Tuulikki UKKOLA; Greens Ecological Party (EPV); Young Finns

Other political or pressure groups: Finnish Communist Party-Unity,
Yrjo HAKANEN; Constitutional Rightist Party; Finnish Pensioners Party;
Communist Workers Party, Timo LAHDENMAKI

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC,
CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), EU, FAO, G- 9, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC
(observer), NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD,
OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Derek N. SHEARER
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (0) 171931
FAX: [358] (0) 174681

Flag: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag;
the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

@Finland:Economy

Overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market
economy, with per capita output two-thirds of the US figure. Its key
economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, and
engineering industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods
representing about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals,
Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some
components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate,
agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in
basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a
secondary occupation for the rural population. The economy, which
experienced an average of 4.9% annual growth between 1987 and 1989,
sank into deep recession in 1991 as GDP contracted by 6.5%. The
recession - which continued in 1992 with GDP contracting by 4.1% - has
been caused by economic overheating, depressed foreign markets, and
the dismantling of the barter system between Finland and the former
Soviet Union under which Soviet oil and gas had been exchanged for
Finnish manufactured goods. The Finnish Government has proposed
efforts to increase industrial competitiveness and efficiency by an
increase in exports to Western markets, cuts in public expenditures,
partial privatization of state enterprises, and changes in monetary
policy. In June 1991 Helsinki had tied the markka to the European
Union's (EU) European Currency Unit (ECU) to promote stability.
Ongoing speculation resulting from a lack of confidence in the
government's policies forced Helsinki to devalue the markka by about
12% in November 1991 and to indefinitely break the link in September
1992. The devaluations have boosted the competitiveness of Finnish
exports. The recession bottomed out in 1993, and Finland participated
in the general European upturn of 1994. Unemployment probably will
remain a serious problem during the next few years; the majority of
Finnish firms face a weak domestic market and the troubled German and
Swedish export markets. The Finns voted in an October 1994 referendum
to enter the EU, and Finland officially joined the Union on 1 January
1995. Increasing integration with Western Europe will dominate the
economic picture over the next few years.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $81.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $16,140 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 22% (1993)

Budget:
revenues: $21.7 billion
expenditures: $31.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993 est.)

Exports: $23.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: paper and pulp, machinery, chemicals, metals, timber
partners: EC 53.2% (Germany 15.6%, UK 10.7%), EFTA 19.5% (Sweden
12.8%), US 5.9%, Japan 1.3%, Russia 2.8% (1992)

Imports: $18 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals,
transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and
fabrics, fodder grains
partners: EC 47.2% (Germany 16.9%, UK 8.7%), EFTA 19.0% (Sweden
11.7%), US 6.1%, Japan 5.5%, Russia 7.1% (1992)

External debt: $30 billion (December 1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1993 est.); accounts for 28% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 13,360,000 kW
production: 58 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 12,196 kWh (1993)

Industries: metal products, shipbuilding, forestry and wood processing
(pulp, paper), copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles,
clothing

Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GDP (including forestry); livestock
production, especially dairy cattle, predominates; main crops -
cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of
foodgrains and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric
tons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Latin American cocaine for the
West European market

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.7 billion

Currency: 1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia

Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 4.7358 (January 1995), 5.2235
(1994), 5.7123 (1993), 4.4794 (1992), 4.0440 (1991), 3.8235 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Finland:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 5,864 km
broad gauge: 5,864 km 1.524-m gauge (1,710 km electrified; 480 km
multiple track)

Highways:
total: 76,755 km
paved: bituminous concrete, bituminous treated soil 47,588 km (318 km
of expressways)
unpaved: gravel 29,167 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km
suitable for steamers

Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

Ports: Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu, Pori, Rauma,
Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus

Merchant marine:
total: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,050,270 GRT/1,080,150
DWT
ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 20, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas
tanker 3, oil tanker 12, passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 31, short-sea passenger 10, vehicle carrier 1

Airports:
total: 159
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 21
with paved runways under 914 m: 94
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5

@Finland:Communications

Telephone system: 3,140,000 telephones; good service from cable and
microwave radio relay network
local: NA
intercity: cable and microwave radio relay
international: 1 submarine cable; INTELSAT satellite transmission
service via Swedish earth station and a receive-only INTELSAT earth
station near Helsinki for TV programs

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 105, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 235
televisions: NA

@Finland:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (includes Sea Guard)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,318,231; males fit for
military service 1,083,749; males reach military age (17) annually
33,085 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.86 billion, about
1.9% of GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

FRANCE

@France:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English
Channel, between Belgium and Spain southeast of the UK; bordering the
Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 547,030 sq km
land area: 545,630 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Colorado
note: includes Corsica and the rest of metropolitan France, but
excludes the overseas administrative divisions

Land boundaries: total 2,892.4 km, Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km,
Germany 451 km, Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain
623 km, Switzerland 573 km

Coastline: 3,427 km (mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa
Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island;
Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles
claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part of French Guiana; Mexico
claims Clipperton Island; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie
Land); Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute
between Canada and France

Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and
hot summers along the Mediterranean

Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west;
remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash

Land use:
arable land: 32%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 23%
forest and woodland: 27%
other: 16%

Irrigated land: 11,600 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from
industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes,
agricultural runoff
natural hazards: flooding
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: largest West European nation; occasional warm tropical wind
known as mistral

@France:People

Population: 58,109,160 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 5,438,447; male 5,700,143)
15-64 years: 65% (female 18,889,771; male 19,001,536)
65 years and over: 16% (female 5,433,276; male 3,645,987) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.46% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.29 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.37 years
male: 74.5 years
female: 82.44 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French

Ethnic divisions: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North
African, Indochinese, Basque minorities

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North
African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%

Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and
languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque,
Flemish)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991 est.)
total population: 99%

Labor force: 24.17 million
by occupation: services 61.5%, industry 31.3%, agriculture 7.2% (1987)

@France:Government

Names:
conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form: France
local long form: Republique Francaise
local short form: France

Digraph: FR

Type: republic

Capital: Paris

Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular - region);
Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne,
Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie,
Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine,
Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie,
Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
note: the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate
entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe,
Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso
Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis
and Futuna
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of
president in 1962, amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht
Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
administrative but not legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);
election last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held by May 1995); results -
Second Ballot Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%
head of government: Prime Minister Edouard BALLADUR (since 29 March
1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the
suggestion of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
Senate (Senat): elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held
September 1995; nine-year term, elected by thirds every three years);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (321 total; 296
metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments and territories, and
12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 91, UDF 142, PS 66, PCF 16,
independents 2, other 4
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 21 and 28
March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (577 total) RPR 247, UDF 213, PS 67, PCF 24,
independents 26

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Alain
JUPPE, interim head; Union for French Democracy (UDF, coalition of PR,
CDS, RAD, PSD), Valery Giscard d'ESTAING; Republican Party (PR),
Gerard LONGUET; Center for Social Democrats (CDS), Francois BAYROU;
Radical (RAD), Yves GALLAND; Socialist Party (PS), Henri EMMANUELLI;
Left Radical Movement (MRG), Jean-Francois HORY; Communist Party
(PCF), Robert HUE; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN; The Greens,
Antoine WAECHTER, Jean-Louis VIDAL, Guy CAMBOT; Generation Ecology
(GE), Brice LALONDE

Other political or pressure groups: Communist-controlled labor union
(Confederation Generale du Travail - CGT) nearly 2.4 million members
(claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise
Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about 800,000 members (est.);
independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1 million members (est.);
independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres)
340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French Employers
(Conseil National du Patronat Francais - CNPF or Patronat)

Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC,
BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate),
ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO,
MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA,
SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI
chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los
Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela C. HARRIMAN
embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
mailing address: Unit 21551, Paris; APO AE 09777
telephone: [33] (1) 42 96 12 02, 42 61 80 75
FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general: Bordeaux, Marseille, Strasbourg

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red;
known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors are
similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad,
Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all
French dependent areas

@France:Economy

Overview: One of the world's most highly developed economies, France
has substantial agricultural resources and a diversified modern
industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of
modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading
agricultural producer in Western Europe. Largely self-sufficient in
agricultural products, France is a major exporter of wheat and dairy
products. The industrial sector generates about one-quarter of GDP,
and the growing services sector has become crucial to the economy.
Following stagnation and recession in 1991-93, French GDP in 1994
expanded 2.4%. Growth in 1995 is expected to be in the 3.0% to 3.5%
range. Persistently high unemployment will still pose a major problem
for the government. Paris remains committed to maintaining the
franc-deutsche mark parity, which has kept French interest rates high
despite France's low inflation. Although the pace of economic and
financial integration within the European Union has slowed down,
integration presumably will remain a major force shaping the fortunes
of the various economic sectors over the next few years.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.0801 trillion
(1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $18,670 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 12.6% (yearend 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $220.5 billion
expenditures: $249.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $47
billion (1993 budget)

Exports: $249.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals,
foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles
and clothing
partners: Germany 18.6%, Italy 11.0%, Spain 11.0%, Belgium-Luxembourg
9.1%, UK 8.8%, Netherlands 7.9%, US 6.4%, Japan 2.0%, FSU 0.7% (1991
est.)

Imports: $238.1 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural
products, chemicals, iron and steel products
partners: Germany 17.8%, Italy 10.9%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.9%, Spain
8.8%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.5%, UK 7.5%, Japan 4.1%, FSU 1.3% (1991
est.)

External debt: $300 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.6% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 105,250,000 kW
production: 447 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 6,149 kWh (1993)

Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy,
aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
one of the world's top five wheat producers; other principal products
- beef, dairy products, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes;
self-sufficient for most temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats
and oils and tropical produce, but overall net exporter of farm
products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among world's top 20
countries and is all used domestically

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1 billion

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9243 (January 1995),
5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@France:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 34,074 km
standard gauge: 33,975 km 1.435-m gauge (5,850 km electrified; 12,132
km double or multiple track)
other: 99 km various gauges including 1.000-m (privately owned and
operated) (1994)

Highways:
total: 1,511,200 km
paved: 811,200 km (including 7,700 km of controlled access divided
highway)
unpaved: 700,000 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled

Pipelines: crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural
gas 24,746 km

Ports: Bordeaux, Boulogne, Cherbourg, Dijon, Dunkerque, La Pallice, Le
Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Mullhouse, Nantes, Paris, Rouen, Saint
Nazaire, Saint Malo, Strasbourg

Merchant marine:
total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,186,183 GRT/3,323,068
DWT
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 7, chemical tanker 6, container 15,
liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 21, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 11, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 2
note: France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships
in the Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and
French Polynesia

Airports:
total: 476
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 12
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 96
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 74
with paved runways under 914 m: 188
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 3
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 74

@France:Communications

Telephone system: 39,200,000 telephones; highly developed; extensive
cable and microwave radio relay networks; large-scale introduction of
optical-fiber systems; satellite systems for domestic traffic
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay, optical fiber cable, and domestic
satellites
international: 2 INTELSAT earth stations (with total of 5 antennas - 2
Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean); HF radio communications with
more than 20 countries; INMARSAT service; EUTELSAT TV service

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 41, FM 800 (mostly repeaters), shortwave 0
radios: 48 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 846 (mostly repeaters)
televisions: 36 million

@France:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air), Air Force and Air Defense,
National Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 14,740,155; males fit for
military service 12,258,691; males reach military age (18) annually
378,489 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $47.1 billion, 3.1%
of GDP (1995)

________________________________________________________________________

FRENCH GUIANA

(overseas department of France)

@French Guiana:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between Brazil and Suriname

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 91,000 sq km
land area: 89,150 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: total 1,183 km, Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km

Coastline: 378 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani
and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains

Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar,
kaolin, fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 82%
other: 18%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: high frequency of heavy showers and severe
thunderstorms; flooding
international agreements: NA

Note: mostly an unsettled wilderness

@French Guiana:People

Population: 145,270 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (female 22,511; male 23,535)
15-64 years: 63% (female 41,995; male 50,064)
65 years and over: 5% (female 3,608; male 3,557) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.13% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 25.23 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.61 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 20.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 15.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.52 years
male: 72.27 years
female: 78.94 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.46 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: French Guianese (singular and plural)
adjective: French Guianese

Ethnic divisions: black or mulatto 66%, Caucasian 12%, East Indian,
Chinese, Amerindian 12%, other 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 83%
male: 84%
female: 82%

Labor force: 23,265
by occupation: services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry
21.2%, agriculture 18.2% (1980)

@French Guiana:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Department of Guiana
conventional short form: French Guiana
local long form: none
local short form: Guyane

Digraph: FG

Type: overseas department of France

Capital: Cayenne

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government: Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA 1992);
President of the General Council Elie CASTOR (since NA); President of
the Regional Council Antoine KARAM (22 March 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and a unicameral
Regional Council
General Council: elections last held 25 September and 8 October 1988
(next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(19 total) PSG 12, URC 7
Regional Council: elections last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held
NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (31 total) PSG 16,
FDG 10, RPR 2, independents 3
French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1
total) PSG 1
French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993
(next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (2 total) RPR 1, independent 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals (highest local court based in
Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French
Guiana)

Political parties and leaders: Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Elie
CASTRO; Conservative Union for the Republic (UPR), Leon BERTRAND;
Rally for the Center Right (URC); Rally for the Republic (RPR); Guyana
Democratic Front (FDG), Georges OTHILY; Walwari Committee, Christine
TAUBIRA-DELANON

Member of: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas department of France)

US diplomatic representation: none (overseas department of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used

@French Guiana:Economy

Overview: The economy is tied closely to that of France through
subsidies and imports. Besides the French space center at Kourou,
fishing and forestry are the most important economic activities, with
exports of fish and fish products (mostly shrimp) accounting for more
than 60% of total revenue in 1992. The large reserves of tropical
hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry
that provides sawn logs for export. Cultivation of crops - rice,
cassava, bananas, and sugarcane - is limited to the coastal area,
where the population is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily
dependent on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious
problem, particularly among younger workers.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $800 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $6,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 13% (1990)

Budget:
revenues: $735 million
expenditures: $735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1987)

Exports: $59 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence
partners: France 52%, Spain 15%, US 5% (1992)

Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods,
producer goods, petroleum
partners: France 77%, Germany 11%, US 5% (1992)

External debt: $1.2 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 180,000 kW
production: 450 million kWh
consumption per capita: 3,149 kWh (1993)

Industries: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum,
gold mining

Agriculture: some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn,
manioc, cocoa, bananas, sugar; livestock - cattle, pigs, poultry

Illicit drugs: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $1.51 billion

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9243 (January 1995),
5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@French Guiana:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 22 km (est.)

Highways:
total: 1,137 km
paved: 455 km
unpaved: improved, unimproved earth 682 km (1988)

Inland waterways: 460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and
river and coastal steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft

Ports: Cayenne, Degrad des Cannes, Saint-Laurent du Maroni

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 11
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 5
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@French Guiana:Communications

Telephone system: 18,100 telephones; fair open-wire and microwave
radio relay system
local: NA
intercity: open wire and microwave radio relay
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 7, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 9
televisions: NA

@French Guiana:Defense Forces

Branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 41,986; males fit for military
service 27,298

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

FRENCH POLYNESIA

(overseas territory of France)

@French Polynesia:Geography

Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from South America to Australia

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 3,941 sq km
land area: 3,660 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,525 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, but moderate

Terrain: mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs

Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 19%
meadows and pastures: 5%
forest and woodland: 31%
other: 44%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: occasional cyclonic storms in January
international agreements: NA

Note: includes five archipelagoes; Makatea in French Polynesia is one
of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the
others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Nauru

@French Polynesia:People

Population: 219,999 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (female 38,361; male 39,744)
15-64 years: 60% (female 64,034; male 69,024)
65 years and over: 4% (female 4,437; male 4,399) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.23% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 27.56 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.27 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.75 years
male: 68.32 years
female: 73.29 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: French Polynesian(s)
adjective: French Polynesian

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%,
metropolitan French 4%

Religions: Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%

Languages: French (official), Tahitian (official)

Literacy: age 14 and over can read and write but definition of
literary not available (1977)
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 98%

Labor force: 76,630 employed (1988)

@French Polynesia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Territory of French Polynesia
conventional short form: French Polynesia
local long form: Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise
local short form: Polynesie Francaise

Digraph: FP

Type: overseas territory of France since 1946

Capital: Papeete

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 5 archipelagic divisions named Archipel des
Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles du Vent,
and Iles Sous-le-Vent
note: Clipperton Island is administered by France from French
Polynesia

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: based on French system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);
High Commissioner of the Republic Paul RONCIERE (since 8 August 1994)
head of government: President of the Territorial Government of French
Polynesia Gaston FLOSSE (since 10 May 1991); Deputy to the French
Assembly and President of the Territorial Assembly Jean JUVENTIN
(since NA November 1992); Territorial Vice President and Minister of
Health Michel BUILLARD (since 12 September 1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of
the Assembly for approval by them to serve as ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral
Territorial Assembly: elections last held 17 March 1991 (next to be
held March 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (41
total) People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 18, Polynesian Union
Party 12, New Fatherland Party 7, other 4
French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1
total) party NA
French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993
(next to be held NA March 1998); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (2 total) People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Court of the First Instance, Court
of Administrative Law

Political parties and leaders: People's Rally for the Republic
(Tahoeraa Huiraatira), Gaston FLOSSE; Polynesian Union Party (includes
Te Tiarama), Alexandre LEONTIEFF; Here Ai'a Party, Jean JUVENTIN; New
Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON; Polynesian Liberation
Front (Tavini Hviraatira No Te Ao Maohi), Oscar TEMARU; Independent
Party (Ia Mana Te Nunaa), Jacques DROLLET; other small parties

Member of: ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas territory of France)

US diplomatic representation: none (overseas territory of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used

@French Polynesia:Economy

Overview: Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in the
region, French Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one
in which a high proportion of the work force is either employed by the
military or supports the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about
20% of GDP and is a primary source of hard currency earnings.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.5 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $7,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (1991)

Unemployment rate: 10% (1990 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $614 million
expenditures: $957 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1988)

Exports: $88.9 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla, shark
meat
partners: France 54%, US 17%, Japan 17%

Imports: $765 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: fuels, foodstuffs, equipment
partners: France 53%, US 11%, Australia 6%, NZ 5%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 15% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 75,000 kW
production: 275 million kWh
consumption per capita: 1,189 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts

Agriculture: coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit;
poultry, beef, dairy products

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $3.95 billion

Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1
- 96.25 (January 1995), 100.94 (1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992),
102.57 (1991), 99.00 (1990); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

@French Polynesia:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 600 km (1982)
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Mataura, Papeete, Rikitea, Uturoa

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,127 GRT/6,710 DWT
ships by type: passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1
note: a subset of the French register allowing French-owned ships to
operate under more liberal taxation and manning regulations than
permissable under the main French register

Airports:
total: 43
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 14
with paved runways under 914 m: 18
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@French Polynesia:Communications

Telephone system: 33,200 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: 84,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 6
televisions: 26,400

@French Polynesia:Defense Forces

Branches: French Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie

Note: defense is responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

FRENCH SOUTHERN AND ANTARCTIC LANDS

(overseas territory of France)

@French Southern And Antarctic Lands:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Indian Ocean, about
equidistant between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia; note - "French
Southern and Antarctic Lands" includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul,
Iles Crozet, and Iles Kerguelen in the southern Indian Ocean, along
with the French-claimed sector of Antartica, "Terre Adelie"; the
United States does not recognize the French claim to "Terre Adelie"

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total area: 7,781 sq km
land area: 7,781 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware
note: includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet and Iles
Kerguelen; excludes "Terre Adelie" claim of about 500,000 sq km in
Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,232 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm from Iles Kerguelen only
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: "Terre Adelie" claim in Antarctica is not
recognized by the US

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic

Natural resources: fish, crayfish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct
volcanoes
international agreements: NA

Note: remote location in the southern Indian Ocean

@French Southern And Antarctic Lands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are researchers
whose numbers vary from 150 in winter (July) to 200 in summer
(January)

@French Southern And Antarctic Lands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic
Lands
conventional short form: French Southern and Antarctic Lands
local long form: Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques
Francaises
local short form: Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises

Digraph: FS

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