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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly
resolved by 11 September 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ)
decision; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de
Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and
advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras
and Nicaragua likely would be required

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November
to April)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 8%
meadows and pastures: 29%
forest and woodland: 6%
other: 30%

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution;
contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and
sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed,
but not ratified - Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Note: smallest Central American country and only one without a
coastline on Caribbean Sea

@El Salvador:People

Population: 5,870,481 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (female 1,165,152; male 1,200,759)
15-64 years: 56% (female 1,677,958; male 1,602,230)
65 years and over: 4% (female 122,368; male 102,014) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.02% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 32.39 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.19 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 38.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.5 years
male: 64.89 years
female: 70.23 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.69 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic divisions: mestizo 94%, Indian 5%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%
note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the
country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million
Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 73%
male: 76%
female: 70%

Labor force: 1.7 million (1982 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%,
government 13%, financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%
note: shortage of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled labor,
but training programs improving situation (1984 est.)

@El Salvador:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form: El Salvador
local long form: Republica de El Salvador
local short form: El Salvador

Digraph: ES

Type: republic

Capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La
Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa
Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 20 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Armando CALDERON SOL
(since 1 June 1994); Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1
June 1994) election last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held March
1999); results - Armando CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA
Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other
10.49%; because no candidate received a majority, a run-off election
was held 24 April 1994; results - Armando CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 68.35%,
Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65%
cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): elections last held 20
March 1994 (next to be held March 1997); results - ARENA 46.4%, FMLN
25.0%, PDC 21.4%, PCN 4.8%, other 2.4%; seats - (84 total) ARENA 39,
FMLN 21, PDC 18, PCN 4, other 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Alliance (ARENA),
Juan Jose DOMENECH, president; Farabundo Marti National Liberation
Front (FMLN), Salvador SANCHEZ Ceren (aka Leonel GONZALEZ), general
coordinator; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Ronal UMANA, secretary
general; National Conciliation Party (PCN), Ciro CRUZ Zepeda,
secretary general; Democratic Convergence (CD), Juan Jose MARTEL,
secretary general; Unity Movement, Jorge MARTINEZ Menendez, president
note: newly formed parties not yet officially recognized by the
Supreme Electoral Tribunal: Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), Kirio
Waldo SALGADO, founder; Social Democratic Party (breakaway from FMLN),
Joaquin VILLALOBOS, founder; Social Christian Renovation Movement
(MRSC) (breakaway from PDC), Abraham RODRIGUEZ, founder

Other political or pressure groups:
labor organizations: Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant
association; General Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate; United
Workers Front (FUT)
business organizations: Productive Alliance (AP), conservative;
National Federation of Salvadoran Small Businessmen (FENAPES),
conservative

Member of: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ana Cristina SOL
chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671, 9672
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alan H. FLANIGAN
embassy: Final Boulevard, Station Antiguo Cuscatlan, San Salvador
mailing address: Unit 3116, San Salvador; APO AA 34023
telephone: [503] 78-4444
FAX: [503] 78-6011

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with
the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL
SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua,
which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it
features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on
top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of
Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered
in the white band

@El Salvador:Economy

Overview: The agricultural sector accounts for 24% of GDP, employs
about 40% of the labor force, and contributes about 66% to total
exports. Coffee is the major commercial crop, accounting for 45% of
export earnings. The manufacturing sector, based largely on food and
beverage processing, accounts for 19% of GDP and 15% of employment. In
1992-94 the government made substantial progress toward privatization
and deregulation of the economy. Growth in national output in 1991-94
nearly averaged 5%, exceeding growth in population for the first time
since 1987; and inflation in 1994 of 10% was down from 19% in 1993.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $9.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,710 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6.7% (1993)

Budget:
revenues: $846 million
expenditures: $890 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992 est.)

Exports: $823 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: coffee, sugarcane, shrimp
partners: US, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Germany

Imports: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods
partners: US, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela, Germany

External debt: $2.6 billion (December 1992)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.6% (1993)

Electricity:
capacity: 750,000 kW
production: 2.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 408 kWh (1993)

Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, nonmetallic
products, tobacco, chemicals, textiles, furniture

Agriculture: accounts for 24% of GDP and 40% of labor force (including
fishing and forestry); coffee most important commercial crop; other
products - sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy
products, shrimp; not self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for
local consumption

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $2.95 billion
(plus $250 million for 1992-96); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and
OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $525 million

Currency: 1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.760 (January
1995), 8.750 (1994), 8.670 (1993), 8.4500 (1992), 8.080 (1991), 8.0300
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@El Salvador:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 602 km (single track; note - some sections abandoned, unusable,
or operating at reduced capacity)
narrow gauge: 602 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
total: 10,000 km
paved: 1,500 km
unpaved: gravel 4,100 km; improved, unimproved earth 4,400 km

Inland waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports: Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union, Puerto El
Triunfo

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 106
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 78
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 23

@El Salvador:Communications

Telephone system: 116,000 telephones; 21 telephones/1,000 persons
local: NA
intercity: nationwide microwave radio relay system
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station; connected to
Central American Microwave System

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 77, FM 0, shortwave 2
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 5
televisions: NA

@El Salvador:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,393,480; males fit for
military service 892,958; males reach military age (18) annually
77,562 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $103 million, 0.7% of
GDP (1994); $91.9 million, less than 1% of GDP (1995 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

@Equatorial Guinea:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Cameroon and Gabon

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 28,050 sq km
land area: 28,050 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 539 km, Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

Coastline: 296 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because
of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits of
gold, manganese, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 4%
meadows and pastures: 4%
forest and woodland: 51%
other: 33%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: tap water is not potable; desertification
natural hazards: violent windstorms
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of
the Sea

Note: insular and continental regions rather widely separated

@Equatorial Guinea:People

Population: 420,293 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (female 90,404; male 90,997)
15-64 years: 53% (female 117,124; male 105,724)
65 years and over: 4% (female 8,969; male 7,075) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.59% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 40.22 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 14.36 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 100.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.56 years
male: 50.39 years
female: 54.79 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.23 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic divisions: Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni
(primarily Fang), Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish

Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan
practices

Languages: Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1983)
total population: 62%
male: 77%
female: 48%

Labor force: 172,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 66%, services 23%, industry 11% (1980)
note: labor shortages on plantations

@Equatorial Guinea:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial
local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial
former: Spanish Guinea

Digraph: EK

Type: republic in transition to multiparty democracy

Capital: Malabo

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem,
Litoral, Wele-Nzas

Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Constitution: new constitution 17 November 1991

Legal system: partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979); election last held 25 June 1989 (next
to be held 25 June 1996); results - President Brig. Gen. (Ret.)
Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO was reelected without opposition
head of government: Prime Minister Silvestre SIALE BILEKA (since 17
January 1992); Vice Prime Minister Anatolio NDONG MBA (since November
1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
House of People's Representatives: (Camara de Representantes del
Pueblo) elections last held 21 November 1993; seats - (82 total) PDGE
72, various opposition parties 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig.
Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO, party leader
opposition parties: Progressive Democratic Alliance (ADP),
Antonio-Ebang Mbele Abang, president; Popular Action of Equatorial
Guinea (APGE),Casiano Masi Edu, leader; Liberal Democratic Convention
(CLD), Alfonso Nsue MOKUY, president; Convergence for Social Democracy
(CPDS),Santiago Obama Ndong, president; Social Democratic and Popular
Convergence (CSDP), Secundino Oyono Agueng Ada, general secretary;
Party of the Social Democratic Coalition (PCSD), Buenaventura Moswi
M'Asumu, general coordinater; Liberal Party (PL), leaders unknown;
Party of Progress (PP), Severo MOTO Nsa, president; Social Democratic
Party (PSD), Benjamin-Gabriel Balingha Balinga Alene, general
secretary; Socialist Party of Equatorial Guinea (PSGE), Tomas MICHEBE
Fernandez, general secretary; National Democratic Union (UDENA), Jose
MECHEBA Ikaka, president; Democratic Social Union (UDS), Jesus Nze
Obama Avomo, general secretary; Popular Union (UP), Juan Bitui,
president

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU,
UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Teodoro
Biyogo NSUE
chancery: (temporary) 57 Magnolia Avenue, Mount Vernon, NY 10553
telephone: [1] (914) 738-9584, 667-6913
FAX: [1] (914) 667-6838

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Joseph P. O'NEILL
embassy: Calle de Los Ministros, Malabo
mailing address: P.O. Box 597, Malabo
telephone: [240] (9) 21-85, 24-06, 25-07
FAX: [240] (9) 21-64

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with
a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms
centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow
six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore
islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below
which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace,
Justice)

@Equatorial Guinea:Economy

Overview: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing account for about half of
GDP and nearly all exports. Subsistence farming predominates. Although
pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for
hard currency earnings, the deterioration of the rural economy under
successive brutal regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led
growth. A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the
international donor community have failed to revitalize export
agriculture. Businesses for the most part are owned by government
officials and their family members. Commerce accounts for about 8% of
GDP and the construction, public works, and service sectors for about
38%. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium, iron ore,
manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil exploration, taking place
under concessions offered to US, French, and Spanish firms, has been
moderately successful. Increased production from recently discovered
natural gas fields will provide a greater share of exports in 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $280 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 7.3% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $700 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $32.5 million
expenditures: $35.9 million, including capital expenditures of $3
million (1992 est.)

Exports: $56 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: coffee, timber, cocoa beans
partners: Spain 55.2%, Nigeria 11.4%, Cameroon 9.1% (1992)

Imports: $62 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
partners: Cameroon 23.1%, Spain 21.8%, France 14.1%, US 4.3% (1992)

External debt: $260 million (1992 est)

Industrial production: growth rate 11.3% (1993 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 23,000 kW
production: 20 million kWh
consumption per capita: 50 kWh (1993)

Industries: fishing, sawmilling

Agriculture: accounts for almost 50% of GDP, cash crops - timber and
coffee from Rio Muni, cocoa from Bioko; food crops - rice, yams,
cassava, bananas, oil palm nuts, manioc, livestock

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY81-89), $14 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $130 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $55 million

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 273,16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Equatorial Guinea:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,760 km (2,460 km on Rio Muni and 300 km on Bioko)
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Bata, Luba, Malabo

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,412 GRT/6,699 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, passenger-cargo 1

Airports:
total: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Equatorial Guinea:Communications

Telephone system: 2,000 telephones; poor system with adequate
government services
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: international communications from Bata and Malabo to
African and European countries; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Equatorial Guinea:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention Force, National
Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 89,752; males fit for military
service 45,611 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.5 million, NA% of
GDP (FY93/94)

________________________________________________________________________

ERITREA

@Eritrea:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and
Sudan

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 121,320 sq km
land area: 121,320 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total 1,630 km, Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km,
Sudan 605 km

Coastline: 1,151 km (land and island coastline is 2,234 km)

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: none

Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter
in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid
in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September
except on coastal desert

Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending
highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the
northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling
plains

Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil
(petroleum geologists are prospecting for it), fish

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 2% (coffee)
meadows and pastures: 40%
forest and woodland: 5%
other: 50%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: famine; deforestation; desertification; soil erosion;
overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare
natural hazards: frequent droughts
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species; signed, but
not ratified - Desertification

Note: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping
lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red
Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993

@Eritrea:People

Population: 3,578,709 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (female 763,416; male 774,922)
15-64 years: 54% (female 965,124; male 965,435)
65 years and over: 3% (female 52,950; male 56,862) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 9.04% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 44.34 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 15.67 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: repatriation of up to a half million Eritrean refugees in Sudan
is now underway; 100,000 are expected to return during 1995

Infant mortality rate: 120.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50 years
male: 48.28 years
female: 51.78 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.53 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Eritrean(s)
adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic divisions: ethnic Tigrays 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%,
Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%

Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Languages: Tigre and Kunama, Cushitic dialects, Tigre, Nora Bana,
Arabic

Labor force: NA

@Eritrea:Government

Names:
conventional long form: State of Eritrea
conventional short form: Eritrea
local long form: none
local short form: none
former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

Digraph: ER

Type: transitional government
note: on 29 May 1991 ISAIAS Afworke, secretary general of the Peoples'
Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), which then served and still
serves as the country's legislative body, announced the formation of
the Provisional Government in Eritrea (PGE) in preparation for the
23-25 April 1993 referendum on independence for the autonomous region
of Eritrea; the result was a landslide vote for independence which was
proclaimed on 27 April 1993

Capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Akole Guzay, Baraka, Danakil,
Hamasen, Sahil, Samhar, Senhit, Seraye, Sahil

Independence: 27 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea
Autonomous Region)

National holiday: National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May
(1993)

Constitution: transitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President ISAIAS Afworke (since
22 May 1993)
cabinet: State Council; the collective executive authority
note: election to be held before 20 May 1997

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly: PFDJ Central Committee serves as the country's
legislative body until country-wide elections are held (before 20 May
1997)

Judicial branch: Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and
Justice (PFDJ), ISAIAS Afworke, PETROS Solomon (the only party
recognized by the government)

Other political or pressure groups: Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ);
Islamic Militant Group; Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF), ABDULLAH
Muhammed; Eritrean Liberation Front - United Organization (ELF-UO),
Mohammed Said NAWUD; Eritrean Liberation Front - Revolutionary Council
(ELF-RC), Ahmed NASSER

Member of: ACP, ECA, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), ITU, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador AMDEMICHAEL Berhane Khasai
chancery: Suite 400, 910 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 429-1991
FAX: [1] (202) 429-9004

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert G. HOUDEK
embassy: 34 Zera Yacob St., Asmara
mailing address: P.O. Box 211, Asmara
telephone: [291] (1) 120004
FAX: [291] (1) 127584

Flag: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the
flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower
one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered
on the hoist side of the red triangle

@Eritrea:Economy

Overview: With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993, Eritrea
faces the bitter economic problems of a small, desperately poor
African country. Most of the population will continue to depend on
subsistence farming. Domestic output is substantially augmented by
worker remittances from abroad. Government revenues come from custom
duties and income and sales taxes. Eritrea has inherited the entire
coastline of Ethiopia and has long-term prospects for revenues from
the development of offshore oil, offshore fishing, and tourism. For
the time being, Ethiopia will be largely dependent on Eritrean ports
for its foreign trade.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $500 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $NA
commodities: NA
partners: NA

Imports: $NA
commodities: NA
partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: NA kW
production: NA kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh

Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

Agriculture: products - sorghum, livestock (including goats), fish,
lentils, vegetables, maize, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal (for making
rope)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents; at present, Ethiopian currency used

Exchange rates: 1 birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.9500 (January 1995), 5.9500
(1994), 5.000 (fixed rate 1992-93); note - official rate pegged to US$

Fiscal year: NA

@Eritrea:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 307 km; note - nonoperational since 1978; links Ak'ordat and
Asmara (formerly Asmera) with the port of Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)
narrow gauge: 307 km 1.000-m gauge (1993 est.)

Highways:
total: 3,845 km
paved: 807 km
unpaved: gravel 840 km; improved earth 402 km; unimproved earth 1,796
km

Ports: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 20
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 6
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7

@Eritrea:Communications

Telephone system: NA
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Eritrea:Defense Forces

Branches: Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

ESTONIA

@Estonia:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of
Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 45,100 sq km
land area: 43,200 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont
combined
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Land boundaries: total 557 km, Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km

Coastline: 1,393 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: limits to be fixed in coordination with
neighboring states
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims over 2,000 sq km of Russian territory
in the Narva and Pechora regions - based on boundary established under
the 1921 Peace Treaty of Tartu

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands

Natural resources: shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber

Land use:
arable land: 22%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 11%
forest and woodland: 31%
other: 36%

Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1990)

Environment:
current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from
oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and
groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at military bases
natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

@Estonia:People

Population: 1,625,399 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (female 174,304; male 181,101)
15-64 years: 65% (female 549,473; male 515,426)
65 years and over: 13% (female 139,722; male 65,373) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.53% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.9 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 11.93 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.17 years
male: 65.2 years
female: 75.39 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.98 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Estonian(s)
adjective: Estonian

Ethnic divisions: Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.17%,
Byelorussian 1.8%, Finn 1.1%, other 2.13% (1989)

Religions: Lutheran

Languages: Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

Labor force: 750,000 (1992)
by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry
20%, other 38% (1990)

@Estonia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
conventional short form: Estonia
local long form: Eesti Vabariik
local short form: Eesti
former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Digraph: EN

Type: republic

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond):
Harju maakond (Tallinn), Hiiu maakond (Kardla), Ida-Viru maakond
(Johvi), Jarva maakond (Paide), Jogeva maakond (Jogeva), Laane maakond
(Haapsalu), Laane-Viru maakond (Rakvere), Parnu maakond (Parnu), Polva
maakond (Polva), Rapla maakond (Rapla), Saare maakond (Kuessaare),
Tartu maakond (Tartu), Valga maakond (Valga), Viljandi maakond
(Viljandi), Voru maakond (Voru)
note: county centers are in parentheses

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 21 October 1992);
election last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held fall 1996);
results - no candidate received majority; newly elected Parliament
elected Lennart MERI (21 October 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Andres TARAND (since NA October
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister,
authorized by the legislature

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament (Riigikogu): elections last held 5 March 1995 (next to be
held NA 1998); results - KMU 32.22%, RE 16.18%, K 14.17%, Pro Patria
and ERSP 7.85%, M 5.98%, Our Home is Estonia and Right-Wingers 5.0%;
seats - (101 total) KMU 41, RE 19, K 16, Pro Patria 8, Our Home is
Estonia 6, M 6, Right-Wingers 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Coalition Party and Rural Union (KMU)
made up of 4 parties: Coalition Party, Country People's Party,
Farmer's Assembly, and Pensioners' and Families' League; Coalition
Party, Tiit VAHI, chairman; Country People's Party, Arnold RUUTEL,
chairman; Farmer's Assembly, Jaak-Hans KUKS, chairman; Pensioners' and
Families' League; Reform Party-Liberals (RE), Siim KALLAS, chairman;
Center Party (K), Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman; Union of Pro Patria
(Isaama of Fatherland), Mart LAAR, chairman; National Independence
Party (ERSP), Kelam TUNNE, chairman; Our Home is Estonia made up of 2
parties: United Peoples Party and the Russian Party in Estonia; United
Peoples Party, Viktor ANDREJEV, chairman; Russian Party in Estonia,
Sergei KUZNETSOV, chairman; Moderates (M) made up of 2 parties: Social
Democratic Party and Rural Center Party; Social Democratic Party, Eiki
NESTOR, chairman; Rural Center Party, Vambo KAAL, chairman;
Right-Wingers, Ulo NUGIS, chairman

Member of: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent),
ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate
partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Toomas Hendrik ILVES
chancery: 1030 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005, Suite 1000
telephone: [1] (202) 789-0320
FAX: [1] (202) 789-0471
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Keith SMITH
embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallinn EE 0001
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [372] (2) 312-021 through 024
FAX: [372] (2) 312-025

Flag: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three
equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

@Estonia:Economy

Overview: Bolstered by a widespread national desire to reintegrate
into Western Europe, the Estonian government has pursued an ambitious
program of market reforms and stabilization measures, which is rapidly
transforming the economy. Three years after independence - and two
years after the introduction of the kroon - Estonians are beginning to
reap tangible benefits; inflation, though still high, was brought down
to about 2% per month in second half 1994; production declines have
bottomed out with estimated growth of 4% in 1994; and living standards
are rising. Economic restructuring has been dramatic. By 1994 the
service sector accounted for over 55% of GDP, while the once-dominant
heavy industrial sector continues to shrink. The private sector is
growing rapidly; the share of the state enterprises in the economy has
steadily declined and by late 1994 accounted for only about 40% of
GDP. Estonia's foreign trade has shifted rapidly from East to West;
the Western industrialized countries now account for two-thirds of
foreign trade.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $10.4 billion (1994
estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $6,460 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% per month (1994 average)

Unemployment rate: about 2% in 1994 (official estimate but large
number of underemployed workers)

Budget:
revenues: $643 million
expenditures: $639 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993 est.)

Exports: $1.65 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: textile 14%, food products 11%, vehicles 11%, metals 11%
(1993)
partners: Russia, Finland, Sweden, Germany

Imports: $1 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: machinery 18%, fuels 15%, vehicles 14%, textiles 10%
(1993)
partners: Finland, Russia, Germany, Sweden

External debt: $650 million (end of 1991)

Industrial production: growth rate -27% (1993)

Electricity:
capacity: 3,420,000 kW
production: 11.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 6,528 kWh (1993)

Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors,
excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes,
apparel

Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP; employs 20% of work force; very
efficient by Soviet standards; net exports of meat, fish, dairy
products, and potatoes; imports of feedgrains for livestock; fruits
and vegetables

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and
Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe; very limited
illicit opium producer; mostly for domestic consumption

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million

Currency: 1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 cents (introduced in August
1992)

Exchange rates: kroons (EEK) per US$1 - 12.25 (January 1995); note -
kroons are tied to the German Deutschmark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Estonia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,030 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated
industrial lines
broad gauge: 1,030 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

Highways:
total: 30,300 km
paved or graveled: 29,200 km
unpaved: earth 1,100 km (1990)

Inland waterways: 500 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

Ports: Haapsalu, Narva, Novotallin, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn

Merchant marine:
total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 415,332 GRT/532,749 DWT
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 44, container 2, oil tanker 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 4

Airports:
total: 22
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 5

@Estonia:Communications

Telephone system: about 400,000 telephones; 246 telephones/1,000
persons; telephone system is antiquated; improvements are being made
piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs and international
connections; there are still about 150,000 unfulfilled requests for
telephone service
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: international traffic is carried to the other former
USSR republics by land line or microwave and to other countries partly
by leased connection to the Moscow international gateway switch, and
partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber optic submarine cable which
gives Estonia access to international circuits everywhere; substantial
investment has been made in cellular systems which are operational
throughout Estonia and also Latvia and which have access to the
international packet switched digital network via Helsinki

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 3; note - provide Estonian programs as well as
Moscow Ostenkino's first and second programs
televisions: NA

@Estonia:Defense Forces

Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force (not
officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard, Volunteer Defense
League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and border troops),
Coast Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 396,588; males fit for military
service 311,838; males reach military age (18) annually 11,915 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $34.1 million, almost
5% of the overall State budget and 1.5% of GDP (1995)

________________________________________________________________________

ETHIOPIA

@Ethiopia:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 1,127,127 sq km
land area: 1,119,683 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 5,311 km, Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km,
Kenya 830 km, Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: southern half of the boundary with Somalia is
a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Somalia
over the Ogaden

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
Rift Valley

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 41%
forest and woodland: 24%
other: 22%

Irrigated land: 1,620 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification; famine
natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban

Note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with
the de jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993

@Ethiopia:People

Population: 55,979,018 (July 1995 est.)
note: Ethiopian demographic data, except population and population
growth rate, include Eritrea

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (female 12,782,345; male 12,802,187)
15-64 years: 52% (female 14,352,059; male 14,511,342)
65 years and over: 2% (female 815,974; male 715,111) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.09% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 46.68 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 15.77 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: repatriation of Ethiopian refugees from Sudan, Kenya and
Somalia, where they had taken refuge from war and famine in earlier
years, is expected to continue in 1995; additional influxes of
Sudanese and Somalis fleeing fighting in their countries can be
expected in 1995

Infant mortality rate: 120.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50 years
male: 48.28 years
female: 51.78 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.07 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic divisions: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%,
Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%,
other 5%

Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali,
Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Literacy: age 10 and over can read and write (1984)
total population: 24%
male: 33%
female: 16%

Labor force: 18 million
by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and
services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)

@Ethiopia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: none
local short form: Ityop'iya

Digraph: ET

Type: transitional government
note: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic
Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU
Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; a new constitution was
promulgated in December 1994 and national and regional elections are
scheduled for May 1995; the administrative regions will elect regional
assemblies by popular vote; the National Assembly will have two
chambers - one elected by popular vote and the other selected as
representatives by the regional assemblies; the lower house of the
National Assembly will select or confirm the president, the prime
minister and the cabinet officers and judges; the prime minister will
be the chief executive officer and the duties of the president will be
mostly ceremonial

Capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 14 ethnically-based administrative regions
(astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akababi) Addis Ababa,
Afar, Amhara, Benishangul, Gambela, Gurage-Hadiya-Kambata, Hareri,
Kefa, Omo, Oromo, Sidama, Somali, Tigray, Wolayta
note: the following named four administrative regions may have been
abolished and their territories distributed among the remaining ten
regions: Kefa, Omo, Sidama, and Wolayta

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the
oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu
regime)

Constitution: new constitution promulgated in December 1994

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President MELES Zenawi (since 1 June 1991); appointed
by the Council of Representatives following the military defeat of the
MENGISTU government; following the elections to the National Assembly
scheduled for May 1995 the lower house of the National Assembly will
nominate a new president
head of government: Prime Minister TAMIRAT Layne (since 6 June 1991);
a new prime minister will be designated by the party in power
following the elections to the General Assembly in May 1995
cabinet: Council of Ministers; presently designated by the chairman of
the Council of Representatives; under the new constitution and
following the elections in May 1995 the cabinet officers will be
selected by the prime minister

Legislative branch:
Constituent Assembly: elections were held on 5 June 1994; results -
government parties swept almost all seats; in December 1994 the
Constituent Assembly ratified the new constitution with few changes;
the new constitution prescribes two chambers for the new National
Assembly - one which is elected by popular vote and one which
represents the ethnic interests of the regional governments

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
Democratic Front (EPRDF), MELES Zenawi;

Other political or pressure groups: Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); All
Amhara People's Organization; Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic
Coalition; numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since
Mengistu's resignation, including several Islamic militant groups

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-2281, 2282
FAX: [1] (202) 328-7950

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Irvin HICKS
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: [251] (1) 550666
FAX: [251] (1) 552191

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red;
Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors
of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon
independence that they became known as the pan-African colors

@Ethiopia:Economy

Overview: With the independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993, Ethiopia
continues to face difficult economic problems as one of the poorest
and least developed countries in Africa. Its economy is based on
agriculture, which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and
80% of total employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The
agricultural sector suffers from frequent periods of drought, poor
cultivation practices, and deterioration of internal security
conditions. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs
from the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but
less than 10% of agriculture, is state run. The government is
considering selling off a portion of state-owned plants, and is
implementing reform measures that are gradually liberalizing the
economy. A major medium-term problem is the improvement of roads,
water supply, and other parts of an infrastructure badly neglected
during years of civil strife.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $20.3 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $380 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (FY93/94)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $1.2 billion
expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $707
million (FY93/94)

Exports: $219.8 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: coffee, leather products, gold
partners: Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, France, Italy

Imports: $1.04 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
partners: US, Germany, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Japan

External debt: $3.7 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -3.3% (FY91/92); accounts for 12%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 460,000 kW
production: 1.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 23 kWh (1993)

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals
processing, cement

Agriculture: accounts for 45% of GDP; export crops of coffee and
oilseeds are grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of
agricultural production is at subsistence level; principal crops and
livestock - cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and
other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and
Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as
cocaine destined for southern African markets; cultivates qat (chat)
for local use and regional export

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $3.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2 billion

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.9500 (January 1995), 5.9500
(1994), 5.0000 (fixed rate 1992-93); fixed at 2.070 before 1992; note
- official rate pegged to the US$

Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July

@Ethiopia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)

narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 24,127 km
paved: 3,289 km
unpaved: gravel 6,664 km; improved earth 1,652 km; unimproved earth
12,522 km (1993)

Ports: none

Merchant marine:
total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,627 GRT/88,909 DWT
ships by type: cargo 8, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Airports:
total: 98
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 24
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 4
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 14
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 42

@Ethiopia:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; open-wire and radio relay system
adequate for government use
local: NA
intercity: open wire and microwave radio relay links
international: open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay
to Kenya and Djibouti; 3 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific
Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: 9 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: 100,000

@Ethiopia:Defense Forces

Branches: Transitional Government of Ethiopia Forces, Air Force,
Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 12,658,084; males fit for
military service 6,569,759; males reach military age (18) annually
565,976 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $140 million, 4.1% of
GDP (FY94/95)

________________________________________________________________________

EUROPA ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Europa Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 28 sq km
land area: 28 sq km
comparative area: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 22.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: NA%
forest and woodland: NA% (heavily wooded)
other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: wildlife sanctuary

@Europa Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Europa Island:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Europa Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Europa

Digraph: EU

Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic;
resident in Reunion

Capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

@Europa Island:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Europa Island:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports:
total: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Europa Island:Communications

Note: 1 meteorological station

@Europa Island:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

FALKLAND ISLANDS (ISLAS MALVINAS)

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):Geography

Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean,
east of southern Argentina

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 12,170 sq km
land area: 12,170 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut
note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and
about 200 small islands

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina

Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain
occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year,
except in January and February, but does not accumulate

Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains

Natural resources: fish, wildlife

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 99%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 1%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: strong winds persist throughout the year
international agreements: NA

Note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short
growing season

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):People

Population: 2,317 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 2.43% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: NA

Death rate: NA

Net migration rate: NA

Infant mortality rate: NA

Life expectancy at birth: NA

Total fertility rate: NA

Nationality:
noun: Falkland Islander(s)
adjective: Falkland Island

Ethnic divisions: British

Religions: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church,
Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day
Adventist

Languages: English

Labor force: 1,100 (est.)
by occupation: agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding)

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):Government

Names:
conventional long form: Colony of the Falkland Islands
conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Digraph: FA

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Stanley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Constitution: 3 October 1985

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor David Everard TATHAM (since August 1992)
cabinet: Executive Council; 3 members elected by the Legislative
Council, 2 ex-officio members (chief executive and the financial
secretary), and the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Council: elections last held 11 October 1989 (next to be
held October 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (10
total, 8 elected) independents 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: NA

Member of: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the
outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep
raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire
(whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom
bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):Economy

Overview: The economy was formerly based on agriculture, mainly sheep
farming, which directly or indirectly employs most of the work force.
Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish winter
fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK and the
sale of postage stamps and coins. Rich stocks of fish in the
surrounding waters are not presently exploited by the islanders. So
far, efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry have been
unsuccessful. The economy has diversified since 1987 when the
government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers
operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license
fees total more than $40 million per year and support the island's
health, education, and welfare system. To encourage tourism, the
Falkland Islands Development Corporation has built three lodges for
visitors attracted by the abundant wildlife and trout fishing. The
islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British
Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around the
islands in 1993 and early seismic surveys suggest substantial reserves
capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day.

National product: GDP $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (1980-87 average)

Unemployment rate: NA%; labor shortage

Budget:
revenues: $65 million
expenditures: $55.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992-93)

Exports: at least $14.7 million
commodities: wool, hides and skins, and meat
partners: UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)

Imports: at least $13.9 million
commodities: food, clothing, timber, and machinery
partners: UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 9,200 kW
production: 17 million kWh
consumption per capita: 7,253 kWh (1993)

Industries: wool and fish processing

Agriculture: predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds; some
fodder and vegetable crops

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1992-93), $87 million

Currency: 1 Falkland pound (#F) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Falkland pound (#F) per US$1 - 0.6350 (January 1995),
0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5604
(1990); note - the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 510 km
paved: 30 km
unpaved: gravel 80 km; unimproved earth 400 km

Ports: Stanley

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 5
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 4

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):Communications

Telephone system: 590 telephones
local: NA
intercity: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radio
networks provide effective service to almost all points on both
islands
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station with links
through London to other countries

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Falkland Islands (islas Malvinas):Defense Forces

Branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (includes Army, Royal Air
Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

FAROE ISLANDS

(part of the Danish realm)

@Faroe Islands:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea and
the north Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland to
Norway

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 1,400 sq km
land area: 1,400 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 764 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

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