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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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forest and woodland: 12%
other: 21%

Irrigated land: 4,300 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution, principally from vehicle emissions;
nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and
surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes
natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the country
(e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of
Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of
the Sea

Note: controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; about
one-quarter of the population lives in Copenhagen

@Denmark:People

Population: 5,199,437 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (female 430,598; male 451,993)
15-64 years: 68% (female 1,731,531; male 1,780,083)
65 years and over: 15% (female 473,537; male 331,695) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.22% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.38 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 11.14 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.11 years
male: 73.23 years
female: 79.16 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.69 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish

Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 2%, other 7% (1988)

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), German
(small minority)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 99%

Labor force: 2,553,900
by occupation: private services 37.1%, government services 30.4%,
manufacturing and mining 20%, construction 6.3%, agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 5.6%, electricity/gas/water 0.6% (1991)

@Denmark:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
local short form: Danmark

Digraph: DA

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Copenhagen

Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter,
singular - amt) and 1 city* (stad); Arhus, Bornholm, Frederiksborg,
Fyn, Kbenhavn, Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkbing, Roskilde, Snderjylland,
Staden Kbenhavn*, Storstrm, Vejle, Vestsjaelland, Viborg
note: see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which
are part of the Danish realm and self-governing administrative
divisions

Independence: 1849 (became a constitutional monarchy)

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 5 June 1953

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since NA January 1972); Heir
Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26 May
1968)
head of government: Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since NA
January 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament (Folketing): elections last held 21 September 1994 (next to
be held by December 1998); results - Social Democrats 34.6%, Liberals
23.3%, Conservatives 15.0%, Social People's Party 7.3%, Progress Party
6.4%, Radical Liberals 4.6%, Unity Party 3.1%, Center Democrats 2.8%,
Christian People's Party 1.8%; seats - (179 total) Social Democrats
63, Liberals 44, Conservatives 28, Social People's Party 13, Progress
Party 11, Radical Liberals 8, Unity Party 6, Center Democrats 5,
independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party, Poul Nyrup
RASMUSSEN; Conservative Party, Hans ENGELL; Liberal Party, Uffe
ELLEMANN-JENSEN; Socialist People's Party, Holger K. NIELSEN; Progress
Party, Group Chairman Kim BEHNKE and Policy Spokesman Jan Kopke
CHRISTENSEN; Center Democratic Party, Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN; Radical
Liberal Party, Marianne JELVED; Christian People's Party, Jann
SJURSEN; Common Course, Preben Moller HANSEN; Danish Workers' Party;
Unity Party

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC,
CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G- 9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO,
NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WEU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG (Knud-Erik TYGESEN
is Ambassador Elect for 1995)
chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward E. ELSON
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen O
mailing address: APO AE 09716
telephone: [45] (31) 42 31 44
FAX: [45] (35) 43 02 23

Flag: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag;
the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that
design element of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted
by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

@Denmark:Economy

Overview: This thoroughly modern economy features high-tech
agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive
government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, and high
dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is self-sufficient in food
production. The new center-left coalition government will concentrate
on reducing the persistent high unemployment rate and the budget
deficit as well as following the previous government's policies of
maintaining low inflation and a current account surplus. In the face
of recent international market pressure on the Danish krone, the
coalition has also vowed to maintain a stable currency. The coalition
hopes to lower marginal income taxes while maintaining overall tax
revenues; boost industrial competitiveness through labor market and
tax reforms and increased research and development funds; and improve
welfare services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays.
Prime Minister RASMUSSEN's reforms will focus on adapting Denmark to
the criteria for European integration by 1999; although Copenhagen has
won from the European Union (EU) the right to opt out of the European
Monetary Union (EMU) if a national referendum rejects it. Denmark is,
in fact, one of the few EU countries likely to fit into the EMU on
time. Denmark is weathering the current worldwide slump better than
many West European countries. After posting 4.5% real GDP growth in
1994, Copenhagen is predicting a continued strong showing in 1995,
with real GDP up by 3.2%. The government expects an upswing in
business investment in 1995 to drive economic growth. Although
unemployment is high, it remains stable compared to most European
countries.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $103 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $19,860 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12.3% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $56.5 billion
expenditures: $64.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Exports: $42.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: meat and meat products, dairy products, transport
equipment (shipbuilding), fish, chemicals, industrial machinery
partners: EC 54.3% (Germany 23.6%, UK 10.1%, France 5.7%), Sweden
10.5%, Norway 5.8%, US 4.9%, Japan 3.6% (1992)

Imports: $37.1 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain and
foodstuffs, textiles, paper
partners: EC 53.4% (Germany 23.1%, UK 8.2%, France 5.6%), Sweden
10.8%, Norway 5.4%, US 5.7%, Japan 4.1% (1992)

External debt: $40.9 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -2.5% (1993 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 10,030,000 kW
production: 32 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 5,835 kWh (1993)

Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and
other wood products, shipbuilding

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; principal products - meat, dairy,
grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets, fish

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.9 billion

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.034 (January 1995),
6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Denmark:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 2,838 km (494 km privately owned and operated)
standard gauge: 2,838 km 1.435-m gauge (440 km electrified; 760 km
double track) (1994)

Highways:
total: 71,042 km
paved: concrete, asphalt, stone block 71,042 km (696 km of
expressways)

Inland waterways: 417 km

Pipelines: crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas
700 km

Ports: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia, Grenaa, Koge,
Odense, Struer

Merchant marine:
total: 345 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,005,470 GRT/6,974,750
DWT
ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 109, chemical tanker 24, combination
bulk 1, container 61, liquefied gas tanker 32, livestock carrier 4,
oil tanker 32, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 18,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 35, short-sea passenger 11
note: Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet
Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience
within the Danish register

Airports:
total: 118
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 13
with paved runways under 914 m: 85
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7

@Denmark:Communications

Telephone system: 4,509,000 telephones; excellent telephone and
telegraph services; buried and submarine cables and microwave radio
relay support trunk network
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay
international: 19 submarine coaxial cables; 7 INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and
INMARSAT earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 50
televisions: NA

@Denmark:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air
Force, Home Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,347,774; males fit for
military service 1,158,223; males reach military age (20) annually
36,191 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.7 billion, 1.9% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

DJIBOUTI

@Djibouti:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea,
between Eritrea and Somalia

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 22,000 sq km
land area: 21,980 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total 508 km, Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km,
Somalia 58 km

Coastline: 314 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: desert; torrid, dry

Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

Natural resources: geothermal areas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 9%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 91%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification
natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic
disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Climate
Change, Desertification

Note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close
to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; a vast
wasteland

@Djibouti:People

Population: 421,320 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (female 90,070; male 90,631)
15-64 years: 55% (female 108,824; male 121,715)
65 years and over: 2% (female 4,900; male 5,180) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.48% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 42.79 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 15.51 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 108.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 49.7 years
male: 47.83 years
female: 51.62 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.15 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian

Ethnic divisions: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and
Italian 5%

Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 48%
male: 63%
female: 34%

@Djibouti:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas French Somaliland

Digraph: DJ

Type: republic

Capital: Djibouti

Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle);
'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Constitution: multiparty constitution approved in referendum 4
September 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional practices,
and Islamic law

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977);
election last held 7 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); results -
President Hassan GOULED Aptidon was reelected
head of government: Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30
September 1978)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; responsible to the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes): elections last held 18
December 1992; results - RPP (the ruling party) dominated; seats - (65
total) RPP 65

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: People's Progress Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon
other parties: Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Mohamed Jama ELABE;
Democratic National Party (PND), ADEN Robleh Awaleh

Other political or pressure groups: Front for the Restoration of Unity
and Democracy (FRUD) and affiliates; Movement for Unity and Democracy
(MUD)

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Roble OLHAYE
chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Martin L. CHESHES
embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti
telephone: [253] 35 39 95
FAX: [253] 35 39 40

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green
with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red
five-pointed star in the center

@Djibouti:Economy

Overview: The economy is based on service activities connected with
the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in
northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in the capital
city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders. Scanty rainfall
limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most food must be
imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the
region and an international transshipment and refueling center. It has
few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore,
heavily dependent on foreign assistance (an important supplement to
GDP) to help support its balance of payments and to finance
development projects. An unemployment rate of over 30% continues to be
a major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over
the last six years because of recession, civil war, and a high
population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees).

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $500 million (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,200 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: over 30% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $164 million
expenditures: $201 million, including capital expenditures of $16
million (1993 est.)

Exports: $184 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
partners: Somalia 48%, Yemen 42%

Imports: $384 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals,
petroleum products
partners: France, UK, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, South Korea

External debt: $227 million (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1991 est.); accounts for 14% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 90,000 kW
production: 170 million kWh
consumption per capita: 398 kWh (1993)

Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy
products and mineral-water bottling

Agriculture: mostly fruit and vegetables; herding of goats, sheep, and
camels

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $39 million;
Western (non-US) countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $1.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89),
$149 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $35 million

Currency: 1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate
since 1973)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Djibouti:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 97 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 97 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 2,900 km
paved: 280 km
unpaved: improved, unimproved earth 2,620 km (1982)

Ports: Djibouti

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT

Airports:
total: 13
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 3
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6

@Djibouti:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; telephone facilities in the city of
Djibouti are adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to
outlying areas of the country
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay network
international: international connections via submarine cable to Saudi
Arabia and by satellite link to other countries; 1 INTELSAT (Indian
Ocean) and 1 ARABSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Djibouti:Defense Forces

Branches: Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air Force),
National Security Force (Force Nationale de Securite), National Police
Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 101,385; males fit for military
service 59,337 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $26 million, NA% of
GDP (1989)

________________________________________________________________________

DOMINICA

@Dominica:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad
and Tobago

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 750 sq km
land area: 750 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 148 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Natural resources: timber

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 13%
meadows and pastures: 3%
forest and woodland: 41%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive
hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Whaling

@Dominica:People

Population: 82,608 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (female 11,665; male 12,130)
15-64 years: 64% (female 25,606; male 26,890)
65 years and over: 7% (female 3,724; male 2,593) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.4% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 18.63 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.33 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -9.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.2 years
male: 74.35 years
female: 80.2 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.95 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican

Ethnic divisions: black, Carib Indians

Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%,
Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none
2%, unknown 1%, other 5%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970)
total population: 94%
male: 94%
female: 94%

Labor force: 25,000
by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services
28% (1984)

@Dominica:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica
conventional short form: Dominica

Digraph: DO

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Roseau

Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint
Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution: 3 November 1978

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO (since 25 October
1993) election last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October
1998); results - President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO was elected by the
House of Assembly to a five-year term
head of government: Prime Minister (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES (since 21
July 1980, elected for a third term 28 May 1990)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on the advice of the
prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
House of Assembly: elections last held 28 May 1990 (next to be held by
October 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30
total; 9 appointed senators and 21 elected representatives) DFP 11,
UWP 6, DLP 4

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), Brian
ALLEYNE; Dominica Labor Party (DLP), Rosie DOUGLAS; United Workers
Party (UWP), Edison JAMES

Other political or pressure groups: Dominica Liberation Movement
(DLM), a small leftist group

Member of: ACCT, ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, NAM
(observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: Dominica has no embassy in the US
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: no official presence since the
Ambassador resides in Bridgetown (Barbados), but travels frequently to
Dominica

Flag: green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical
part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the horizontal part is
yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the
cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green
five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10
administrative divisions (parishes)

@Dominica:Economy

Overview: The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is highly
vulnerable to climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for about 30%
of GDP and employs 40% of the labor force. Principal products include
bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, and coconuts. Development of the
tourist industry remains difficult because of the rugged coastline and
the lack of an international airport. In 1994 a tropical storm
devastated the banana industry.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $200 million (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 1.6% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,260 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $70 million
expenditures: $84 million, including capital expenditures of $26
million (FY90/91 est.)

Exports: $48.3 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges
partners: UK 55%, CARICOM countries, Italy, US

Imports: $98.8 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food,
chemicals
partners: US 25%, CARICOM, UK, Japan, Canada

External debt: $92.8 million (1992)

Industrial production: growth rate -10% (1994 est.); accounts for 7%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 7,000 kW
production: 30 million kWh
consumption per capita: 347 kWh (1993)

Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement
blocks, shoes

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP; principal crops - bananas,
citrus, mangoes, root crops, coconuts; bananas provide the bulk of
export earnings; forestry and fisheries potential not exploited

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and
Europe; minor cannabis producer

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $120 million

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Dominica:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 750 km
paved: 370 km
unpaved: gravel or earth 380 km

Ports: Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Dominica:Communications

Telephone system: 4,600 telephones; fully automatic network
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: SHF radio and microwave radio relay links to Martinique
and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radio links to Saint Lucia

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1 cable
televisions: NA

@Dominica:Defense Forces

Branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes Special
Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

@Dominican Republic:Geography

Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola,
between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 48,730 sq km
land area: 48,380 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries: total 275 km, Haiti 275 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 6 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation;
seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys
interspersed

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 23%
permanent crops: 7%
meadows and pastures: 43%
forest and woodland: 13%
other: 14%

Irrigated land: 2,250 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages
coral reefs; deforestation
natural hazards: occasional hurricanes (July to October)
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Marine
Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Law of the Sea

Note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds is
the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)

@Dominican Republic:People

Population: 7,511,263 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (female 1,288,210; male 1,336,162)
15-64 years: 61% (female 2,246,791; male 2,312,555)
65 years and over: 4% (female 178,388; male 149,157) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.17% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 23.92 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.15 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 49.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.73 years
male: 66.57 years
female: 70.99 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.72 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican

Ethnic divisions: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 83%
male: 85%
female: 82%

Labor force: 2.3 million to 2.6 million
by occupation: agriculture 49%, services 33%, industry 18% (1986)

@Dominican Republic:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Dominican Republic
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republica Dominicana
local short form: none

Digraph: DR

Type: republic

Capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona,
Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat,
Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria
Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata,
Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez,
San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago, Santiago
Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory or married persons
regardless of age
note: members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Joaquin BALAGUER
Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, sixth elected term began 16 August
1994); Vice President Jacinto PEYNADO (since 16 August 1994) election
last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held May 1996); results - Joaquin
BALAGUER (PRSC) 42.6%, Juan BOSCH Gavino (PLD) 13.2%, Jose Francisco
PENA Gomez (PRD) 41.9%, Jacobo MAJLUTA (PRI) 2.3%
cabinet: Cabinet; nominated by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate (Senado): elections last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held May
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30 total) PRSC
15, PLD 1, PRD 14
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): elections last held 16 May
1994 (next to be held May 1998); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (120 total) PLD 13, PRSC 50, PRD 57

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders:
major parties: Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin
BALAGUER Ricardo; Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), (vacant following
retirement of Juan BOSCH Gavino); Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD),
Jose Franciso PENA Gomez; Independent Revolutionary Party (PRI),
Jacobo MAJLUTA
minor parties: National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan Rene
BEAUCHAMPS Javier; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic (PLRD),
Andres Van Der HORST; Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias WESSIN
Chavez; National Progressive Force (FNP), Marino VINICIO Castillo;
Popular Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert; Dominican
Communist Party (PCD), Narciso ISA Conde; Dominican Workers' Party
(PTD), Ivan RODRIGUEZ; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union (UPA), Ignacio
RODRIGUEZ Chiappini; Alliance for Democracy Party (APD), Maximilano
Rabelais PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS, Vicente BENGOA; Democratic
Union (UD), Fernando ALVAREZ Bogaert
note: in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to
form the Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain
individual party structures

Other political or pressure groups: Collective of Popular Organzations
(COP), leader NA

Member of: ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM
(guest), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jose del Carmen ARIZA Gomez
chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280
FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto
Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and
San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston,
Jacksonville, Minneapolis, Mobile, and Ponce (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donna Jean HRINAK
embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo
Navarro, Santo Domingo
mailing address: Unit 5500, Santo Domingo; APO AA 34041
telephone: [1] (809) 541-2171, 8100
FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437

Flag: a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the
flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and
red, the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of
arms is at the center of the cross

@Dominican Republic:Economy

Overview: The Dominican economy showed some signs of slippage in 1994,
although its overall performance in recent years has been relatively
strong. After posting an increase of nearly 8% in 1992, GDP growth
fell to 3% in 1993 and 1994 as mining output decreased and erosion of
real wages caused private consumption to decline. A pre-election boost
in government spending in early 1994 led to the first government
deficit in four years and bumped inflation up to 14% for the year.
Continued dynamism in construction and the services sector, especially
tourism, should keep the economy growing in 1995. Tourism,
agriculture, and manufacturing for export remain key sectors of the
economy. Domestic industry is based on the processing of agricultural
products, oil refining, and chemicals.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $24 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.9% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,070 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.8 billion
expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Exports: $585 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa
partners: US 52%, EC 23%, Puerto Rico 9%, Asia 7% (1992)

Imports: $2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and
pharmaceuticals
partners: US 60% (1993)

External debt: $4.3 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.4% (1994); accounts for 14% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 1,450,000 kW
production: 5.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 651 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining,
textiles, cement, tobacco

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and employs 49% of labor force;
commercial crops - sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco; food
crops - rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; animal output - cattle,
hogs, dairy products, meat, eggs; not self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $575 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $655 million

Currency: 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 13.258 (January
1995), 13.160 (1994), 12.679 (1993), 12.774 (1992), 12.692 (1991),
8.525 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Dominican Republic:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,655 km (in numerous segments; includes 4 different gauges
from 0.558-m narrow gauge to 1.435-m standard gauge)

Highways:
total: 12,000 km
paved: 5,800 km
unpaved: gravel or improved earth 5,600 km; unimproved earth 600 km

Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de Macoris, Santo
Domingo

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT

Airports:
total: 36
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
with paved runways under 914 m: 16
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6

@Dominican Republic:Communications

Telephone system: 190,000 telephones; relatively efficient domestic
system based on islandwide microwave radio relay network
local: NA
intercity: islandwide microwave radio relay network
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean)
earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 0, shortwave 6
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 18
televisions: NA

@Dominican Republic:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,008,597; males fit for
military service 1,266,812; males reach military age (18) annually
79,769 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $116 million, 1.4% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

ECUADOR

@Ecuador:Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the
Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 283,560 sq km
land area: 276,840 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Nevada
note: includes Galapagos Islands

Land boundaries: total 2,010 km, Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and
Galapagos Islands
territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: three sections of the boundary with Peru are
in dispute

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands
(sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 3%
meadows and pastures: 17%
forest and woodland: 51%
other: 23%

Irrigated land: 5,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water
pollution
natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Tropical Timber 94

Note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

@Ecuador:People

Population: 10,890,950 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (female 1,928,977; male 1,990,036)
15-64 years: 60% (female 3,281,575; male 3,230,082)
65 years and over: 4% (female 244,862; male 215,418) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.95% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 25.08 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 37.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.35 years
male: 67.83 years
female: 72.99 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.97 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian 25%,
Spanish 10%, black 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Indian languages (especially Quechua)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 87%
male: 90%
female: 84%

Labor force: 2.8 million
by occupation: agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%, commerce 16%,
services and other activities 28% (1982)

@Ecuador:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador

Digraph: EC

Type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El
Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi,
Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua,
Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of
Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons
ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN
Cordovez (since 10 August 1992); Vice President Alberto DAHIK Garzoni
(since 10 August 1992); election runoff election held 5 July 1992
(next to be held NA 1996); results - Sixto DURAN-BALLEN elected as
president and Alberto DAHIK elected as vice president
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Congress (Congreso Nacional): elections last held 1 May 1994
(next to be held 1 May 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (77 total) PSC 25, PRE 11, MPD 8, ID 7, DP 7, PCE 7, PUR 2,
CFP 2, APRE 2, PSE 1, FRA 1, PLRE 1, LN 1, independents 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders:
Center-Right parties: Social Christian Party (PSC), Jaime NEBOT Saadi,
president; Republican Unity Party (PUR), President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN,
leader; Ecuadorian Conservative Party (PCE), Vice President Alberto
DAHIK, president
Center-Left parties: Democratic Left (ID), Andres VALLEJO Arcos,
Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos, leaders; Popular Democracy (DP), Rodrigo PAZ,
leader; Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party (PLRE), Medardo MORA, leader;
Radical Alfarista Front (FRA), Jaime ASPIAZU Seminario, director
populist parties: Roldista Party (PRE), Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz,
director; Concentration of Popular Forces (CFP), Rodolfo BAQUERIZO
Nazur, leader; Popular Revolutionary Action (APRE), Frank VARGAS
Passos, leader
Far-Left parties: Popular Democratic Movement (MPD), Juan Jose
CASTELLO, leader; Ecuadorian Socialist Party (PSE), Leon ROLDOS,
leader; Broad Leftist Front (FADI), Rene Mauge MOSQUERA, chairman;
Ecuadorian National Liberation (LN), Alfredo CASTILLO, director
Communists: Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-North Korea), Rene
Mauge MOSQUERA, Secretary General; Communist Party of
Ecuador/Marxist-Leninist (PCMLE, Maoist)

Member of: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edgar TERAN Teran
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, and San Francisco
consulate(s): Newark

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter F. ROMERO
embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
mailing address: APO AA 34039-3420
telephone: [593] (2) 562-890, 561-624, 561-749
FAX: [593] (2) 502-052
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and
red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag;
similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a
coat of arms

@Ecuador:Economy

Overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural
areas. Growth has been uneven in recent years because of fluctuations
in prices for Ecuador's primary exports - oil and bananas - as well as
because of government policies designed to curb inflation. President
Sixto DURAN-BALLEN launched a series of macroeconomic reforms when he
came into office in August 1992 which included raising domestic fuel
prices and utility rates, eliminating most subsidies, and bringing the
government budget into balance. These measures helped to reduce
inflation from 55% in 1992 to 25% in 1994. DURAN-BALLEN has a much
more favorable attitude toward foreign investment than his predecessor
and has supported several laws designed to encourage foreign
investment. Ecuador has implemented free or complementary trade
agreements with Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela, as well
as applied for World Trade Organization membership. Ecuador signed a
standby agreement with the IMF and rescheduled its $7.6 billion
commercial debt in 1994 thereby regaining access to multilateral
lending. Growth in 1994 speeded up to 3.9%, based on increased exports
of bananas and non-traditional products, while international reserves
increased to a record $1.6 billion.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $41.1 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.9% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,840 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $2.76 billion
expenditures: $2.76 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994)

Exports: $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: petroleum 39%, bananas 17%, shrimp 16%, cocoa 3%, coffee
6%
partners: US 42%, Latin America 29%, Caribbean, EU countries 17%

Imports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: transport equipment, consumer goods, vehicles, machinery,
chemicals
partners: US 28%, EU 17%, Latin America 31%, Caribbean, Japan

External debt: $13.2 billion (yearend 1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.4% (1993); accounts for almost
35% of GDP, including petroleum

Electricity:
capacity: 2,230,000 kW
production: 6.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 612 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper
products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Agriculture: accounts for 14% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood; other
agricultural exports - coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; other crops -
rice, potatoes, manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock products -
cattle, sheep, hogs, beef, pork, dairy products; net importer of
foodgrains, dairy products, and sugar

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for derivatives of coca
originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of
coca; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit
narcotics; important money-laundering hub

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $498 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-91), $2.39 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $64 million

Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1 - 1,198.1 (December 1994),
2,196.7 (1994), 1,919.1 (1993), 1,534.0 (1992), 1,046.25 (1991), 767.8
(1990), 767.78 (1990), 526.35 (1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Ecuador:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 965 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 43,709 km
paved: 5,245 km
unpaved: 38,464 km

Inland waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, San
Lorenzo

Merchant marine:
total: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 222,822 GRT/326,447 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 2, container 2, liquefied gas tanker 2,
oil tanker 13, passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 10

Airports:
total: 175
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 15
with paved runways under 914 m: 107
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 5
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 31

@Ecuador:Communications

Telephone system: 318,000 telephones; 30 telephones/1,000 persons;
domestic facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 272, FM 0, shortwave 39
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 33
televisions: NA

@Ecuador:Defense Forces

Branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana,
includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), National
Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,814,867; males fit for
military service 1,903,979; males reach military age (20) annually
113,985 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

EGYPT

@Egypt:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Libya and the Gaza Strip

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 1,001,450 sq km
land area: 995,450 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of New
Mexico

Land boundaries: total 2,689 km, Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km,
Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: administrative boundary with Sudan does not
coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle,"
a barren area of 20,580 sq km, tensions over this disputed area began
to escalate in 1992 and remain high

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 95%

Irrigated land: 25,850 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and
windblown sands; increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam;
desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and
marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides,
raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water
resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source;
rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources
natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash
floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called
khamsin occurs in spring; duststorms, sandstorms
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified
- Desertification, Tropical Timber 94

Note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and
remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea
link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and
juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern
geopolitics

@Egypt:People

Population: 62,359,623 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37% (female 11,380,668; male 11,872,728)
15-64 years: 59% (female 18,250,706; male 18,641,830)
65 years and over: 4% (female 1,204,477; male 1,009,214) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.95% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 28.69 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.86 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 74.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.12 years
male: 59.22 years
female: 63.12 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.67 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic divisions: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and
Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily
Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic
Christian and other 6% (official estimate)

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by
educated classes

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 48%
male: 63%
female: 34%

Labor force: 16 million (1994 est.)
by occupation: government, public sector enterprises, and armed forces
36%, agriculture 34%, privately owned service and manufacturing
enterprises 20% (1984)
note: shortage of skilled labor; 2,500,000 Egyptians work abroad,
mostly in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab states (1993 est.)

@Egypt:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: none
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Digraph: EG

Type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum,
Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah,
Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah,
As Suways, Aswan, Asyu't, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina,
Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic
codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (sworn in as
president on 14 October 1981, eight days after the assassination of
President SADAT); national referendum held 4 October 1993 validated
Mubarak's nomination by the People's Assembly to a third 6-year
presidential term
head of government: Prime Minister Atef Mohammed Najib SEDKY (since 12
November 1986)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral
People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b): elections last held 29 November
1990 (next to be held NA November 1995); results - NDP 86.3%, NPUG
1.3%, independents 12.4%; seats - (454 total, 444 elected, 10
appointed by the president) NDP 383, NPUG 6, independents 55; note -
most opposition parties boycotted; NDP figures include NDP members who
ran as independents and other NDP-affiliated independents
Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura): functions only in a consultative
role; elections last held 8 June 1989 (next to be held NA June 1995);
results - NDP 100%; seats - (258 total, 172 elected, 86 appointed by
the president) NDP 172

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party (NDP),
President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader, is the dominant party; legal
opposition parties are; New Wafd Party (NWP), Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN;
Socialist Labor Party, Ibrahim SHUKRI; National Progressive Unionist
Grouping (NPUG), Khalid MUHYI-AL-DIN; Socialist Liberal Party (SLP),
Mustafa Kamal MURAD; Democratic Unionist Party, Mohammed
'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Umma Party, Ahmad al-SABAHI; Misr al-Fatah Party
(Young Egypt Party), Gamal RABIE; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party,
Dia' al-din DAWUD; Democratic Peoples' Party, Anwar AFIFI; The Greens
Party, Kamal KIRAH; Social Justice Party, Muhammad 'ABD-AL-'AL
note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Other political or pressure groups: despite a constitutional ban
against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim
Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant
political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by
the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more
aggressively in the past year to block its influence; trade unions and
professional associations are officially sanctioned

Member of: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC,
OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIL, UNPROFOR, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed Maher El SAYED
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr.
embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo

mailing address: APO AE 09839-4900
telephone: [20] (2) 3557371
FAX: [20] (2) 3573200

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with
the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing
the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in
Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen,
which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that
has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green
stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in
the white band

@Egypt:Economy

Overview: Half of Egypt's GDP originates in the public sector, most
industrial plants being owned by the government. Overregulation holds
back technical modernization and foreign investment. Even so, the
economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s and early 1980s, but in
1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an increasingly heavy burden
of debt servicing led Egypt to begin negotiations with the IMF for
balance-of-payments support. Egypt's first IMF standby arrangement
concluded in mid-1987 was suspended in early 1988 because of the
government's failure to adopt promised reforms. Egypt signed a
follow-on program with the IMF and also negotiated a structural
adjustment loan with the World Bank in 1991. In 1991-93 the government
made solid progress on administrative reforms such as liberalizing
exchange and interest rates but resisted implementing major structural
reforms like streamlining the public sector. As a result, the economy
has not gained momentum and unemployment has become a growing problem.
Egypt probably will continue making uneven progress in implementing
the successor programs with the IMF and World Bank it signed onto in
late 1993. Tourism has plunged since 1992 because of sporadic attacks
by Islamic extremists on tourist groups. President MUBARAK has cited
population growth as the main cause of the country's economic
troubles. The addition of about 1.2 million people a year to the
already huge population of 62 million exerts enormous pressure on the
5% of the land area available for agriculture along the Nile.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $151.5 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 1.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,490 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $18 billion
expenditures: $19.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.8
billion (FY94/95 est.)

Exports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., FY93/94 est.)
commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw
cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
partners: EU, US, Japan

Imports: $11.2 billion (c.i.f., FY93/94 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood
products, durable consumer goods, capital goods
partners: EU, US, Japan

External debt: $31.2 billion (December 1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.7% (FY92/93 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 11,830,000 kW
production: 44.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 695 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum,
construction, cement, metals

Agriculture: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruit, vegetables;
cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; annual fish catch about 140,000
metric tons

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian
heroin and opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for
Nigerian couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish from Lebanon
and Syria

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15.7 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $10.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4 billion

Currency: 1 Egyptian pound (#E) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (#E) per US$1 - 3.4 (November 1994),
3.369 (November 1993), 3.345 (November 1992), 2.7072 (1990); market
rate: 3.3920 (January 1995), 3.3920 (1994), 3.3704 (1993), 3.3300
(1992), 2.0000 (1991), 1.1000 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Egypt:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 4,895 km (42 km electrified; 951 km double track)
standard gauge: 4,548 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 951 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 347 km 0.750-m gauge

Highways:
total: 47,387 km
paved: 34,593 km
unpaved: 12,794 km

Inland waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser,
Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta);
Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including approaches), used by oceangoing
vessels drawing up to 16.1 meters of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas
460 km

Ports: Alexandria, Al Ghurdaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur Safajah, Damietta,
Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine:
total: 168 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,187,442 GRT/1,821,327
DWT
ships by type: bulk 19, cargo 83, container 2, oil tanker 15,
passenger 30, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 14,
short-sea passenger 4

Airports:
total: 91
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 11
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 35
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 14
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7

@Egypt:Communications

Telephone system: 600,000 telephones; 11 telephones/1,000 persons;
large system by Third World standards but inadequate for present
requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading
local: NA
intercity: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,
Ismailia Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave
radio relay
international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1
ARABSAT, and 1 INMARSAT earth station; 5 coaxial submarine cables,
microwave troposcatter (to Sudan), and microwave radio relay (to
Libya, Israel, and Jordan)

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 39, FM 6, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 41
televisions: NA

@Egypt:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 16,113,413; males fit for
military service 10,455,955; males reach military age (20) annually
648,724 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.5 billion, 8.2% of
total government budget (FY94/95)

________________________________________________________________________

EL SALVADOR

@El Salvador:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Guatemala and Honduras

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 21,040 sq km
land area: 20,720 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total 545 km, Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims:

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