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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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expenditures: $1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $110
million (1991 est.)

Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
partners: US, Germany, Italy, Guatemala, El Salvador, Netherlands, UK,
France

Imports: $2.9 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment,
petroleum
partners: US, Japan, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Germany

External debt: $3.2 billion (1991)

Industrial production: growth rate 10.5% (1992); accounts for 22% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 1,040,000 kW
production: 4.1 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,164 kWh (1993)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction
materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Agriculture: accounts for 19% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash
commodities - coffee, beef, bananas, sugar; other food crops include
corn, rice, beans, potatoes; normally self-sufficient in food except
for grain; depletion of forest resources resulting in lower timber
output

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South
America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $935 million; Communist countries (1971-89), $27 million

Currency: 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 164.39 (December
1994), 157.07 (1994), 142.17 (1993), 134.51 (1992), 122.43 (1991),
91.58 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Costa Rica:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 950 km (260 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 35,560 km
paved: 5,600 km
unpaved: gravel and earth 29,960 km (1992)

Inland waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

Pipelines: petroleum products 176 km

Ports: Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto Quepos, Puntarenas

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 174
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 17
with paved runways under 914 m: 117
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 36

@Costa Rica:Communications

Telephone system: 292,000 telephones; very good domestic telephone
service
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: connection into Central American Microwave System; 1
INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 18
televisions: NA

@Costa Rica:Defense Forces

Branches: Civil Guard, Coast Guard, Air Section, Rural Assistance
Guard; note - the Constitution prohibits armed forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 896,516; males fit for military
service 602,785; males reach military age (18) annually 32,815 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 0.5% of
GDP (1989)

________________________________________________________________________

COTE D'IVOIRE

(also known as Ivory Coast)

@Cote D'ivoire:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Ghana and Liberia

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 322,460 sq km
land area: 318,000 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total 3,110 km, Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea
610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline: 515 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons -
warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and
wet (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt,
bauxite, copper

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 4%
meadows and pastures: 9%
forest and woodland: 26%
other: 52%

Irrigated land: 620 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation (most of the country's forests - once
the largest in West Africa - have been cleared by the timber
industry); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural
effluents
natural hazards: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during
the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

@Cote D'ivoire:People

Population: 14,791,257 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 3,506,147; male 3,534,751)
15-64 years: 50% (female 3,619,759; male 3,820,999)
65 years and over: 2% (female 142,366; male 167,235) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.38% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 46.17 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 14.95 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: since 1989, over 350,000 refugees have fled to Cote d'Ivoire to
escape the civil war in Liberia; if a lasting peace is achieved in
Liberia in 1995, large numbers of refugees can be expected to return
to their homes

Infant mortality rate: 93.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 48.87 years
male: 46.52 years
female: 51.29 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.61 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ivorian(s)
adjective: Ivorian

Ethnic divisions: Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%,
Agni, foreign Africans (mostly Burkinabe and Malians, about 3
million), non-Africans 130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese
100,000 to 300,000)

Religions: indigenous 25%, Muslim 60%, Christian 12%

Languages: French (official), 60 native dialects; Dioula is the most
widely spoken

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1988)
total population: 34%
male: 44%
female: 23%

Labor force: 5.718 million
by occupation: over 85% of population engaged in agriculture,
forestry, livestock raising; about 11% of labor force are wage
earners, nearly half in agriculture and the remainder in government,
industry, commerce, and professions

@Cote D'ivoire:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
former: Ivory Coast

Digraph: IV

Type: republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960

Capital: Yamoussoukro
note: although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Abidjan
remains the administrative center; foreign governments, including the
United States, maintain presence in Abidjan

Administrative divisions: 50 departments (departements, singular -
departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville,
Agnibilekrou, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou,
Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro,
Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou, Guiglo,
Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne,
Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou,
Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro,
Zuenoula

Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 7 December

Constitution: 3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last
time November 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Henri Konan BEDIE (since 7 December 1993)
constitutional successor who will serve during the remainder of the
term of former President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY who died in office
after continuous service from November 1960 (next election October
1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 10
December 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 25
November 1990 (next to be held November 1995); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) PDCI 163, FPI 9, PIT 1,
independents 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of the Cote d'Ivoire
(PDCI), Henri Konan BEDIE; Rally of the Republicans (RDR), Djeny
KOBINA; Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO; Ivorian Worker's
Party (PIT), Francis WODIE; Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI), Morifere
BAMBA; over 20 smaller parties

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ,
G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Moise KOUMOUE-KOFFI
chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hume A. HORAN
embassy: 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
mailing address: 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan
telephone: [225] 21 09 79, 21 46 72
FAX: [225] 22 32 59

Flag: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and
green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the
colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar
to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red;
design was based on the flag of France

@Cote D'ivoire:Economy

Overview: Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers and
exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently,
the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international
prices for coffee and cocoa and to weather conditions. Despite
attempts by the government to diversify, the economy is still largely
dependent on agriculture and related industries. After several years
of lagging performance, the Ivorian economy began a comeback in 1994,
due to improved prices for cocoa and coffee, growth in non-traditional
primary exports such as pineapples and rubber, trade and banking
liberalization, offshore oil and gas discoveries, and generous
external financing and debt rescheduling by multilateral lenders and
France. The 50% devaluation in January 1994 caused a one time jump in
the inflation rate. Government adherence to a renewed structural
adjustment program has led to a budget surplus for the first time in
several years, a smaller personnel budget, and an increase in public
investment. While real growth in 1994 was only 1.5%, the IMF and World
Bank expect it will surpass 6% in 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $20.5 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 1.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,430 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 14% (1985)

Budget:
revenues: $1.9 billion
expenditures: $3.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $408
million (1993)

Exports: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: cocoa 30%, coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, petroleum,
cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton
partners: France, Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Burkina, US, Belgium,
UK (1992)

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: food, capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
partners: France, Nigeria, Japan, Netherlands, US (1992)

External debt: $17.3 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1993 est.); accounts for 20% of
GDP, including petroleum

Electricity:
capacity: 1,170,000 kW
production: 1.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 123 kWh (1993)

Industries: foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refining, automobile
assembly, textiles, fertilizer, beverages

Agriculture: most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP and
80% to exports; cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber,
bananas, palm kernels, rubber; food crops - corn, rice, manioc, sweet
potatoes; not self-sufficient in bread grain and dairy products

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis; mostly for local
consumption; some international drug trade; transshipment point for
Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the
US

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $356 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $5.2 billion

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cote D'ivoire:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 660 km (25 km double track)
narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways:
total: 46,600 km
paved: 3,600 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 32,000 km; unimproved
earth 11,000 km

Inland waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous
coastal lagoons

Ports: Abidjan, Aboisso, Dabou, San-Pedro

Merchant marine:
total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 49,671 GRT/69,216 DWT
ships by type: chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil tanker 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Airports:
total: 40
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with paved runways under 914 m: 11
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 6
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 16

@Cote D'ivoire:Communications

Telephone system: 87,700 telephones; well-developed by African
standards but operating well below capacity; consists of open-wire
lines and radio relay microwave links
local: NA
intercity: NA microwave radio relay
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth
stations; 2 coaxial submarine cables

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 18
televisions: NA

@Cote D'ivoire:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie,
Presidential Guard, Military Fire Group

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 3,318,314; males fit for
military service 1,724,020; males reach military age (18) annually
154,120 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $140 million, 1.4% of
GDP (1993)

________________________________________________________________________

CROATIA

@Croatia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area:
total area: 56,538 sq km
land area: 56,410 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total 2,028 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km,
Hungary 329 km, Serbia and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25
km with Montenego), Slovenia 501 km

Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

International disputes: Ethnic Serbs have occupied UN protected areas
in eastern Croatia and along the western Bosnia and Herzegovinian
border

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate
predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry
summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border,
low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and
islands

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore,
calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt

Land use:
arable land: 32%
permanent crops: 20%
meadows and pastures: 18%
forest and woodland: 15%
other: 15%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and
resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from
industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties and destruction
of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil strife
natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur
94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification

Note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and
Turkish Straits

@Croatia:People

Population: 4,665,821 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 418,272; male 442,064)
15-64 years: 68% (female 1,592,187; male 1,588,455)
65 years and over: 13% (female 394,650; male 230,193) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.13% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 11.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.55 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.02 years
male: 70.59 years
female: 77.65 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.62 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Croat(s)
adjective: Croatian

Ethnic divisions: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%,
Slovenian 0.5%, others 8.1% (1991)

Religions: Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%,
Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 95%

Labor force: 1,509,489
by occupation: industry and mining 37%, agriculture 16% (1981 est.),
government NA%, other

@Croatia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska

Digraph: HR

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija -
singular): Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva,
Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj,
Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonija, Primorje-Gorski Kotar,
Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia,
Varazdin, Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990); election
last held 4 August 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Franjo
TUDJMAN reelected with about 56% of the vote; his opponent Dobroslav
PARAGA got 5% of the vote
head of government: Prime Minister Nikica VALENTIC (since 3 April
1993); Deputy Prime Ministers Mato GRANIC (since 8 September 1992);
Ivica KOSTOVIC (since 14 October 1993); Jure RADIC (since NA);
Borislav SKEGRO (since 3 April 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral parliament Assembly (Sabor)
House of Districts (Zupanije Dom): elections last held 7 and 21
February 1993 (next to be held NA February 1997); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (68 total; 63 elected, 5 presidentially
appointed) HDZ 37, HSLS 16, HSS 5, Istrian Democratic Assembly 3,
SPH-SDP 1, HNS 1
House of Representatives (Predstavnicke Dom): elections last held 2
August 1992 (next to be held NA August 1996); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (138 total) HDZ 85, HSLS 14, SPH-SDP 11, HNS
6, Dalmatian Action/Istrian Democratic Assembly/ Rijeka Democratic
Alliance coalition 6, HSP 5, HSS 3, SNS 3, independents 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), Zlatko
CANJUGA, secretary general; Croatian Democratic Independents (HND),
Stjepan MESIC, president; Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS), Drazen
BUDISA, president; Croatian Democratic Peasant Party (HDSS), Ante
BABIC; Croatian Party of Rights (HSP), Ante DAPIC; Croatian Peasants'
Party (HSS), Josip PANKRETIC; Croatian People's Party (HNS), Radimir
CACIC, president; Dalmatian Action (DA), Mira LJUBIC-LORGER; Serb
National Party (SNS), Milan DJUKIC; Social Democratic Action (SDP),
Miko TRIPALO; other small parties include the Istrian Democratic
Assembly and the Rijeka Democratic Alliance

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: CCC, CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Petar A. SARCEVIC
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter W. GALBRAITH
embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
mailing address: US Embassy, Zagreb, Unit 1345, APO AE 09213-1345
telephone: [385] (41) 456-000
FAX: [385] (41) 440-235

Flag: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms
(red and white checkered)

@Croatia:Economy

Overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic of
Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized
area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav
average. At present, Croatian Serb Separatists control approximately
one-third of the Croatian territory, and one of the overriding
determinants of Croatia's long-term political and economic prospects
will be the resolution of this territorial dispute. Croatia faces
serious economic problems stemming from: the legacy of longtime
Communist mismanagement of the economy; large foreign debt; damage
during the fighting to bridges, factories, power lines, buildings, and
houses; the large refugee population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and
the disruption of economic ties to Serbia and the other former
Yugoslav republics, as well as within its own territory. At the
minimum, extensive Western aid and investment, especially in the
tourist and oil industries, would seem necessary to revive the
moribund economy. However, peace and political stability must come
first; only then will recent government moves toward a
"market-friendly" economy restore old levels of output. As of February
1995, fighting continues among Croats, Serbs, and Muslims, and
national boundaries and final political arrangements are still in
doubt.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $12.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,640 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 17% (December 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $3.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 30%, other
manufacturers 37%, chemicals 11%, food and live animals 9%, raw
materials 6.5%, fuels and lubricants 5% (1990)
partners: EC countries, Slovenia

Imports: $4.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 21%, fuels and
lubricants 19%, food and live animals 16%, chemicals 14%, manufactured
goods 13%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 9%, raw materials 6.5%,
beverages and tobacco 1% (1990)
partners: EC countries, Slovenia, FSU countries

External debt: $2.9 billion (September 1994)

Industrial production: growth rate -4% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 3,570,000 kW
production: NA kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh (1993)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal,
electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum reduction,
paper, wood products (including furniture), building materials
(including cement), textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum
refining, food processing and beverages

Agriculture: Croatia normally produces a food surplus; most
agricultural land in private hands and concentrated in Croat-majority
districts in Slavonia and Istria; much of Slavonia's land has been put
out of production by fighting; wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflowers,
alfalfa, and clover are main crops in Slavonia; central Croatian
highlands are less fertile but support cereal production, orchards,
vineyards, livestock breeding, and dairy farming; coastal areas and
offshore islands grow olives, citrus fruits, and vegetables

Economic aid:
recipient: IMF, $192 million

Currency: 1 Croatian kuna (HRK) = 100 paras

Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US $1 - 5.6144 (November 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Croatia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 2,699 km
standard gauge: 2,699 km 1.435-m gauge (963 km electrified)
note: disrupted by territorial dispute (1994)

Highways:
total: 27,368 km
paved: 22,176 km (302 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,192 km (1991)

Inland waterways: 785 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310
km (1992); note - now disrupted because of territorial dispute

Ports: Dubrovnik, Omis, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split, Zadar

Merchant marine:
total: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 181,565 GRT/225,533 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 20, chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil
tanker 2, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2,
short-sea passenger 4
note: also controlled by Croatian shipowners are 134 ships (1,000 GRT
or over) totaling 3,286,231 DWT that operate under Maltese and Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines registry

Airports:
total: 76
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 55
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8

@Croatia:Communications

Telephone system: 350,000 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: no satellite links

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 8, shortwave 0
radios: 1.1 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 12 (repeaters 2)
televisions: 1.027 million

@Croatia:Defense Forces

Branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Frontier Guard, Home Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,183,184; males fit for
military service 943,749; males reach military age (19) annually
32,831 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 337 billion to 393 billion dinars, NA% of GDP
(1993 est.); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars
using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

CUBA

@Cuba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 110,860 sq km
land area: 110,860 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total 29 km, US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part
of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to
US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can
terminate the lease

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to
April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains
in the southeast

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt,
timber, silica, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 23%
permanent crops: 6%
meadows and pastures: 23%
forest and woodland: 17%
other: 31%

Irrigated land: 8,960 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting threatens
wildlife populations; deforestation
natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August
to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every
other year); droughts are common
international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Marine Life
Conservation

Note: largest country in Caribbean

@Cuba:People

Population: 10,937,635 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (female 1,191,320; male 1,256,928)
15-64 years: 68% (female 3,732,434; male 3,751,464)
65 years and over: 10% (female 528,104; male 477,385) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.65% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 14.54 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.53 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.05 years
male: 74.86 years
female: 79.37 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.63 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cuban(s)
adjective: Cuban

Ethnic divisions: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to Castro assuming power

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: age 15-49 and over can read and write (1981)
total population: 98%

Labor force: 4,620,800 economically active population (1988);
3,578,800 in state sector
by occupation: services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture
20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation and communications
7% (June 1990)

@Cuba:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
conventional short form: Cuba
local long form: Republica de Cuba
local short form: Cuba

Digraph: CU

Type: Communist state

Capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey,
Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo,
Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar
del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered
by the US from 1898 to 1902)

National holiday: Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953)

Constitution: 24 February 1976

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements
of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President of the Council of
State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz
(Prime Minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office
was abolished; President since 2 December 1976); First Vice President
of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of
Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; proposed by the president of the
Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly of People's Power: (Asamblea Nacional del Poder
Popular) elections last held February 1993 (next to be held NA); seats
- 589 total, elected directly from slates approved by special
candidacy commissions

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular)

Political parties and leaders: only party - Cuban Communist Party
(PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary

Member of: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS,
ILO, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS (excluded from formal
participation since 1962), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Principal Officer Alfonso FRAGA PEREZ (since August
1992) represented by the Cuban Interests Section of the Swiss Embassy
in Washington, DC
chancery: 2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, Cuban Interests Section, Swiss
Embassy, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 797-8609, 8610, 8615

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Principal Officer Joseph G. SULLIVAN
US Interests Section: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada Entre L Y M,
Vedado Seccion, Havana
mailing address: use street address
telephone: 33-3551 through 3559, 33-3543 through 3547, 33-3700
(operator assistance required)
FAX: Telex 512206
note: protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland - US Interests Section,
Swiss Embassy

Flag: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating
with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a
white five-pointed star in the center

@Cuba:Economy

Overview: Cuba's heavily statist economy remains severely depressed as
the result of its own inefficiencies and the loss of massive amounts
of economic aid from the former Soviet Bloc. Total output in 1994 was
only about half the output of 1989. The fall in output and in imports
is reflected in the deterioration of food supplies, shortages of
electricity, inability to get spare parts, and the replacement of
motor-driven vehicles by bicycles and draft animals. Higher world
market prices for sugar and nickel in 1994, however, resulted in a
slight increase in export earnings for the first time in six years,
despite lower production of both commodities. The growth of tourism
slowed in late 1994 as a result of negative publicity surrounding the
exodus of Cubans from the island and other international factors. The
government continued its aggressive search for foreign investment and
announced preliminary agreements to form large joint ventures with
Mexican investors in telecommunications and oil refining. In mid-1994,
the National Assembly began introducing several new taxes and price
increases to stem growing excess liquidity and restore some of the
peso's value as a monetary instrument. In October the government
attempted to stimulate food production by permitting the sale of any
surplus production (over state quotas) at unrestricted prices at
designated markets. Similar but much smaller markets were also
introduced for the sale of manufactured goods in December. The various
government measures have influenced a remarkable appreciation of the
black market value of the peso, from more than 100 pesos to the dollar
in September 1994 to 40 pesos to the dollar in early 1995. Policy
discussions continue in the bureaucracy over the proper pace and scope
of economic reform.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $14 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 0.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,260 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $9.3 billion
expenditures: $12.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: sugar, nickel, shellfish, tobacco, medical products,
citrus, coffee
partners: Russia 15%, Canada 9%, China 8%, Egypt 6%, Spain 5%, Japan
4%, Morocco 4% (1994 est.)

Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals
partners: Spain 17%, Mexico 10%, France 8%, China 8%, Venezuela 7%,
Italy 4%, Canada 3%, (1994 est.)

External debt: $10.8 billion (convertible currency, December 1993)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 3,990,000 kW
production: 12 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,022 kWh (1993)

Industries: sugar milling and refining, petroleum refining, food and
tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products,
metals (particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods,
agricultural machinery

Agriculture: key commercial crops - sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus
fruits; other products - coffee, rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's
largest sugar exporter; not self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar);
sector hurt by persistent shortages of fuels and parts

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $710 million; Communist countries (1970-89),
$18.5 billion

Currency: 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (non-convertible,
official rate, linked to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cuba:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 12,623 km
standard gauge: 4,881 km 1.435-m gauge (151.7 km electrified)
other: 7,742 km 0.914- and 1.435-m gauge for sugar plantation lines

Highways:
total: 26,477 km
paved: 14,477 km
unpaved: gravel or earth 12,000 km (1989)

Inland waterways: 240 km

Ports: Cienfuegos, La Habana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas, Nuevitas,
Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine:
total: 48 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 278,103 GRT/396,138 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 22, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas
tanker 4, oil tanker 10, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 9
note: Cuba beneficially owns an additional 24 ships (1,000 GRT or
over) totaling 215,703 DWT under the registry of Panama, Cyprus,
Malta, and Mauritius

Airports:
total: 181
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 10
with paved runways under 914 m: 106
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 36

@Cuba:Communications

Telephone system: 229,000 telephones; 20.7 telephones/1,000 persons;
among the world's least developed telephone systems
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 150, FM 5, shortwave 0
radios: 2.14 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 58
televisions: 1.53 million

@Cuba:Defense Forces

Branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) includes ground forces,
Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); Interior
Ministry Border Guards (TGF),

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 3,065,751; females age 15-49
3,023,997; males fit for military service 1,909,901; females fit for
military service 1,878,768; males reach military age (17) annually
72,582; females reach military age (17) annually 69,361 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - approx. $600 million,
4% of GSP (gross social product) in 1994 was for defense

Note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and supplier of
Cuba, cut off military aid by 1993

________________________________________________________________________

CYPRUS

@Cyprus:Geography

Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterreanean Sea, south of
Turkey

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 9,250 sq km (note - 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish area)
land area: 9,240 sq km
comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two
de facto autonomous areas, a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot
Government (59% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area
(37% of the island), that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the
island); there are two UK sovereign base areas within the Greek
Cypriot portion of the island

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet
winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered
but significant plains along southern coast

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
marble, clay earth pigment

Land use:
arable land: 40%
permanent crops: 7%
meadows and pastures: 10%
forest and woodland: 18%
other: 25%

Irrigated land: 350 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir
catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources
concentrated in the Turkish Cypriot area); water pollution from sewage
and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats
from urbanization
natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Cyprus:People

Population:
total: 736,636 (July 1995 est.) (78% Greek, 18% Turk, 4% other)
Greek area: 602,656 (July 1995 est.) (94.9% Greek, 0.3% Turk, 4.8%
other)
Turkish area: 133,980 (July 1995 est.) (2.1% Greek, 97.7% Turk, 0.2%
other)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (female 92,179; male 97,723)
15-64 years: 64% (female 234,929; male 236,693)
65 years and over: 10% (female 42,190; male 32,922) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.88% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 16.27 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.48 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.47 years
male: 74.19 years
female: 78.85 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cypriot(s)
adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic divisions:
total: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek area; 0.5% of
the Greeks live in the Turkish area), Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks
live in the Greek area; 98.7% of the Turks live in the Turkish area),
other 4% (99.2% of the other ethnic groups live in the Greek area;
0.8% of the other ethnic groups live in the Turkish area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian
Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1987 est.)
total population: 94%
male: 98%
female: 91%

Labor force:
Greek area: 285,500
by occupation: services 57%, industry 29%, agriculture 14% (1992)
Turkish area: 74,000
by occupation: services 52%, industry 23%, agriculture 25% (1992)

@Cyprus:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form: Cyprus
note: the Turkish area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic" or
the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"

Abbreviation: the Turkish area is sometimes referred to as the TRNC
which is short for "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"

Digraph: CY

Type: republic
note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the
island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this
separation was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of
the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto
control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally
recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot President
Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish
Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by
Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal
differences and creation of a new federal system of government

Capital: Nicosia
note: the Turkish area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca,
Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish area administrative
divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and
small parts of Nicosia and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)
note: Turkish area proclaimed self-rule on NA February 1975 from
Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October
note: Turkish area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a
new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better
relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held
intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own
Constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State
of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern
Cyprus" in 1983; a new Constitution for the Turkish area passed by
referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES
(since 28 February 1993); election last held 14 February 1993 (next to
be held February 1998); results - Glafkos CLERIDES 50.3%, George
VASSILIOU 49.7%
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed jointly by the president and
vice-president
note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president of the Turkish area since 13
February 1975; Hakki ATUN has been prime minister of the Turkish area
since 1 January 1994; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the
Turkish area; elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be
held April 2000); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU
37.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral
Greek area: House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon): elections
last held 19 May 1991 (next to be held NA); results - DISY 35.8%, AKEL
(Communist) 30.6%, DIKO 19.5%, EDEK 10.9%; others 3.2%; seats - (56
total) DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 7
Turkish area: Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi): elections
last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); results - UBP 29.9%,
DP 29.2%, CTP 24.2% TKP 13.3%, others 3.4%; seats - (50 total) UBP
(conservative) 15, DP 16, CTP 13, TKP 5, UDP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; note - there is also a Supreme Court
in the Turkish area

Political parties and leaders:
Greek area: Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL, Communist
Party), Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS; Democratic Rally (DISY), John MATSIS;
Democratic Party (DIKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic Union of
the Center (EDEK), Vassos LYSSARIDIS; Socialist Democratic Renewal
Movement (ADISOK), Mikhalis PAPAPETROU; Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS;
Free Democrats, George VASSILIOU
Turkish area: National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal
Liberation Party (TKP), Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party
(CTP), Ozker OZGUR; New Cyprus Party (YKP), Alpay DURDURAN; Free
Democratic Party (HDP), Ismet KOTAK; National Justice Party (MAP),
Zorlu TORE; Unity and Sovereignty Party (BEP), Arif Salih KIRDAG;
Democratic Party (DP), Hakki ATUN; Fatherland Party (VP), Orhan UCOK;
National Birth Party (UDP); the HDP, MAP, and VP merged under the
label National Struggle Unity Party (MMBP) to compete in the 12
December 1993 legislative election

Other political or pressure groups: United Democratic Youth
Organization (EDON, Communist controlled); Union of Cyprus Farmers
(EKA, Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK, pro-West);
Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO, Communist controlled);
Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK, pro-West); Federation of
Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation of
Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)

Member of: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer),
OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andreas J. JACOVIDES
chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772
consulate(s) general: New York
note: Representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORMAN,
office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC, telephone [1] (202)
887-6198

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard A. BOUCHER
embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia
mailing address: P. O. Box 4536 APO AE 09836
telephone: [357] (2) 476100
FAX: [357] (2) 465944

Flag: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name
Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green
crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches
symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and
Turkish communities
note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top
and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white
field

@Cyprus:Economy

Overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is small, diversified, and
prosperous. Industry contributes 14% to GDP and employs 29% of the
labor force, while the service sector contributes 53% to GDP and
employs 57% of the labor force. An average 6.8% rise in real GDP
between 1986 and 1990 was temporarily checked in 1991, because of the
adverse effects of the Gulf war on tourism. After surging 8.5% in
1992, growth slowed to 2.0% in 1993 - its lowest level in two decades
- because of the decline in tourist arrivals associated with the
recession in Western Europe, Cyprus' main trading partner, and the
loss in export competitiveness due to a sharp rise in unit labor
costs. Real GDP is likely to have picked up in 1994, and inflation is
estimated to have risen to between 5% and 6%. The Turkish Cypriot
economy has less than one-third the per capita GDP of the south.
Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty
arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to
invest there. The economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture,
which employs one-quarter of the work force. Moreover, because the
Turkish lira is legal tender, the Turkish Cypriot economy has suffered
the same high inflation as mainland Turkey. The small, vulnerable
economy is estimated to have experienced a sharp drop in growth during
1994 because of the severe economic crisis affecting the mainland. To
compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides direct and
indirect aid to nearly every sector; financial support has risen in
value to about one-third of Turkish Cypriot GDP.

National product:
Greek area: GDP - purchasing power parity - $7.3 billion (1994 est.)
Turkish area: GDP - purchasing power parity - $510 million (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate:
Greek area: 5% (1994 est.)
Turkish area: -4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita:
Greek area: $12,500 (1994 est.)
Turkish area: $3,500 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Greek area: 4.8% (1993)
Turkish area: 63.4% (1992)

Unemployment rate:
Greek area: 2.3% (1993)
Turkish area: 1.2% (1992)

Budget:
revenues: Greek area - $1.8 billion Turkish area - $285 million
expenditures: Greek area - $2.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $400 million Turkish area - $377 million, including
capital expenditures of $80 million (1995 est.)

Exports: $868 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and
shoes
partners: UK 18%, Greece 9%, Lebanon 14%, Germany 6%

Imports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed
grains, machinery
partners: UK 13%, Japan 9%, Italy 10%, Germany 8%, US 8%

External debt: $2.4 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.1% (1993); accounts for 14% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 550,000 kW
production: 2.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,903 kWh (1993)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, wood products

Agriculture: contributes 6% to GDP and employs 25% of labor force in
the south; major crops - potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives,
citrus fruits; vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues

Illicit drugs: transit point for heroin via air routes and container
traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $250 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $24 million

Currency: 1 Cypriot pound (#C) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100
kurus

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per $US1 - 0.4725 (January 1995),
0.4915 (1994), 0.4970 (1993), 0.4502 (1992), 0.4615 (1991), 0.4572
(1990); Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 37,444.1 (December 1994),
29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991),
2,608.6 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cyprus:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
Greek area: *** No data for this item ***
total: 10,448 km
paved: 5,694 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 4,754 km (1992)
Turkish area: *** No data for this item ***
total: 6,116 km
paved: 5,278 km
unpaved: 838 km

Ports: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos Bay

Merchant marine:
total: 1,446 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,911,818
GRT/39,549,216 DWT
ships by type: bulk 473, cargo 530, chemical tanker 28, combination
bulk 55, combination ore/oil 24, container 92, liquefied gas tanker 3,
multifunction large-load carrier 5, oil tanker 120, passenger 5,
passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 58,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 33, short-sea passenger 14, specialized tanker
2, vehicle carrier 2
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 48 countries among
which are ships of Greece 705, Germany 174, Russia 56, Netherlands 45,
Japan 27, Belgium 25, UK 21, Spain 17, Switzerland 14, Hong Kong 13

Airports:
total: 15
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 4
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Cyprus:Communications

Telephone system: 210,000 telephones; excellent in both the area
controlled by the Cypriot Government (Greek area), and in the
Turkish-Cypriot administered area; largely open-wire and microwave
radio relay
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay
international: international service by tropospheric scatter, 3
submarine cables, and 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
and 1 EUTELSAT earth station

Radio:
Greek sector: NA
broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 0
radios: NA
Turkish sector: NA
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
Greek sector: NA
broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 34)
televisions: NA
Turkish sector: NA
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Cyprus:Defense Forces

Branches:
Greek area: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; includes air and naval
elements), Greek Cypriot Police
Turkish area: Turkish Cypriot Security Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 188,231; males fit for military
service 129,397; males reach military age (18) annually 5,467 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $457 million, 5.6% of
GDP (1995)

________________________________________________________________________

CZECH REPUBLIC

@Czech Republic:Geography

Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area:
total area: 78,703 sq km
land area: 78,645 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total 1,880 km, Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km,
Poland 658 km, Slovakia 214 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: Liechtenstein claims restitution for l,600
square kilometers of Czech territory confiscated from its royal family
in 1918; Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated
in connection with their expulsion after World War II versus the Czech
Republic claims that restitution does not preceed before February 1948
when the Communists seized power; unresolved property issues with
Slovakia over redistribution of property of the former Czechoslovak
federal government

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: two main regions: Bohemia in the west, consisting of rolling
plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; and Moravia
in the east, consisting of very hilly country

Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: NA%
forest and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia
centered around Zeplica and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present
health risks; acid rain damaging forests
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and
most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional
military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in
central Europe

@Czech Republic:People

Population: 10,432,774 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 981,918; male 1,030,003)
15-64 years: 68% (female 3,529,411; male 3,530,112)
65 years and over: 13% (female 848,599; male 512,731) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.26% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.46 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.85 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.54 years
male: 69.87 years
female: 77.41 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech
note: 300,000 Slovaks declared themselves Czech citizens in 1994

Ethnic divisions: Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%,
Gypsy 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 1%

Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%,
Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages: Czech, Slovak

Literacy: can read and write
total population: 99%

Labor force: 5.389 million
by occupation: industry 37.9%, agriculture 8.1%, construction 8.8%,
communications and other 45.2% (1990)

@Czech Republic:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Czech Republic
conventional short form: Czech Republic
local long form: Ceska Republika
local short form: Cechy

Digraph: EZ

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, kraj - singular);
Jihocesky, Jihomoravsky, Praha, Severocesky, Severomoravsky,
Stredocesky, Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 9 May; Founding of the
Republic, 28 October

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring
it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
(OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993);
election last held 26 January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998);
results - Vaclav HAVEL elected by the National Council
head of government: Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992);
Deputy Prime Ministers Ivan KOCARNIK, Josef LUX, Jan KALVODA (since NA
June 1992)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the
prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral National Council (Narodni rada)
Senate: elections not yet held; seats (81 total)
Chamber of Deputies: elections last held 5-6 June 1992 (next to be
held NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA given breakup and
realignment of all parliamentary opposition parties since 1992; seats
- (200 total) governing coalition: ODS 65, KDS 10, ODA 16, KDU-CSL 15,
opposition: CSSD 18, LB 25, KSCM 10, LSU 9, LSNS 5, CMSS 9, SPR-RSC 6,
independents 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders:
governing coalition: Civic Democratic Party (ODS), Vaclav KLAUS,
chairman; Christian Democratic Party (KDS), Ivan PILIP, chairman;
Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA), Jan KALVODA, chairman; Christian
Democratic Union/Czech People's Party (KDU-CSL), Josef LUX, chairman
opposition: Czech Social Democrats (CSSD - left opposition), Milos
ZEMAN, chairman; Left Bloc (LB - left opposition), Marie STIBOROVA,
chairman; Communist Party (KSCM - left opposition), Miroslav
GREBENICEK, chairman; Liberal Social Union (LSU - left opposition),
Frantisek TRNKA, chairman; Liberal National Social Party (LSNS -
center party), Pavel HIRS, chairman; Bohemian-Moravian Center Party
(CMSS - center party), Jan KYCER, chairman; Assembly for the Republic
(SPR-RSC - right radical) , Miroslav SLADEK, chairman

Other political or pressure groups: Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade
Unions; Civic Movement

Member of: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EBRD,
ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
NACC, NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ,
UNPROFOR, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael ZANTOVSKY
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 363-6315, 6316
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Adrian A. BASORA
embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1
mailing address: Unit 1330; APO AE 09213-1330
telephone: [42] (2) 2451-0847
FAX: [42] (2) 2451-1001

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost identical to the
flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

@Czech Republic:Economy

Overview: The government of the Czech Republic, using successful
stabilization policies to bolster its claims to full membership in the
western economic community, has reduced inflation to 10%, kept
unemployment at 3%, balanced the budget, run trade surpluses, and
reoriented exports to the EU since the breakup of the Czechoslovak
federation on 1 January 1993. GDP grew 2% in 1994 after stagnating in
1993 and contracting nearly 20% since 1990. Prague's mass
privatization program, including its innovative distribution of
ownership shares to Czech citizens via 'coupon vouchers,' has made the
most rapid progress in Eastern Europe. When coupon shares are
distributed in early 1995, 75%-80% of the economy will be in private
hands or partially privatized, according to the Czech government.
Privatized companies still face major problems in restructuring; the
number of annual bankruptcies quadrupled in 1994. In September 1994,
Prague repaid $471 million in IMF loans five years ahead of schedule,
making the Czech Republic the first East European country to pay off
all IMF debts. Despite these outlays, hard-currency reserves in the
banking system totaled more than $8.5 billion in October. Standard &
Poor's boosted the Republic's credit rating to BBB+ in mid-1994 - up
from a BBB rating that was already two steps higher than Hungary's and
one step above Greece's rating. Prague forecasts a balanced budget, at
least 3% GDP growth, 5% unemployment, and single-digit inflation for
1995. Inflationary pressures - primarily as a result of foreign bank
lending to Czech enterprises but perhaps also due to eased currency
convertibility controls - are likely to be the most troublesome issues
in 1995. Continuing economic recovery in Western Europe should boost
Czech exports and production but a substantial increase in prices
could erode the Republic's comparative advantage in low wages and
exchange rates. Prague already took steps in 1994 to increase control
over banking policies to neutralize the impact of foreign inflows on
the money supply. Although Czech unemployment is currently the lowest
in Central Europe, it will probably increase 1-2 percentage points in
1995 as large state firms go bankrupt or are restructured and service
sector growth slows.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $76.5 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $7,350 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.2% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.2% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $14 billion
expenditures: $13.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Exports: $13.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment,
chemicals, fuels, minerals, metals, agricultural products
(January-November 1994)
partners: Germany 28.7%, Slovakia 15.5%, Austria 7.9%, Italy 6.4%,
France 3.2%, Russia 3.2%, Poland 3.1%, UK 2.9%, Netherlands 2.4%,
Hungary 2.2%, US 2.1%, Belgium 1.3% (January-June 1994)

Imports: $13.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
chemicals, fuels and lubricants, raw materials, agricultural products
(January-November 1994)
partners: Germany 24.1%, Slovakia 15.6%, Russia 9.8%, Austria 7.6%,
Italy 4.9%, France 3.6%, US 3.2%, Netherlands 2.9%, UK 2.8%, Poland
2.7%, Switzerland 2.2%, Belgium 2.0% (January-June 1994)

External debt: $8.7 billion (October 1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (January-September 1994)

Electricity:
capacity: 14.470,000 kW
production: 56.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 4,842 kWh (1993)

Industries: fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal,
motor vehicles, glass, armaments

Agriculture: largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified
crop and livestock production, including grains, potatoes, sugar
beets, hops, fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest
products

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
Latin American cocaine to Western Europe

Economic aid:
donor: 1.4 million annually to IMF beginning in 1994

Currency: 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 27.762 (January 1995), 28.785
(1994), 29.153 (1993), 28.26 (1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990)
note: values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Czech Republic:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 9,434 km (include 1.520-m broad, 1.435-m standard, and several
narrow gauges) (1988)

Highways:
total: 55,890 km (1988)
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Inland waterways: NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

Pipelines: natural gas 5,400 km

Ports: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Merchant marine:
total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 181,646 GRT/282,296 DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 9

Airports:
total: 116
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
with paved runways under 914 m: 5
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 10
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 32
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 41

@Czech Republic:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM, FM, shortwave
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Czech Republic:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Railroad
Units

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,753,301; males fit for
military service 2,095,661; males reach military age (18) annually
91,177 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 27 billion koruny, NA% of GNP (1994 est.); note
- conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

DENMARK

@Denmark:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,
on a peninsula north of Germany

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 43,070 sq km
land area: 42,370 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Massachusetts
note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest
of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Land boundaries: total 68 km, Germany 68 km

Coastline: 3,379 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 4 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving
Iceland, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool
summers

Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 61%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 6%

Book of the day: