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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Publication Information
Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

American Samoa
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean

The Bahamas
Baker Island
Bassas da India
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bouvet Island
British Indian OceanTerritory
British Virgin Islands

Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Czech Republic

Dominican Republic

El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Europa Island

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

The Gambia
Gaza Strip
Glorioso Islands

Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Hong Kong
Howland Island

Indian Ocean
Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)

Jan Mayen
Jarvis Island
Johnston Atoll
Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry)
Juan de Nova Island

Kingman Reef
Korea, North
Korea, South


Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands

Navassa Island
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands


Pacific Ocean
Palmyra Atoll
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Puerto Rico



Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Serbia and Montenegro
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka

Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Turks and Caicos Islands

United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States

Virgin Islands

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
Western Samoa




A. The United Nations System (a graphical file not available in the
C. International Organizations and Groups
D. Abbreviations for Selected International Environmental Agreements
E. Selected International Environmental Agreements
F. Weights and Measures
G. Estimates of Gross Domestic Product on an Exchange Rate Basis
H. Cross-Reference List of Geographic Items


Publication Information for The World Factbook 1995

The printed version of the Factbook is published annually in July by
the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government
officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed
to meet their specific requirements. Information was provided by the
American Geophysical Union, Bureau of the Census, Central Intelligence
Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Mapping Agency, Defense
Nuclear Agency, Department of State, Foreign Broadcast Information
Service, Maritime Administration, National Science Foundation (Polar
Information Program), Naval Maritime Intelligence Center, Office of
Territorial and International Affairs, US Board on Geographic Names,
US Coast Guard, and others.

Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

Central Intelligence Agency
Attn.: Office of Public and Agency Information
Washington, DC 20505
Telephone: [1] (703) 351-2053

US Government officials should obtain copies of The World Factbook
directly from their own organization or through liaison channels from
the Central Intelligence Agency. This publication is also available in
microfiche, magnetic tape, or computer diskettes.

This publication may be purchased by telephone (VISA or MasterCard) or
mail from:

Superintendent of Documents
P.O. Box 371954
Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800

A subscription to this publication may be purchased from:

Document Expediting (DOCEX) Project
Exchange and Gift Division
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20540
Telephone: [1] (202) 707-9527

This publication may be purchased in printed form, photocopy,
microfiche, magnetic tape, or computer diskettes from:

National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
Telephone: [1] (703) 487-4650

This publication may be purchased in photocopy or microform from:

Photoduplication Service Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20540-5234
Telephone: [1] (202) 707-5640



There have been some significant changes in this edition. The Trust
Territory of the Pacific Islands became the independent nation of
Palau. The gross domestic product (GDP) of all countries is now
presented on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis rather than on the
old exchange rate basis. There is a new entry on Age structure and the
Airports entry now includes unpaved runways. The Communications
category has been restructured and now includes the entries of
Telephone system, Radio, and Television. The remainder of the entries
in the former Communications category-Railroads, Highways, Inland
waterways, Pipelines, Ports, Merchant marine, and Airports-can now be
found under a new category called Transportation. There is a new
appendix listing estimates of gross domestic product on an exchange
rate basis for all nations. A reference map of the Republic of South
Africa is included. The electronic files used to produce the Factbook
have been restructured into a database. As a result, the formats of
some entries in this edition have been changed. Additional changes
will occur in the 1996 Factbook.

Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for abbreviations for international
organizations and groups and Appendix D for abbreviations for selected
international environmental agreements)
avdp. -- avoirdupois
c.i.f. -- cost, insurance, and freight
CY -- calendar year
DWT -- deadweight ton
est. -- estimate
Ex-Im -- Export-Import Bank of the United States
f.o.b. -- free on board
FRG -- Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for
information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91
FSU -- former Soviet Union
FY -- fiscal year
FYROM -- The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
GDP -- gross domestic product
GDR -- German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for
information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91
GNP -- gross national product
GRT -- gross register ton
GWP -- gross world product
km -- kilometer
kW -- kilowatt
kWh -- kilowatt hour
m -- meter
NA -- not available
NEGL -- negligible
nm -- nautical mile
NZ -- New Zealand
ODA -- official development assistance
OOF -- other official flows
PDRY -- People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or
South Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or
sq km -- square kilometer
sq mi -- square mile
UAE -- United Arab Emirates
UK -- United Kingdom
US -- United States
USSR -- Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used
for information dated before 25 December 1991
YAR -- Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used
for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and
first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by
the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been
reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.

Airports: Only airports with usable runways are included in this
listing. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest
runway is included. Not all airports have facilities for refueling,
maintenance, or air traffic control. Paved runways have concrete or
asphalt surfaces; unpaved runways have grass, dirt, sand, or gravel

Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by
international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate
of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).
Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities
are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller
entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The
Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per
1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. Dates of
information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1995 is
used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are
estimates for 1 July 1995, with population growth rates estimated for
calendar year 1995. Major political events have been updated through
April 1995.

Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per
l,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.

Digraphs: The digraph is a two-letter "country code" that precisely
identifies every entity without overlap, duplication, or omission. AF,
for example, is the digraph for Afghanistan. It is a standardized
geopolitical data element promulgated in the Federal Information
Processing Standards Publication (FIPS) 10-3 by the National Bureau of
Standards (now called National Institute of Standards and Technology)
at the US Department of Commerce and maintained by the Office of the
Geographer at the US Department of State. The digraph is used to
eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the collection, processing,
and dissemination of area-specific data and is particularly useful for
interchanging data between databases.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations
with 184 nations, including 178 of the 185 UN members (excluded UN
members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, former Yugoslavia,
and the US itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with
6 nations that are not in the UN - Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru,
Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu.

Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official
development assistance (ODA) and other official flows (OOF). ODA is
defined as financial assistance which is concessional in character,
has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of
LDCs, and contains a grant element of at least 25%. OOF transactions
are also official government assistance, but with a main objective
other than development and with a grant element less than 25%. OOF
transactions include official export credits (such as Ex-Im Bank
credits), official equity and portfolio investment, and debt
reorganization by the official sector that does not meet concessional
terms. Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are
initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration
of intent.

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special
sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not
independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US
Government. "Nation" refers to a people politically organized into a
sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependent area" refers to
a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way
with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form
names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. There are 266
entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

184 -- UN members (excluding the former Yugoslavia, which is still
counted by the UN)
7 -- nations that are not members of the UN--Holy See, Kiribati,
Nauru, Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu

1 -- Taiwan

6 -- Australia--Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island
2 -- Denmark--Faroe Islands, Greenland
16 -- France--Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic
Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island,
Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and
Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna
2 -- Netherlands--Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
3 -- New Zealand--Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
3 -- Norway--Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
1 -- Portugal--Macau
16 -- United Kingdom--Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean
Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland
Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey, Isle of Man,
Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the
South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
14 -- United States--American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland
Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway
Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll,
Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island

6 -- Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West
Bank, Western Sahara

4 -- oceans--Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean

1 -- World
266 -- total

Exchange rate:
The official value of a nation's monetary unit at a given date or over
a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US
dollar and as determined by international market forces or official

GDP methodology: In the "Economy" section, GDP dollar estimates for
all countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP)
calculations rather than from conversions at official currency
exchange rates. The PPP method normally involves the use of
international dollar price weights, which are applied to the
quantities of goods and services produced in a given economy. In
addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of countries,
the statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying,
and allowing for the quality of goods and services. The division of a
GDP estimate in local currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in
dollars gives the PPP conversion rate. On average, one thousand
dollars will buy the same market basket of goods in the US as one
thousand dollars - converted to the local currency at the PPP
conversion rate - will buy in the other country. Whereas PPP estimates
for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing
countries are often rough approximations. Most of the GDP estimates
are based on extrapolation of numbers published by the UN
International Comparison Program and by Professors Robert Summers and
Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues.
Currency exchange rates depend on a variety of international and
domestic financial forces that often have little relation to domestic
output. In developing countries with weak currencies the exchange rate
estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP
estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by
10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas real
output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14
countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are
tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move,
of course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. One
important caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a
percentage of GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially
from the proportion when GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as,
for example, when an observer tries to estimate the dollar level of
Russian or Japanese military expenditures. Note: The numbers for GDP
and other economic data can not be chained together from successive
volumes of the Factbook because of changes in the US dollar measuring
rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new or
different sources of information, and changes in national statistical
methods and practices.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a given year.

Gross national product (GNP): The value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned
abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production.

Gross world product (GWP): The aggregate value of all goods and
services produced worldwide in a given year.

Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population,
resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the
balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be
positive or negative.

Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics,
stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis.
These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by
doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside medical
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana
(pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC,
Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
Coca (Erythroxylum coca) is a bush, and the leaves contain the
stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa,
which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa,
and cocoa butter.
Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and
include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal,
phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone
(Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl,
Valmid). Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical,
mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual. Drug abuse
is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in
physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an
individual. Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking,
self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid,
microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine
variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog),
phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin,
Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).
Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
Mandrax is the Southwest Asian slang term for methaqualone, a
pharmaceutical depressant.
Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis
Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, in slang referred to as
Quaaludes in North America or Mandrax in Southwest Asia Narcotics are
drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium
derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include
opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol),
codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC),
and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack),
and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine
or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose),
and others (Darvon, Lomotil).
Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium
poppy. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural
and semisynthetic narcotics. Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid
derived from the mature dried opium poppy.
Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of catha edulis
that is chewed or drunk as tea.
Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a
pharmaceutical depressant.
Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and
activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines
(Desoxyn, Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate
(Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year
old in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.

International disputes: This category includes a wide variety of
situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to
unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding
disputes over international boundaries and maritime boundaries has
been reviewed by the Department of State. References to other
situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such
as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues.
However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance
or recognition by the US Government.

Irrigated land: The figure refers to the land area that is
artificially supplied with water.

Land use: The land surface is categorized as arable land - land
cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat,
maize, rice); permanent crops - land cultivated for crops that are not
replanted after each harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and
pastures - land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forest
and woodland - under dense or open stands of trees; and other - any
land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads,

Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who
represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but is not
involved with the day- to-day activities of the government. The head
of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day
activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of
state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. In the US,
the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.

Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a
group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age
remains constant in the future.

Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of
literacy. Unless otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most
common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age.
Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the
ability to read and write is beyond the scope of this publication.

Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some
national claims from being extended the full distance.

Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All
commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which
excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. Also, a
grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register.
Captive register - A register of ships maintained by a territory,
possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships
owned in the parent country; also referred to as an offshore register,
the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive
register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local
variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation
rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive
register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent
country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned
abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience
register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.
Flag of convenience register - A national register offering
registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major
flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their registers by virtue
of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal
manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having
relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag
state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority
of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an
open register.
Flag state - The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds
legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or
abroad. Flag state maritime legislation determines how a ship is
manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the
Internal register - A register of ships maintained as a subset of a
national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national
flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of
maritime rules from those on the main national register. These
differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by
foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state
(when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International
Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most
notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental
in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and
in attracting foreign owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.
Merchant ship - A vessel that carries goods against payment of
freight; commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately
restricted to commercial vessels only.
Register - The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed
with the maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of
such individual ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides
it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country
in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the nationality of
the ship's ultimate owner.

Money figures: All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US
dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National product: The total output of goods and services in a country
in a given year. See GDP methodology, Gross domestic product (GDP),
and Gross national product (GNP).

Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering
and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on
midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is
referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an
excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (-9.26
migrants/1,000 population).

Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based
on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration
systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on
assumptions about future trends. Starting with the 1993 Factbook,
demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have taken
into account the effects of the growing incidence of AIDS infections;
in 1993 these countries were Burkina, Burundi, Central African
Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania,
Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Thailand, Brazil, and Haiti.

Telephone numbers: All telephone numbers presented in the Factbook
consist of the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where
required) in parentheses, and the local number. The one component that
is not presented is the international access code which varies from
country to country. For example, an international direct dial phone
call placed from the United States to Madrid, Spain, would be as

011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx where
011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls
(01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls),
[34] is the country code for Spain,
(1) is the city code for Madrid,
577 is the local exchange,
and xxxx is the local telephone number.

An international direct dial phone call placed from another country to
the United States would be as follows:

international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx where
[1] is the country code for the United States,
(202) is the area code for Washington, DC,
939 is the local exchange,
and xxxx is the local telephone number.

Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be
born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing
years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each
age. Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless
indicated as fiscal year (FY). FY93/94 refers to the fiscal year that
began in calendar year 1993 and ended in calendar year 1994 as defined
in the Fiscal Year entry of the Economy section for each nation.
FY90-94 refers to the four fiscal years that began in calendar year
1990 and ended in calendar year 1994.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from
material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence
Community estimates. The Handbook of International Economic
Statistics, published annually in September by the Central
Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
countries, Eastern Europe, the newly independent republics of the
former nations of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, and selected other
countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever The World Factbook is




Location: Southern Asia, north of Pakistan

Map references: Asia

total area: 647,500 sq km
land area: 647,500 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total 5,529 km, China 76 km, Iran 936 km,
Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km,
Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water
rights; Iran supports clientsin country, private Pakistani and Saudi
sources also are active; power struggles among various groups for
control of Kabul, regional rivalries among emerging warlords,
traditional tribal disputes continue; support to Islamic fighters in
Tajikistan's civil war; border dispute with Pakistan (Durand Line);
support to Islamic militants worldwide by some factions

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc,
barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and
semiprecious stones

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 15%
forest and woodland: 3%
other: 39%

Irrigated land: 26,600 sq km (1989 est.)

current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of
the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building
materials); desertification
natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains;
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note: landlocked


Population: 21,251,821 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (female 4,342,218; male 4,507,141)
15-64 years: 56% (female 5,406,675; male 6,443,734)
65 years and over: 2% (female 256,443; male 295,610) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 14.47% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 42.69 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.53 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 120.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 152.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45.37 years
male: 45.98 years
female: 44.72 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.21 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan

Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%,
minor ethnic groups (Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages
(primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi
and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 29%
male: 44%
female: 14%

Labor force: 4.98 million
by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%,
construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)


conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan
conventional short form: Afghanistan
local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
local short form: Afghanestan
former: Republic of Afghanistan

Digraph: AF

Type: transitional government

Capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat);
Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni,
Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar,
Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika,
Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol

Note: there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance
Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but the
transitional government has declared it will follow Islamic law

Suffrage: undetermined; previously males 15-50 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Burhanuddin RABBANI (Interim President July-
December 1992; President since 2 January 1993); Vice President
Mohammad NABI MOHAMMADI (since NA); election last held 31 December
1992 (next to be held NA); results - Burhanuddin RABBANI was elected
to a two-year term by a national shura, later amended by multi-party
agreement to 18 months; note - in June 1994 failure to agree on a
transfer mechanism resulted in RABBANI's extending the term to
28 December 1994; following the expiration of the term and while
negotiations on the formation of a new government go on, RABBANI
continues in office head of government: Prime Minister of the Council
of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers

Note: term of present government expired 28 December 1994; factional
fighting since 1 January 1994 has kept government officers from
actually occupying ministries and discharging government
responsibilities; the government's authority to remove cabinet
members, including the Prime Minister, following the expiration of
their term is questionable

Legislative branch: a unicameral parliament consisting of 205 members
was chosen by the shura in January 1993; non-functioning as of June

Judicial branch: an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has
been appointed, but a new court system has not yet been organized

Political parties and leaders: current political organizations include
Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI, Ahmad Shah
MASOOD; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR
faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction;
Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the
Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF;
Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad
Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan
National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI;
Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI;
Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity Party), Abdul Karim
KHALILI; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party), Mohammad
Akbar AKBARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif
MOHSENI; Jumbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Abdul
Rashid DOSTAM; Taliban (Religious Students Movement), Mohammad OMAR

Note: the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded

Other political or pressure groups: the former resistance commanders
are the major power brokers in the countryside and their shuras
(councils) are now administering most cities outside Kabul; tribal
elders and religious students are trying to wrest control from them;
ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders; religious students (talib)


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Abdul RAHIM
chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-3770, 3771
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3516
consulate(s) general: New York
consulate(s): Washington, DC

US diplomatic representation:
none; embassy was closed in January 1989

Flag: NA; note - the flag has changed at least twice since 1992


Overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly
dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep
and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to
political and military upheavals during more than 15 years of war,
including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended
15 February 1989). Over the past decade, one-third of the population
fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering more than 3 million
refugees and Iran about 3 million. About 1.4 million Afghan refugees
remain in Pakistan and about 2 million in Iran. Another 1 million
probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan.
Although reliable data are unavailable, gross domestic product is
lower than 13 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and
the disruption of trade and transport.

National product: GDP $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 56.7% (1991)

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA million (1991

Exports: $188.2 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides
and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
partners: FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium,
Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia

Imports: $616.4 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: food and petroleum products; most consumer goods
partners: FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India,
South Korea, Germany

External debt: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (FY90/91 est.); accounts for
about 25% of GDP

capacity: 480,000 kW
production: 550 million kWh
consumption per capita: 39 kWh (1993)

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture,
shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil,
coal, copper

Agriculture: largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry;
cash products - wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton

Illicit drugs: an illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis for
the international drug trade; world's second-largest opium producer
after Burma (950 metric tons in 1994) and a major source of hashish

Economic aid:
recipient: $450 million US assistance provided 1985-1993; the UN
provides assistance in the form of food aid, immunization, land mine
removal, and a wide range of aid to refugees and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019
(March 1993), 850 (1991), 700 (1989-90), 220 (1988-89); note these
rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official
exchange rates

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March


total: 24.6 km
broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to
Towraghondi; 15 km 1,524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad
transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

total: 21,000 km
paved: 2,800 km
unpaved: gravel 1,650 km; earth 16,550 km (1984)

Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya,
which handles vessels up to about 500 metric tons

Pipelines: petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan
to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports: Keleft, Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

total: 48
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 15
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 14
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6


Telephone system: 31,200 telephones; limited telephone, telegraph, and
radiobroadcast services; 1 public telephone in Kabul
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: one link between western Afghanistan and Iran (via

broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 2
radios: NA

broadcast stations: several television stations run by factions and
local councils which provide intermittent service
televisions: NA

@Afghanistan:Defense Forces

Branches: the military still does not exist on a national scale; some
elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and
tribal militias still exist but are factionalized among the various
mujahedin and former regime leaders

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 5,646,789; males fit for
military service 3,011,777; males reach military age (22) annually
200,264 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $450 million, 15% of
GDP (1990 est.); the new government has not yet adopted a defense




Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian
Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

total area: 28,750 sq km
land area: 27,400 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 720 km, Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km
with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: the Albanian Government supports protection of
the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders; Albanian
majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic; Albanians
in Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public
sector jobs and representation in government; Albania is involved in a
bilaterlal dispute with Greece over border demarcation, the treatment
of Albania's ethnic Greek minority, and migrant Albanian workers in

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry
summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
timber, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 4%
meadows and pastures: 15%
forest and woodland: 38%
other: 22%

Irrigated land: 4,230 sq km (1989)

current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from
industrial and domestic effluents
natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along
southwestern coast
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change

Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea
to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)


Population: 3,413,904 (July 1995 est.)
note: IMF, working with Albanian government figures, estimates the
population at 3,120,000 in 1993 and that the population has fallen
since 1990

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (female 520,186; male 563,953)
15-64 years: 62% (female 1,026,321; male 1,104,371)
65 years and over: 6% (female 112,252; male 86,821) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 21.7 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.22 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.81 years
male: 70.83 years
female: 77.02 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.71 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Albanian(s)
adjective: Albanian

Ethnic divisions: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies,
Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious
observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing
private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy: age 9 and over can read and write (1955)
total population: 72%
male: 80%
female: 63%

Labor force: 1.5 million (1987)
by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)


conventional long form: Republic of Albania
conventional short form: Albania
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
local short form: Shqiperia
former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Digraph: AL

Type: emerging democracy

Capital: Tirane

Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth);
Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje,
Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet,
Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje,

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's
Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by
popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April
head of government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers
Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor): elections last held 22 March
1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%,
other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2
note: 6 members of the Democratic Party defected making the present
seating in the Assembly DP 86, ASP 38, SDP 7, DAP 6, RP 1, UHP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: there are at least 28 political
parties; most prominent are the Albanian Socialist Party (ASP;
formerly the Albania Workers Party), Fatos NANO, first secretary;
Democratic Party (DP); Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO;
Omonia (Greek minority party), Sotir QIRJAZATI, first secretary;
Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI; Democratic Alliance
Party (DAP), Neritan CEKA, chairman; Unity for Human Rights Party
(UHP), Vasil MELO, chairman; Ecology Party (EP), Namik HOTI, chairman

Member of: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE,

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lublin Hasan DILJA
chancery: Suite 1010, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942, 8187
FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph E. LAKE
embassy: Rruga E. Elbansanit 103, Tirane
mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624
telephone: [355] (42) 328-75, 335-20
FAX: [355] (42) 322-22

Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center


Overview: An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is
making the difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The
economy rebounded in 1993-94 after a severe depression accompanying
the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and
1991. Stabilization policies - including a strict monetary policy,
public sector layoffs, and reduced social services - have improved the
government's fiscal situation and reduced inflation. The recovery was
spurred by the remittances of some 20% of the population which works
abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP
and help offset the large foreign trade deficit. Foreign assistance
and humanitarian aid also supported the recovery. Most agricultural
land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes.
Albania's limited industrial sector, now less than one-sixth of GDP,
continued to decline in 1994. A sharp fall in chromium prices reduced
hard currency receipts from the mining sector. Large segments of the
population, especially those living in urban areas, continue to depend
on humanitarian aid to meet basic food requirements. Unemployment
remains a severe problem accounting for approximately one-fifth of the
work force. Growth is expected to continue in 1995, but could falter
if Albania becomes involved in the conflict in the former Yugoslavia,
workers' remittances from Greece are reduced, or foreign assistance

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $3.8 billion (1994

National product real growth rate: 11% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,110 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 18% (1994 est.)

revenues: $1.1 billion
expenditures: $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70
million (1991 est.)

Exports: $112 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude
oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
partners: Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany,
Greece, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary

Imports: $621 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: machinery, consumer goods, grains
partners: Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany,
Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece

External debt: $920 million (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -10% (1993 est.); accounts for 16%
of GDP (1993 est.)

capacity: 770,000 kW
production: 4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,200 kWh (1994)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil,
cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Agriculture: accounts for 55% of GDP; arable land per capita among
lowest in Europe; 80% of arable land now in private hands; 60% of the
work force engaged in farming; produces wide range of temperate-zone
crops and livestock

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
transiting the Balkan route and cocaine from South America destined
for Western Europe; limited opium production

Economic aid:
recipient: $303 million (1993)

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 100 (January 1995), 99 (January
1994), 97 (January 1993), 50 (January 1992), 25 (September 1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 543 km line connecting Podgorica (Serbia and Montenegro) and
Shkoder completed August 1986
standard gauge: 509 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 34 km 0.950-m gauge (1990)

total: 18,450 km
paved: 17,450 km
unpaved: earth 1,000 km (1991)

Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake
Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64
km (1991)

Ports: Durres, Sarande, Shergjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
total: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887

total: 11
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2


Telephone system: about 55,000 telephones; about 15 telephones/1,000
local: primitive; about 11,000 telephones in Tirane, the capital city
intercity: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for
every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist
government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it
to build fences
international: inadequate; carried through the Tirane exchange and
transmitted through Italy on 240 microwave radio relay circuits and
through Greece on 150 microwave radio relay circuits

broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: 515,000 (1987 est.)

broadcast stations: 9
televisions: 255,000 (1987 est.)

@Albania:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry
Troops, Border Guards

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 919,085; males fit for military
service 755,574; males reach military age (19) annually 33,323 (1995

Defense expenditures: 330 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993); note -
conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results




Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Morocco and Tunisia

Map references: Africa

total area: 2,381,740 sq km
land area: 2,381,740 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 6,343 km, Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km,
Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km,
Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Libya claims part of southeastern Algeria;
land boundary dispute with Tunisia settled in 1993

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers
along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
discontinuous coastal plain

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
uranium, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 13%
forest and woodland: 2%
other: 82%

Irrigated land: 3,360 sq km (1989 est.)

current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming
practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining
wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of
rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming
polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff;
inadequate supplies of potable water
natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes;
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)


Population: 28,539,321 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41% (female 5,678,879; male 5,885,246)
15-64 years: 56% (female 7,887,885; male 8,033,508)
65 years and over: 3% (female 557,636; male 496,167) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.25% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 29.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.05 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 50.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.01 years
male: 66.94 years
female: 69.13 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian

Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 57%
male: 70%
female: 46%

Labor force: 6.2 million (1992 est.)
by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and
public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%,
transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)


conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Digraph: AG

Type: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya);
Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar,
Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef,
Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma,
Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem,
M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif,
Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3
November 1988 and 23 February 1989

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial
review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed
of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lamine ZEROUAL (since 31 January 1994); next
election to be held by the end of 1995
head of government: Prime Minister Mokdad SIFI (since 11 April 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral; note - suspended since 1992
National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani): elections
first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled by the
military after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992,
effectively suspending the Assembly); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the
231 seats contested in the first round; note - elections (provincial
and municipal) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history;
results - FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed
April 1992), Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Abdelkader HACHANI (all
under arrest), Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany); National
Liberation Front (FLN), Abdelhamid MEHRI, Secretary General; Socialist
Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED, Secretary General
note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989
and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed

Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15,

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Osmane BENCHERIF
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN
embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
telephone: [213] (2) 69-11-86, 69-18-54, 69-38-75
FAX: [213] (2) 69-39-79
consulate(s): none (Oran closed June 1993)

Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a
red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and
color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)


Overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy,
accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of GDP, and
almost all export earnings; Algeria has the fifth largest reserves of
natural gas in the world and ranks fourteenth for oil. Algiers'
efforts to reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the
Arab world began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged
the country into a severe recession. In 1989, the government launched
a comprehensive, IMF-supported program to achieve macroeconomic
stabilization and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy.
Despite substantial progress toward macroeconomic adjustment, in 1992
the reform drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political
turmoil. In September 1993, a new government was formed, and one
priority was the resumption and acceleration of the structural
adjustment process. Buffeted by the slump in world oil prices and
burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year
standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $97.1 billion (1994

National product real growth rate: 0.2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,480 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1994 est.)

revenues: $14.3 billion
expenditures: $17.9 billion (1995 est.)

Exports: $9.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97%
partners: Italy 21%, France 16%, US 14%, Germany 13%, Spain 9%

Imports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: capital goods 39.7%, food and beverages 21.7%, consumer
goods 11.8% (1990)
partners: France 29%, Italy 14%, Spain 9%, US 9%, Germany 7%

External debt: $26 billion (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 35% of GDP
(including hydrocarbons)

capacity: 5,370,000 kW
production: 18.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 587 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining,
electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP (1993) and employs 22% of labor
force; products- wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits,
sheep, cattle; net importer of food - grain, vegetable oil, sugar

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $925 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion; net official
disbursements (1985-89), $375 million

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 42.710 (January 1995),
35.059 (1994), 23.345 (1993), 21.836 (1992), 18.473 (1991), 8.958

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 4,733 km
standard gauge: 3,576 km 1.435-m gauge (299 km electrified; 215 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 1,157 km 1.055-m gauge

total: 95,576 km
paved: concrete, bituminous 57,346 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 38,230 km

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas
2,948 km

Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene,
Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:
total: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,211 DWT

ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas
tanker 9, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger
5, specialized tanker 1

total: 139
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
with paved runways under 914 m: 20
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 24
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 41


Telephone system: 822,000 telephones; excellent domestic and
international service in the north, sparse in the south
local: NA
intercity: 12 domestic satellite links; 20 additional satellite links
are planned
international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy,
France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
Tunisia; 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1
Intersputnik, 1 ARABSAT earth station

broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: 5.2 million

broadcast stations: 18
televisions: 1.6 million

@Algeria:Defense Forces

Branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air
Defense, National Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 7,124,894; males fit for
military service 4,373,272; males reach military age (19) annually
313,707 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion, 2.7% of
GDP (1994)



(territory of the US)

@American Samoa:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Map references: Oceania

total area: 199 sq km
land area: 199 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC
note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry
season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal
plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 5%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 75%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; in many areas
of the island water supplies come from roof catchments
natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March
international agreements: NA

Note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the
South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected
by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the
South Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa:People

Population: 57,366 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 3.82% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 36.21 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.01 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.91 years
male: 71.03 years
female: 74.85 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: American Samoan(s)
adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%,
other 5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
Protestant denominations and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
languages), English; most people are bilingual

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