Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 9 out of 46

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.1 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

87%
female:
68%
Labor force:
567.4 million
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 60%, industry and commerce 25%, construction
and mining 5%, social services 5%, other 5% (1990 est.)

@China, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
People's Republic of China
conventional short form:
China
local long form:
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form:
Zhong Guo
Abbreviation:
PRC
Digraph:
CH
Type:
Communist state
Capital:
Beijing
Administrative divisions:
23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions*
(zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3 municipalities** (shi, singular
and plural); Anhui, Beijing Shi**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*,
Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu,
Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi,
Shandong, Shanghai Shi**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin Shi**, Xinjiang*,
Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang
note:
China considers Taiwan its 23rd province
Independence:
221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or
Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912; People's
Republic established 1 October 1949)
National holiday:
National Day, 1 October (1949)
Constitution:
most recent promulgated 4 December 1982
Legal system:
a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law;
rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes
in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to
improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993); Vice President RONG Yiren
(since 27 March 1993); election last held 27 March 1993 (next to be
held NA 1998); results - JIANG Zemin was nominally elected by the
Eighth National People's Congress
chief of state and head of government (de facto):
DENG Xiaoping (since NA 1977)
head of government:
Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24 November 1987, Premier since
9 April 1988) Vice Premier ZHU Rongji (since 8 April 1991); Vice
Premier ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991); Vice Premier QIAN Qichen
(since 29 March 1993); Vice Premier LI Lanqing (29 March 1993)
cabinet:
State Council; containing 28 ministers and 8 state commissions and
appointed by the National People's Congress (March 1993)
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National People's Congress:
(Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui) elections last held March 1993 (next
to be held March 1998); results - CCP is the only party but there are
also independents; seats - (2,977 total) (elected at county or xian
level)
Judicial branch:
Supreme People's Court
Political parties and leaders:
Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG Zemin, general secretary of the
Central Committee (since 24 June 1989); eight registered small parties
controlled by CCP
Other political or pressure groups:
such meaningful opposition as exists consists of loose coalitions,
usually within the party and government organization, that vary by
issue
Member of:
AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MINURSO, NAM (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UN Security Council, UNTAC, UNTSO, UN Trusteeship Council,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador LI Daoyu
chancery:
2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 328-2500 through 2502
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY
embassy:
Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, Beijing
mailing address:
100600, PSC 461, Box 50, Beijing or FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone:
[86] (1) 532-3831
FAX:
[86] (1) 532-3178
consulate(s) general:
Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang
Flag:
red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow
five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of
the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

@China, Economy

Overview:
Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been trying to move
the economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy
to a more productive and flexible economy with market elements, but
still within the framework of monolithic Communist control. To this
end the authorities switched to a system of household responsibility
in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the
authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted
a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light
manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and
investment. The result has been a strong surge in production,
particularly in agriculture in the early 1980s. Industry also has
posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and
opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment and modern production
methods have helped spur production of both domestic and export goods.
Aggregate output has more than doubled since 1978. On the darker side,
the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the worst
results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of
capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has
periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals.
In 1992-93 annual growth of GDP has accelerated, particularly in the
coastal areas - to more than 10% annually according to official
claims. In late 1993 China's leadership approved additional reforms
aimed at giving more play to market-oriented institutions and at
strengthening the center's control over the financial system. Popular
resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural
cadres have weakened China's population control program, which is
essential to the nation's long-term economic viability.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.61 trillion (1993 estimate
based on a 1990 figure from the UN International Comparison Program,
as extended to 1991 and published in the World Bank's World
Development Report 1993; and as extrapolated by use of official
Chinese growth statistics for 1992 and 1993)
National product real growth rate:
13.4% (1993)
National product per capita:
$2,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
17.6% (December 1993 over December 1992)
Unemployment rate:
2.3% in urban areas (1992); substantial underemployment
Budget:
deficit $15.6 billion (1993)
Exports:
$92 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
textiles, garments, footwear, toys, crude oil
partners:
Hong Kong, US, Japan, Germany, South Korea, Russia (1993)
Imports:
$104 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
rolled steel, motor vehicles, textile machinery, oil products
partners:
Japan, Taiwan, US, Hong Kong, Germany, South Korea (1993)
External debt:
$80 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 20.8% (1992)
Electricity:
capacity:
158,690,000 kW
production:
740 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
630 kWh (1992)
Industries:
iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles,
petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, consumer durables, food
processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 26% of GNP; among the world's largest producers of rice,
potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, and pork; commercial
crops include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds; produces variety of
livestock products; basically self-sufficient in food; fish catch of
13.35 million metric tons (including fresh water and pond raised)
(1991)
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium; bulk of production is in Yunnan Province;
transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle
Economic aid:
donor:
to less developed countries (1970-89) $7 billion
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $13.5
billion
Currency:
1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao
Exchange rates:
yuan (Y) per US$1 - 8.7000 (January 1994), 5.7620 (1993), 5.5146
(1992), 5.3234 (1991), 4.7832 (1990), 3.7651 (1989)
note:
beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the
midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's
prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@China, Communications

Railroads:
total about 64,000 km; 54,000 km of common carrier lines, of which
53,400 km are 1.435-meter gauge (standard) and 600 km are 1.000-meter
gauge (narrow); 11,200 km of standard gauge common carrier route are
double tracked and 6,900 km are electrified (1990); an additional
10,000 km of varying gauges (0.762 to 1.067-meter) are dedicated
industrial lines
Highways:
total:
1.029 million km
paved:
170,000 km
unpaved:
gravel/improved earth 648,000 km; unimproved earth 211,000 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 9,700 km; petroleum products 1,100 km; natural gas 6,200 km
(1990)
Ports:
Dalian, Guangzhou, Huangpu, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Xingang,
Zhanjiang, Ningbo, Xiamen, Tanggu, Shantou
Merchant marine:
1,541 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,884,756 GRT/22,475,985
DWT, barge carrier 1, bulk 285, cargo 819, chemical tanker 13,
combination bulk 9, container 85, liquefied gas 4, multifunction/barge
carrier 1, oil tanker 192, passenger 24, passenger-cargo 25,
refrigerated cargo 17, roll-on/roll-off cargo 21, short-sea passenger
43, vehicle carrier 2
note:
China beneficially owns an additional 227 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling approximately 6,187,117 DWT that operate under Panamanian,
British, Hong Kong, Maltese, Liberian, Vanuatu, Cypriot, Saint
Vincent, Bahamian, and Romanian registry
Airports:
total:
330
usable:
330
with permanent-surface runways:
260
with runways over 3,659 m:
fewer than 10
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
90
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
200
Telecommunications:
domestic and international services are increasingly available for
private use; unevenly distributed internal system serves principal
cities, industrial centers, and most townships; 11,000,000 telephones
(December 1989); broadcast stations - 274 AM, unknown FM, 202 (2,050
repeaters) TV; more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million TVs;
satellite earth stations - 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT, and 55 domestic

@China, Defense Forces

Branches:
People's Liberation Army (PLA), PLA Navy (including Marines), PLA Air
Force, Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missle force), People's
Armed Police (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to
Ministry of Public Security, but included by the Chinese as part of
the "armed forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA in war
time)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 347,458,052; fit for military service 192,546,413;
reach military age (18) annually 10,256,181 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
defense budget - 52.04 billion yuan, NA% of GDP (1994 est.); note -
conversion of the defense budget into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

@Christmas Island

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of Australia)

@Christmas Island, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, in the Indian Ocean, between Australia and
Indonesia
Map references:
Southeast Asia
Area:
total area:
135 sq km
land area:
135 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
138.9 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
Natural resources:
phosphate
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
almost completely surrounded by a reef
international agreements:
NA
Note:
located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

@Christmas Island, People

Population:
973 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
-9% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
NA
Death rate:
NA
Net migration rate:
NA
Infant mortality rate:
NA
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
NA
male:
NA
female:
NA
Total fertility rate:
NA
Nationality:
noun:
Christmas Islander(s)
adjective:
Christmas Island
Ethnic divisions:
Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no indigenous
population
Religions:
Buddhist 36.1%, Muslim 25.4%, Christian 17.7% (Roman Catholic 8.2%,
Church of England 3.2%, Presbyterian 0.9%, Uniting Church 0.4%,
Methodist 0.2%, Baptist 0.1%, and other 4.7%), none 12.7%, unknown
4.6%, other 3.5% (1981)
Languages:
English
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining Company of Christmas
Island, Ltd.

@Christmas Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of Christmas Island
conventional short form:
Christmas Island
Digraph:
KT
Type:
territory of Australia
Capital:
The Settlement
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
National holiday:
NA
Constitution:
Christmas Island Act of 1958
Legal system:
under the authority of the governor general of Australia
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government:
Administrator M. J. GRIMES (since NA)
cabinet:
Advisory Council
Legislative branch:
none
Judicial branch:
none
Political parties and leaders:
none
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
the flag of Australia is used

@Christmas Island, Economy

Overview:
Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but
in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine as no
longer economically viable. Plans have been under way to reopen the
mine and also to build a casino and hotel to develop tourism.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
phosphate
partners:
Australia, NZ
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
consumer goods
partners:
principally Australia
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
11,000 kW
production:
30 million kWh
consumption per capita:
17,800 kWh (1990)
Industries:
phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Agriculture:
NA
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704,
(1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Christmas Island, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Flying Fish Cove
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 TV

@Christmas Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Clipperton Island

Header
Affiliation:
(possession of France)

@Clipperton Island, Geography

Location:
Middle America, in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km southwest of
Mexico
Map references:
World
Area:
total area:
7 sq km
land area:
7 sq km
comparative area:
about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
11.1 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Mexico
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
coral atoll
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (all coral)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
reef about 8 km in circumference

@Clipperton Island, People

Population:
uninhabited

@Clipperton Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Clipperton Island
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ile Clipperton
former:
sometimes called Ile de la Passion
Digraph:
IP
Type:
French possession administered by France from French Polynesia by High
Commissioner of the Republic
Capital:
none; administered by France from French Polynesia
Independence:
none (possession of France)

@Clipperton Island, Economy

Overview:
The only economic activity is a tuna fishing station.

@Clipperton Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

@Clipperton Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of Australia)

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, in the Indian Ocean, 1,070 km southwest of
Indonesia, about halfway between Australia and Sri Lanka
Map references:
Southeast Asia
Area:
total area:
14 sq km
land area:
14 sq km
comparative area:
about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
note:
includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
2.6 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about nine months
of the year; moderate rain fall
Terrain:
flat, low-lying coral atolls
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other
vegetation

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, People

Population:
598 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.98% (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cocos Islander(s)
adjective:
Cocos Islander
Ethnic divisions:
West Island:
Europeans
Home Island:
Cocos Malays
Religions:
Sunni Muslims
Languages:
English
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
conventional short form:
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Digraph:
CK
Type:
territory of Australia
Capital:
West Island
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
National holiday:
NA
Constitution:
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955
Legal system:
based upon the laws of Australia and local laws
Suffrage:
NA
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government:
Administrator B. CUNNINGHAM (since NA)
cabinet:
Islands Council; Chairman of the Islands Council Haji WAHIN bin Bynie
(since NA)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Islands Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
the flag of Australia is used

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Economy

Overview:
Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop. Copra
and fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local gardens
and fishing contribute to the food supply, but additional food and
most other necessities must be imported from Australia.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
copra
partners:
Australia
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
foodstuffs
partners:
Australia
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
1,000 kW
production:
2 million kWh
consumption per capita:
2,980 kWh (1990)
Industries:
copra products
Agriculture:
gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704
(1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
none; lagoon anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
250 radios (1985); linked by telephone, telex, and facsimile
communications via satellite with Australia; broadcast stations - 1
AM, no FM, no TV

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Colombia, Geography

Location:
Northern South America, between Panama and Venezuela
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
1,138,910 sq km
land area:
1,038,700 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
note:
includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla
Bank
Land boundaries:
total 7,408 km, Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru
2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km
Coastline:
3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela;
territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y
Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank
Climate:
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrain:
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains,
eastern lowland plains
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
29%
forest and woodland:
49%
other:
16%
Irrigated land:
5,150 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides
natural hazards:
highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; periodic droughts
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Note:
only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific
Ocean and Caribbean Sea

@Colombia, People

Population:
35,577,556 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.77% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
22.64 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.75 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
28.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.1 years
male:
69.33 years
female:
74.95 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.47 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Colombian(s)
adjective:
Colombian
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Indian 3%,
Indian 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
87%
male:
88%
female:
86%
Labor force:
12 million (1990)
by occupation:
services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

@Colombia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Colombia
conventional short form:
Colombia
local long form:
Republica de Colombia
local short form:
Colombia
Digraph:
CO
Type:
republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Capital:
Bogota
Administrative divisions:
32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital
district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico,
Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar,
Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira,
Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio,
Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle
del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Independence:
20 July 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Constitution:
5 July 1991
Legal system:
based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures
was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and legislative
acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 7 August 1990);
President-designate Juan Manuel SANTOS (since NA 1993); election last
held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - Cesar GAVIRIA
Trujillo (Liberal Party) 47%, Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado (National Salvation
Movement) 24%, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff (AD/M-19) 13%, Rodrigo LLOREDA
(Conservative Party) 12%
note:
a new government will be inaugurated on 7 August 1994; the
presidential election of 29 May 1994 resulted in no candidate
receiving more than 50% of the total vote and a run-off election to
select a president from the two leading candidates was held on 19 June
1994; results - Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (Liberal Party) 50.4%, Andres
PASTRANA Arango (Conservative Party) 48.6%, blank votes 1%; Humberto
de la CALLE was elected vice president; electing a vice president is a
new proceedure that replaces the traditional appointment of
president-designates by newly elected presidents
cabinet:
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress (Congreso)
Senate (Senado):
elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998);
preliminary results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (102 total)
Liberal Party 59, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF) 31, other
12
House of Representatives (Camara de Representantes):
elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998);
preliminary results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (161 total)
Liberal Party 89, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF) 53,
AD/M-19 2, other 17
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical), Constitutional
Court, Council of State
Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Party (PL), Ernesto SAMPER Pizano, president; Conservative
Party (PC), Misael PASTRANA Borrero; National Salvation Movement
(MSN), Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado; New Democratic Force (NDF), Andres
PASTRANA Arango; Democratic Alliance M-19 (AD/M-19) is a coalition of
small leftist parties and dissident liberals and conservatives;
Patriotic Union (UP) is a legal political party formed by
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Colombian Communist
Party (PCC), Carlos ROMERO
Other political or pressure groups:
three insurgent groups are active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed
Forces of Colombia (FARC), Manuel MARULANDA and Alfonso CANO; National
Liberation Army (ELN), Manuel PEREZ; and dissidents of the recently
demobilized People's Liberation Army (EPL), Francisco CARABALLO;
Francisco CARABALLO was captured by the government in June 1994
Member of:
AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS,
ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPROFOR,
UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Gabriel SILVA
chancery:
2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 387-8338
FAX:
(202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Washington
consulate(s):
Atlanta, Detroit, Los Angeles, and Tampa
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Morris D. BUSBY
embassy:
Calle 38, No. 8-61, Bogota
mailing address:
Apartado Aereo 3831, Bogota or APO AA 34038
telephone:
[57] (1) 320-1300
FAX:
[57] (1) 288-5687
consulate(s):
Barranquilla
Flag:
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red;
similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the
Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

@Colombia, Economy

Overview:
Colombia's economic growth has recovered steadily since 1991 as
President GAVIRIA'S sweeping economic reform measures have taken hold.
Market reforms have included trade and investment liberalization,
labor and tax overhauls and bureaucratic streamlining, among other
things. Furthermore, conservative fiscal and monetary policies have
helped to steadily reduce inflation to 23% and unemployment to about
7% in 1993. The rapid development of oil, coal, and other
nontraditional industries has helped offset the decline in coffee
prices. A major oil find in 1993 in eastern Colombia may provide an
extra $3 billion annually to the economy by 1997. Increased foreign
investment and even greater domestic activity have been hampered,
however, by a troublesome rural insurgency, a decrepit energy and
transportation infrastructure, and drug-related violence. Agriculture
also has encountered problems in adjusting to fewer subsidies, greater
competition, and the collapse of the international coffee agreement,
which has kept world coffee prices at near-record lows in 1991-93.
Business construction was a leading sector in 1993. The substantial
trade deficit in 1993 was the result of a strong peso that inhibited
exports and a liberalized government policy that spurred imports.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $192 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
22.6% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7.9% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$11 billion
expenditures:
$12 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.2 billion (1993
est.)
Exports:
$6.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
partners:
US 39%, EC 25.7%, Japan 2.9%, Venezuela 8.5% (1992)
Imports:
$6.7 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods,
chemicals, paper products
partners:
US 36%, EC 18%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 6.5%, Japan 8.7% (1992)
External debt:
$17 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2% (1993 est.); accounts for 21% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
10,193,000 kW
production:
36 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,050 kWh (1992)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages,
chemicals, metal products, cement; mining - gold, coal, emeralds,
iron, nickel, silver, salt
Agriculture:
growth rate 2.7% (1993 est.) accounts for 21% of GDP; crops make up
two-thirds and livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and
soils permit a wide variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco,
corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseeds, vegetables; forest products
and shrimp farming are becoming more important
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of coca, opium, and cannabis; about 37,100 hectares
of coca under cultivation; the world's largest processor of coca
derivatives into cocaine in 1992; supplier of cocaine to the US and
other international drug markets
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.6 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.3
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $399 million
Currency:
1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 921.20 (January 1994), 863.06
(1993), 759.28 (1992), 633.05 (1991), 502.26 (1990), 382.57 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Colombia, Communications

Railroads:
3,386 km; 3,236 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track (2,611 km in use),
150 km 1.435-meter gauge
Highways:
total:
128,717 km (1989)
paved:
10,330 km
unpaved:
gravel/earth 118,387 km
Inland waterways:
14,300 km, navigable by river boats
Pipelines:
crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km;
natural gas liquids 125 km
Ports:
Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Covenas, San Andres, Santa
Marta, Tumaco
Merchant marine:
27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 211,777 GRT/335,763 DWT, bulk 7,
cargo 11, container 6, oil tanker 3
Airports:
total:
1,369
usable:
1,156
with permanent-surface runways:
73
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-2,659 m:
9
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
205
Telecommunications:
nationwide radio relay system; 1,890,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 413 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 28 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations and 11 domestic satellite earth stations

@Colombia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, including Marines),
Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana), National Police (Policia
Nacional)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 9,639,080; fit for military service 6,507,935; reach
military age (18) annually 354,944 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion (1992 est.)

@Comoros, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Africa, in the extreme northern Mozambique Channel, about
two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern
Mozambique
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,170 sq km
land area:
2,170 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
340 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims French-administered Mayotte
Climate:
tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)
Terrain:
volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
35%
permanent crops:
8%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
16%
other:
34%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
soil degradation and erosion; deforestation
natural hazards:
cyclones possible during rainy season
international agreements:
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the
Sea
Note:
important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

@Comoros, People

Population:
530,136 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.55% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
46.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.95 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
79.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
57.81 years
male:
55.63 years
female:
60.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.79 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Comoran(s)
adjective:
Comoran
Ethnic divisions:
Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%
Languages:
Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of Swahili and
Arabic)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
48%
male:
56%
female:
40%
Labor force:
140,000 (1982)
by occupation:
agriculture 80%, government 3%
note:
51% of population of working age (1985)

@Comoros, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
conventional short form:
Comoros
local long form:
Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
local short form:
Comores
Digraph:
CN
Type:
independent republic
Capital:
Moroni
Administrative divisions:
three islands; Grand Comore (Njazidja), Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli
(Mwali)
note:
there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and
Mutsamudu
Independence:
6 July 1975 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 July (1975)
Constitution:
7 June 1992
Legal system:
French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state::
President Said Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990); election last
held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results - Said
Mohamed DJOHAR (UDZIMA) 55%, Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (UNDC) 45%
head of government::
Prime Minister Mohamed Abdou MADI (since 6 January 1994) appointed by
President DJOHAR 6 January 1994 (DJOHAR has appointed 14 prime
ministers in the last three years)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale):
elections last held 12-20 December 1993 (next to be held by NA January
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (42 total)
Ruling Coalition: RDR 15, UNDC 5, MWANGAZA 2; Opposition: UDZIMA 8,
other smaller parties 10; 2 seats remained unfilled
note:
opposition is boycotting the National Assembly until the government
promises to investigate fraud in the last election
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
over 20 political parties are currently active, the most important of
which are; Comoran Union for Progress (UDZIMA), Omar TAMOU; Islands'
Fraternity and Unity Party (CHUMA), Said Ali KEMAL; Comoran Party for
Democracy and Progress (PCDP), Ali MROUDJAE; Realizing Freedom's
Capability (UWEZO), Mouazair ABDALLAH; Democratic Front of the Comoros
(FDR), Moustapha CHELKH; Dialogue Proposition Action (DPA/MWANGAZA),
Said MCHAWGAMA; Rally for Change and Democracy (RACHADE), Hassan
HACHIM; Union for Democracy and Decentralization (UNDC), Mohamed Taki
Halidi IBRAHAM; Rally for Democracy and Renewal (RDR); Comoran Popular
Front (FPC), Mohamed HASSANALI, Mohamed El Arif OUKACHA, Abdou
MOUSTAKIM (Secretary General)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Amini Ali MOUMIN
chancery:
(temporary) at the Comoran Permanent Mission to the UN, 336 East 45th
Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone:
(212) 972-8010
FAX:
(212) 983-4712
US diplomatic representation:
none; post closed in September 1993
Flag:
green with a white crescent placed diagonally (closed side of the
crescent points to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag); there are
four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of
the crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional
symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of
the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (which is a
territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by the Comoros)

@Comoros, Economy

Overview:
One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of several
islands that have poor transportation links, a young and rapidly
increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational
level of the labor force contributes to a low level of economic
activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants
and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and
forestry, is the leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to
GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports.
The country is not self-sufficient in food production, and rice, the
main staple, accounts for 90% of imports. During 1982-86 the
industrial sector grew at an annual average rate of 5.3%, but its
contribution to GDP is small. Despite major investment in the tourist
industry, which accounts for about 25% of GDP, growth has stagnated
since 1983. A sluggish growth rate of 1.5% during 1985-90 has led to
large budget deficits, declining incomes, and balance-of-payments
difficulties. Estimates for 1992 show a moderate increase in the
growth rate based on increased exports, tourism, and government
investment outlays.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $360 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
over 15.9% (1989)
Budget:
revenues:
$96 million
expenditures:
$88 million, including capital expenditures of $33 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$21 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
vanilla, cloves, perfume oil, copra, ylang-ylang
partners:
US 53%, France 41%, Africa 4%, FRG 2% (1988)
Imports:
$60 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
rice and other foodstuffs, cement, petroleum products, consumer goods
partners:
Europe 62% (France 22%), Africa 5%, Pakistan, China (1988)
External debt:
$160 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -6.5% (1989 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
16,000 kW
production:
25 million kWh
consumption per capita:
50 kWh (1991)
Industries:
perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction
materials, soft drinks
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in subsistence
agriculture and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for export -
vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra; principal food crops -
coconuts, bananas, cassava; world's leading producer of essence of
ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and second-largest producer of vanilla;
large net food importer
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $435
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $18 million
Currency:
1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 444.03 (January 1994), 254.57 (1993),
264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
beginning 12 January 1994, the Comoran franc was devalued to 75 per
French franc from 50 per French franc at which it had been fixed since
1948
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Comoros, Communications

Highways:
total:
750 km
paved:
bituminous 210 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, gravel 540 km
Ports:
Mutsamudu, Moroni
Airports:
total:
4
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency radio communication
stations for interisland and external communications to Madagascar and
Reunion; over 1,800 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

@Comoros, Defense Forces

Branches:
Comoran Defense Force (FDC)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 112,918; fit for military service 67,522
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Congo, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Gabon and
Zaire
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
342,000 sq km
land area:
341,500 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
total 5,504 km, Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African
Republic 467 km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km
Coastline:
169 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
long segment of boundary with Zaire along the Congo River is
indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October);
constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating
climate astride the Equator
Terrain:
coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Natural resources:
petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates,
natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
29%
forest and woodland:
62%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
40 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping
of raw sewage; deforestation
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Tropical Timber; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection
Note:
about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe Noire, or
along the railroad between them

@Congo, People

Population:
2,446,902 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.38% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
40.27 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
16.49 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
111 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
47.56 years
male:
45.76 years
female:
49.41 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.3 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Congolese or Congo
Ethnic divisions:
south:
Kongo 48%
north:
Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%
center:
Teke 17%, Europeans 8,500 (mostly French)
Religions:
Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%
Languages:
French (official), African languages (Lingala and Kikongo are the most
widely used)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
57%
male:
70%
female:
44%
Labor force:
79,100 wage earners
by occupation:
agriculture 75%, commerce, industry, and government 25%
note:
51% of population of working age; 40% of population economically
active (1985)

@Congo, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of the Congo
conventional short form:
Congo
local long form:
Republique Populaire du Congo
local short form:
Congo
former:
Congo/Brazzaville
Digraph:
CF
Type:
republic
Capital:
Brazzaville
Administrative divisions:
9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza,
Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux,
Pool, Sangha
Independence:
15 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)
Constitution:
new constitution approved by referendum March 1992
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Pascal LISSOUBA (since August 1992); election last held 2-16
August 1992 (next to be held August 1997); results - President Pascal
LISSOUBA won with 61% of the vote
head of government:
Prime Minister Jacques Joachim YHOMBI-OPANGO (since 23 June 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; named by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale):
election last held 3 October 1993; results - percentage vote by party
NA; seats - (125 total) UPADS 64, URD/PCT 58, others 3
Senate:
election last held 26 July 1992 (next to be held July 1998); results -
percentage vote by party NA; seats - (60 total) UPADS 23, MCDDI 14,
RDD 8, RDPS 5, PCT 2, others 8
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
Congolese Labor Party (PCT), Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president;
Pan-African Union for Social Development (UPADS), Pascal LISSOUBA,
leader; Association for Democracy and Development (RDD) - Joachim
Yhombi OPANGO, president; Congolese Movement for Democracy and
Integral Development (MCDDI), Bernard KOLELAS, leader; Association for
Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS), Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA,
president; Union of Democratic Forces (UFD), David Charles GANAO,
leader; Union for Development and Social Progress (UDPS), Jean-Michael
BOKAMBA-YANGOUMA, leader
note:
Congo has many political parties of which these are among the most
important
Other political or pressure groups:
Union of Congolese Socialist Youth (UJSC); Congolese Trade Union
Congress (CSC); Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women (URFC); General
Union of Congolese Pupils and Students (UGEEC)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Pierre Damien BOUSSOUKOU-BOUMBA
chancery:
4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone:
(202) 726-5500 or 5501
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William RAMSEY
embassy:
Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville
mailing address:
B. P. 1015, Brazzaville
telephone:
(242) 83-20-70
FAX:
[242] 83-63-38
Flag:
red, divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band;
the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is
red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Congo, Economy

Overview:
Congo's economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts,
an industrial sector based largely on oil, support services, and a
government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. A reform
program, supported by the IMF and World Bank, ran into difficulties in
1990-91 because of problems in changing to a democratic political
regime and a heavy debt-servicing burden. Oil has supplanted forestry
as the mainstay of the economy, providing about two-thirds of
government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s rapidly rising oil
revenues enabled Congo to finance large-scale development projects
with growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa.
Subsequently, growth has slowed to an average of roughly 1.5%
annually, only half the population growth rate. Political turmoil and
misguided government investment have derailed economic reform programs
sponsored by the IMF and World Bank.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA
National product per capita:
$2,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.6% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$765 million
expenditures:
$952 million, including capital expenditures of $65 million (1990)
Exports:
$1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
crude oil 72%, lumber, plywood, coffee, cocoa, sugar, diamonds
partners:
US, France, other EC countries
Imports:
$704 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
foodstuffs, consumer goods, intermediate manufactures, capital
equipment
partners:
France, Germany, Italy, Spain, other EC countries, US, Japan, Brazil
External debt:
$4.1 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.2% (1989); accounts for 33% of GDP; includes petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
140,000 kW
production:
315 million kWh
consumption per capita:
135 kWh (1991)
Industries:
petroleum, cement, lumbering, brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap,
cigarette
Agriculture:
accounts for 13% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cassava
accounts for 90% of food output; other crops - rice, corn, peanuts,
vegetables; cash crops include coffee and cocoa; forest products
important export earner; imports over 90% of food needs
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $63 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $2.5
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $338 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Congo, Communications

Railroads:
797 km, 1.067-meter gauge, single track (includes 285 km that are
privately owned)
Highways:
total:
11,960 km
paved:
560 km
unpaved:
gravel or crushed stone 850 km; improved earth 5,350 km; unimproved
earth 5,200 km
Inland waterways:
the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km of
commercially navigable water transport; the rest are used for local
traffic only
Pipelines:
crude oil 25 km
Ports:
Pointe-Noire (ocean port), Brazzaville (river port)
Airports:
total:
41
usable:
37
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
16
Telecommunications:
services adequate for government use; primary network is composed of
radio relay routes and coaxial cables; key centers are Brazzaville,
Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; 18,100 telephones; broadcast stations - 4
AM, 1 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite earth station

@Congo, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 551,151; fit for military service 280,372; reach
military age (20) annually 24,441 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Cook Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(free association with New Zealand)

@Cook Islands, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia, 4,500 km south of Hawaii in the South Pacific
Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
240 sq km
land area:
240 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
120 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
22%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
74%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:

Book of the day: