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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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@Canada, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Canada
Digraph:
CA
Type:
confederation with parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Ottawa
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba,
New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia,
Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Independence:
1 July 1867 (from UK)
National holiday:
Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Constitution:
amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April
1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs
Legal system:
based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system
based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Raymond John HNATYSHYN (since 29 January 1990)
head of government:
Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993) was elected on 25
October 1993, replacing Kim CAMBELL; Deputy Prime Minister Sheila
COPPS
cabinet:
Federal Ministry; chosen by the prime minister from members of his own
party sitting in Parliament
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
Senate (Senat):
consisting of a body whose members are appointed to serve until 75
years of age by the governor general and selected on the advice of the
prime minister; its normal limit 104 senators
House of Commons (Chambre des Communes):
elections last held 25 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October
1998); results - number of votes by percent NA; seats - (295 total)
Liberal Party 178, Bloc Quebecois 54, Reform Party 52, New Democratic
Party 8, Progressive Conservative Party 2, independents 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Party, Jean CHRETIEN; Bloc Quebecois, Lucien BOUCHARD; Reform
Party, Preston MANNING; New Democratic Party, Audrey McLAUGHLIN;
Progressive Conservative Party, Jean CHAREST
Member of:
ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC,
CDB (non-regional), COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating
state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA,
NSG, OAS, OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO,
UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WIPO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Raymond CHRETIEN
chancery:
501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone:
(202) 682-1740
FAX:
(202) 682-7726
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles,
Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, and Seattle
consulate(s):
Cincinnati, Cleveland, Miami, Pittsburg, Princeton, San Diego, San
Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador James Johnston BLANCHARD
embassy:
100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
mailing address:
P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
telephone:
(613) 238-5335 or 4470
FAX:
(613) 238-5720
consulate(s) general:
Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver
Flag:
three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width,
square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

@Canada, Economy

Overview:
As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely
resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic
system, and pattern of production. Since World War II the impressive
growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has
transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily
industrial and urban. In the 1980s, Canada registered one of the
highest rates of real growth among the OECD nations, averaging about
3.2%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and
modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects,
although the country still faces high unemployment and a growing debt.
Moreover, the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and
French-speaking areas has observers discussing a possible split in the
confederation; foreign investors have become edgy.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $617.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
2.4% (1993)
National product per capita:
$22,200 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.9% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
11% (December 1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$92.34 billion (Federal)
expenditures:
$123.04 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93 est.)
Exports:
$133.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas,
aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment
partners:
US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China
Imports:
$125.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer
goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and parts
partners:
US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea
External debt:
$435 billion (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.5% (1993)
Electricity:
capacity:
109,340,000 kW
production:
493 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
17,900 kWh (1992)
Industries:
processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper
products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products,
petroleum and natural gas
Agriculture:
accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major producers and
exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US agricultural
imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land area;
commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons,
of which 75% is exported
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of
hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of
high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for
heroin and cocaine entering the US market
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $7.2 billion
Currency:
1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.3174 (January 1994), 1.2901
(1993), 1.2087 (1992), 1.1457 (1991), 1.1668 (1990), 1.1840 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Canada, Communications

Railroads:
146,444 km total; two major transcontinental freight railway systems -
Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian Pacific Railway;
passenger service - VIA (government operated); 158 km is electrified
Highways:
total:
884,272 km
paved:
250,023 km
unpaved:
gravel 462,913 km; earth 171,336 km
Inland waterways:
3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway
Pipelines:
crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km
Ports:
Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's
(Newfoundland), Toronto, Vancouver
Merchant marine:
59 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 448,357 GRT/639,319 DWT, bulk 9,
cargo 8, chemical tanker 4, container 1, oil tanker 22, passenger 1,
passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6,
short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2
note:
does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes
Airports:
total:
1,356
usable:
1,107
with permanent-surface runways:
458
with runways over 3,659 m:
4
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
29
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
326
Telecommunications:
excellent service provided by modern media; 18.0 million telephones;
broadcast stations - 900 AM, 29 FM, 53 (1,400 repeaters) TV; 5 coaxial
submarine cables; over 300 earth stations operating in INTELSAT
(including 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and domestic systems

@Canada, Defense Forces

Branches:
Canadian Armed Forces (including Land Forces Command, Maritime
Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Training Command), Royal
Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 7,508,590; fit for military service 6,482,267; reach
military age (17) annually 191,850 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $10.3 billion, 1.9% of GDP (FY93/94)

@Cape Verde, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, in the southeastern North Atlantic Ocean, 500 km west
of Senegal in Western Africa
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
4,030 sq km
land area:
4,030 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
965 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; warm, dry, summer; precipitation very erratic
Terrain:
steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Natural resources:
salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin, fish
Land use:
arable land:
9%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
85%
Irrigated land:
20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification
natural hazards:
subject to prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility;
volcanically and seismically active
international agreements:
party to - Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change
Note:
strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major
north-south sea routes; important communications station; important
sea and air refueling site

@Cape Verde, People

Population:
423,120 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.01% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
46.23 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.04 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
57.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
62.59 years
male:
60.7 years
female:
64.58 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.32 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cape Verdean(s)
adjective:
Cape Verdean
Ethnic divisions:
Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs
Languages:
Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African words
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population:
66%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
102,000 (1985 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture (mostly subsistence) 57%, services 29%, industry 14%
(1981)
note:
51% of population of working age (1985)

@Cape Verde, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Cape Verde
conventional short form:
Cape Verde
local long form:
Republica de Cabo Verde
local short form:
Cabo Verde
Digraph:
CV
Type:
republic
Capital:
Praia
Administrative divisions:
14 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo,
Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina,
Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Independence:
5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
Constitution:
new constitution came into force 25 September 1992
Legal system:
NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22 March 1991) election
last held 17 February 1991 (next to be held February 1996); results -
Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (independent) received 72.6% of vote
head of government:
Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho VEIGA (since 13
January 1991);
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by prime minister from members of the
Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral
People's National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular):
elections last held 13 January 1991 (next to be held January 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (79 total) MPD 56,
PAICV 23; note - this multiparty Assembly election ended 15 years of
single-party rule
Judicial branch:
Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justia)
Political parties and leaders:
Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and
chairman; African Party for Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro
Verona Rodrigues PIRES, chairman
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, UN (Cape Verde assumed a nonpermanent seat on the Security
Council on 1 January 1992), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Carlos Alberto Santos SILVA
chancery:
3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 965-6820
FAX:
(202) 965-1207
consulate(s) general:
Boston
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Joseph M. SEGARS
embassy:
Rua Hoji Ya Henda 81, Praia
mailing address:
C. P. 201, Praia
telephone:
[238] 61-56-16 or 61-56-17
FAX:
[238] 61-13-55
Flag:
three horozontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white (with
a horozontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a circle
of 10 yellow five pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of the
red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands

@Cape Verde, Economy

Overview:
Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural resource base,
a serious, long-term drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is
service oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services
accounting for 60% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives
in rural areas, agriculture's share of GDP is only 20%; the fishing
sector accounts for 4%. About 90% of food must be imported. The
fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. In
1988 fishing represented only 3.5% of GDP. Cape Verde annually runs a
high trade deficit, financed by remittances from emigrants and foreign
aid. Economic reforms launched by the new democratic government in
February 1991 are aimed at developing the private sector and
attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $415 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.3% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,070 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1988)
Budget:
revenues:
$104 million
expenditures:
$133 million, including capital expenditures of $72 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$6 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
fish, bananas, hides and skins
partners:
Portugal 40%, Algeria 31%, Angola, Netherlands (1990 est.)
Imports:
$145 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products, transport equipment
partners:
Sweden 33%, Spain 11%, Germany 5%, Portugal 3%, France 3%,
Netherlands, US (1990 est.)
External debt:
$156 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 18% (1988 est.); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
15,000 kW
production:
15 million kWh
consumption per capita:
40 kWh (1991)
Industries:
fish processing, salt mining, clothing factories, ship repair,
construction materials, food and beverage production
Agriculture:
accounts for 20% of GDP (including fishing); largely subsistence
farming; bananas are the only export crop; other crops - corn, beans,
sweet potatoes, coffee; growth potential of agricultural sector
limited by poor soils and scanty rainfall; annual food imports
required; fish catch provides for both domestic consumption and small
exports
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY75-90), $93 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $586
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $12 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $36 million
Currency:
1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 85.992 (December 1993), 80.574
(1993), 68.018 (1992), 71.408 (1991), 70.031 (1990), 77.978 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Cape Verde, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Mindelo, Praia
Merchant marine:
7 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,717 GRT/19,000 DWT
Airports:
total:
6
usable:
6
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
interisland microwave radio relay system, high-frequency radio to
Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; over 1,700 telephones; broadcast stations -
1 AM, 6 FM, 1 TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Cape Verde, Defense Forces

Branches:
People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP) (including Army and Navy),
Security Service
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 78,153; fit for military service 45,804
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Cayman Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

@Cayman Islands, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the northwestern Caribbean Sea, nearly halfway between
Cuba and Honduras
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
260 sq km
land area:
260 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
160 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool,
relatively dry winters (November to April)
Terrain:
low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs
Natural resources:
fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
8%
forest and woodland:
23%
other:
69%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to hurricanes
international agreements:
NA
Note:
important location between Cuba and Central America

@Cayman Islands, People

Population:
31,790 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
4.33% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
15.06 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.1 years
male:
75.37 years
female:
78.81 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.46 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Caymanian(s)
adjective:
Caymanian
Ethnic divisions:
mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic groups
20%
Religions:
United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist,
Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations
Languages:
English
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
98%
male:
98%
female:
98%
Labor force:
8,061
by occupation:
service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction 12.5%, finance and
investment 6.7%, directors and business managers 5.9% (1979)

@Cayman Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Cayman Islands
Digraph:
CJ
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
George Town
Administrative divisions:
8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay,
West End, Western
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Constitution Day (first Monday in July)
Constitution:
1959, revised 1972 and 1992
Legal system:
British common law and local statutes
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government:
Governor and President of the Executive Council Michael GORE (since 15
September 1992)
cabinet:
Executive Council; 3 members are appointed by the governor, 4 members
elected by the Legislative Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Assembly:
election last held November 1992 (next to be held November 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected)
Judicial branch:
Grand Court, Cayman Islands Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
no formal political parties
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of
the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a
shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll
at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

@Cayman Islands, Economy

Overview:
The economy depends heavily on tourism (70% of GDP and 75% of foreign
currency earnings) and offshore financial services, with the tourist
industry aimed at the luxury market and catering mainly to visitors
from North America. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods
needs must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest
standards of living in the region.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $670 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.4% (1991)
National product per capita:
$23,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7% (1992)
Budget:
revenues:
$141.5 million
expenditures:
$160.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports:
$2.6 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
partners:
mostly US
Imports:
$262.2 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactured goods
partners:
US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan
External debt:
$15 million (1986)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
74,000 kW
production:
256 million kWh
consumption per capita:
8,780 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, building
materials, furniture making
Agriculture:
minor production of vegetables, fruit, livestock; turtle farming
Illicit drugs:
a major money-laundering center for illicit drug profits;
transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and
Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $26.7 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $35
million
Currency:
1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 0.85 (22 November 1993)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Cayman Islands, Communications

Highways:
total:
160 km (main roads)
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
George Town, Cayman Brac
Merchant marine:
30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 368,037 GRT/581,060 DWT, bulk 9,
cargo 8, chemical tanker 2, oil tanker 3, passenger-cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 7
note:
a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
35,000 telephones; telephone system uses 1 submarine coaxial cable and
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station to link islands and access
international services; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

@Cayman Islands, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Central African Republic, Geography

Location:
Central Africa, between Chad and Zaire
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
622,980 sq km
land area:
622,980 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,203 km, Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Congo 467 km, Sudan
1,165 km, Zaire 1,577 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers
Terrain:
vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
northeast and southwest
Natural resources:
diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
64%
other:
28%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
poaching has diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife
refuges; desertification
natural hazards:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Law of the Sea
Note:
landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa
Population:
3,142,182 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.16% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
42.3 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
20.69 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
137.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
42.54 years
male:
41.07 years
female:
44.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.42 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Central African(s)
adjective:
Central African
Ethnic divisions:
Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%, M'Baka 4%,
Europeans 6,500 (including 3,600 French)
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim
15%, other 11%
note:
animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian
majority
Languages:
French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language),
Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
27%
male:
33%
female:
15%
Labor force:
775,413 (1986 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 85%, commerce and services 9%, industry 3%, government 3%
note:
about 64,000 salaried workers; 55% of population of working age (1985)

@Central African Republic, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Central African Republic
conventional short form:
none
local long form:
Republique Centrafricaine
local short form:
none
former:
Central African Empire
Abbreviation:
CAR
Digraph:
CT
Type:
republic; one-party presidential regime since 1986
Capital:
Bangui
Administrative divisions:
14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic
prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular - prefecture
economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui** Basse-Kotto,
Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui,
Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham,
Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga
Independence:
13 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the republic)
Constitution:
21 November 1986
Legal system:
based on French law
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Felix (Ange) PATASSE (since 22 October 1993) election last
held 19 September 1993; PATASSE received 52.45% of the votes and Abel
GOUMBA received 45.62%; next election schelduled for 1998
head of government:
Prime Minister Dr. Jean-Luc MANDABA (since 25 October 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale):
elections last held 19 September 1993; results - percentage vote by
party NA; seats - (85 total) MLPC 33, RDC 14, PLD 7, ADP 6, PSD 3,
others 22
note:
the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional Council
(Conseil Economique et Regional); when they sit together they are
called the Congress (Congres)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC), the
party of the new president, Ange Felix PATASSE; Central African
Democratic Party (RDC), Laurent GOMINA-PAMPALI; Council of Moderates
Coalition includes; Union of the People for Economic and Social
Development (UPDS), Katossy SIMANI; Liberal Republican Party (PARELI),
Augustin M'BOE; Central African Socialist Movement (MSCA), Michel
BENGUE; Concerted Democratic Forces (CFD), a coalition of 13 parties,
including; Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP), Francois PEHOUA;
Central African Republican party (PRC), Ruth ROLLAND; Social
Democratic Party (PSD), Enoch DERANT-LAKOUE; Civic Forum (FC), Gen.
Timothee MALENDOMA; Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), Nestor
KOMBOT-NAGUEMON; Movement for the Liberation of the Central African
People (MLPC), Felix (Ange) PATASSE
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Henri KOBA
chancery:
1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-7800 or 7801
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert E. GRIBBIN
embassy:
Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
mailing address:
B. P. 924, Bangui
telephone:
[236] 61-02-00, 61-25-78, 61-43-33, 61-02-10
FAX:
[236] 61-44-94
Flag:
four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow
with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed
star on the hoist side of the blue band

@Central African Republic, Economy

Overview:
Subsistence agriculture, including forestry, remains the backbone of
the CAR economy, with more than 70% of the population living in the
countryside. In 1990 the agricultural sector generated about 42% of
GDP. Timber accounted for about 26% of export earnings and the diamond
industry for 54%. Important constraints to economic development
include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system,
and a weak human resource base. Multilateral and bilateral development
assistance, particularly from France, plays a major role in providing
capital for new investment.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-3% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-3% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% (1988 est.) in Bangui
Budget:
revenues:
$175 million
expenditures:
$312 million, including capital expenditures of $122 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$123.5 million (f.o.b.1992)
commodities:
diamonds, cotton, coffee, timber, tobacco
partners:
France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US
Imports:
$165.1 million (f.o.b.1992)
commodities:
food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment,
motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial
products
partners:
France, other EC countries, Japan, Algeria
External debt:
$859 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4% (1990 est.); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
40,000 kW
production:
95 million kWh
consumption per capita:
30 kWh (1991)
Industries:
diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear, assembly of
bicycles and motorcycles
Agriculture:
accounts for 42% of GDP; self-sufficient in food production except for
grain; commercial crops - cotton, coffee, tobacco, timber; food crops
- manioc, yams, millet, corn, bananas
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $52 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $1.6
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $38 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Central African Republic, Communications

Highways:
total:
22,000 km
paved:
bituminous 458 km
unpaved:
improved earth 10,542 km; unimproved earth 11,000 km
Inland waterways:
800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft
dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river
Airports:
total:
65
usable:
51
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
20
Telecommunications:
fair system; network relies primarily on radio relay links, with
low-capacity, low-powered radiocommunication also used; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Central African Republic, Defense Forces

Branches:
Central African Army (including Republican Guard), Air Force, National
Gendarmerie, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 701,728; fit for military service 367,264
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $23 million, 1.8% of GDP (1989 est.)

@Chad, Geography

Location:
Central Africa, between the Central African Republic and Libya
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1.284 million sq km
land area:
1,259,200 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries:
total 5,968 km, Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km,
Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in February 1994 that
the 100,000 sq km Aozou Strip between Chad and Libya belongs to Chad,
and that Libya must withdraw from it by 31 May 1994; Libya had
withdrawn its forces in response to the ICJ ruling, but as of June
1994 still maintained an airfield in the disputed area; demarcation of
international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to
border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria
Climate:
tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain:
broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest,
lowlands in south
Natural resources:
petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron,
kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
36%
forest and woodland:
11%
other:
51%
Irrigated land:
100 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
desertification
natural hazards:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts;
subject to locust plagues
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but
not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping
Note:
landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

@Chad, People

Population:
5,466,771 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.15% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
42.12 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
20.59 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
131.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
40.79 years
male:
39.7 years
female:
41.94 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.33 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Chadian(s)
adjective:
Chadian
Ethnic divisions:
north and center:
Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi,
Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba)
south:
non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa)
nonindigenous 150,000, of whom 1,000 are French
Religions:
Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs, animism 25%
Languages:
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), Sango (in
south), more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic (1990 est.)
total population:
30%
male:
42%
female:
18%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture 85% (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and
fishing)

@Chad, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Chad
conventional short form:
Chad
local long form:
Republique du Tchad
local short form:
Tchad
Digraph:
CD
Type:
republic
Capital:
N'Djamena
Administrative divisions:
14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine,
Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone
Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai,
Salamat, Tandjile
Independence:
11 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day 11 August (1960)
Constitution:
22 December 1989, suspended 3 December 1990; Provisional National
Charter 1 March 1991; constitutional commission drafting new
constitution to submit to transitional parliament for ratification in
April 1994
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
universal at age NA
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Col. Idriss DEBY, since 4 December 1990 (after seizing power
on 3 December 1990 - transitional government's mandate expires April
1995)
head of government:
Prime Minister Kassire Delwa KOUMAKOYE (since 17 November 1993)
cabinet:
Council of State; appointed by the president on recommendation of the
prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Consultative Council (Conceil National
Consultatif):
elections last held 8 July 1990; disbanded 3 December 1990 and
replaced by the Provisional Council of the Republic having 30 members
appointed by President DEBY on 8 March 1991; this, in turn, was
replaced by a 57-member Higher Transitional Council (Conseil Superieur
de Transition) elected by a specially convened Sovereign National
Conference on 6 April 1993
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS; former dissident group), Idriss
DEBY, chairman
note:
President DEBY, who promised political pluralism, a new constitution,
and free elections by April 1994, has postponed these initiatives for
another year; there are numerous dissident groups and 26 opposition
political parties
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Ambassador KOUMBARIA Laoumaye Mekonyo died on 16 May 1994
chancery:
2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 462-4009
FAX:
(202) 265-1937
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Lawrence POPE
embassy:
Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address:
B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone:
[235] (51) 62-18, 40-09, or 62-11
FAX:
[235] (51) 33-72
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red;
similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra,
which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield
centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
Overview:
Climate, geographic remoteness, poor resource endowment, and lack of
infrastructure make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in
the world. Its economy is hobbled by political turmoil, conflict with
Libya, drought, and food shortages. Consequently the economy has shown
little progress in recent years in overcoming a severe setback brought
on by civil war in the late 1980s. Over 80% of the work force is
involved in subsistence farming and fishing. Cotton is the major cash
crop, accounting for at least half of exports. Chad is highly
dependent on foreign aid, especially food credits, given chronic
shortages in several regions. The government hopes that discovery of
several oil deposits near Lake Chad will lead to economic revival and
a windfall in government revenues by 2000.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
8.4% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2%-3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$115 million
expenditures:
$412 million, including capital expenditures of $218 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$193.9 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
partners:
France, Nigeria, Cameroon
Imports:
$294.1 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%,
petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; note - excludes military
equipment
partners:
US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon
External debt:
$492 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 12.9% (1989 est.); accounts for nearly 15% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
40,000 kW
production:
70 million kWh
consumption per capita:
15 kWh (1991)
Industries:
cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron (sodium
carbonate), soap, cigarettes
Agriculture:
accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; cotton
most important cash crop; food crops include sorghum, millet, peanuts,
rice, potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, camels;
self-sufficient in food in years of adequate rainfall
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $198 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $28 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $80 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Chad, Communications

Highways:
total:
31,322 km
paved:
bituminous 32 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 7,300 km; earth 23,990 km
Inland waterways:
2,000 km navigable
Airports:
total:
68
usable:
58
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
27
Telecommunications:
fair system of radiocommunication stations for intercity links;
broadcast stations - 6 AM, 1 FM, limited TV service; many facilities
are inoperative; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Chad, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (includes Ground Forces, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Republican
Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,276,167; fit for military service 663,326; reach
military age (20) annually 54,027 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $58 million, 5.6% of GDP (1989)

@Chile, Geography

Location:
Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean between
Argentina and Peru
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
756,950 sq km
land area:
748,800 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
note:
includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez
Land boundaries:
total 6,171 km, Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km
Coastline:
6,435 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
short section of the southern boundary with Argentina is indefinite;
Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean
since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia
over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean
Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims
Climate:
temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south
Terrain:
low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Natural resources:
copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
16%
forest and woodland:
21%
other:
56%
Irrigated land:
12,650 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution
from untreated sewage; deforestation contributing to loss of
biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards:
subject to severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands,
Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama
Desert one of world's driest regions

@Chile, People

Population:
13,950,557 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.51% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
20.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.49 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
15.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.51 years
male:
71.52 years
female:
77.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.5 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Chilean(s)
adjective:
Chilean
Ethnic divisions:
European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%, other 2%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
93%
male:
94%
female:
93%
Labor force:
4.728 million
by occupation:
services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry and commerce 33.8%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%, construction
6.4% (1990)

@Chile, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Chile
conventional short form:
Chile
local long form:
Republica de Chile
local short form:
Chile
Digraph:
CI
Type:
republic
Capital:
Santiago
Administrative divisions:
13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos
Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo,
Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la
Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note:
the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence:
18 September 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
Constitution:
11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989
Legal system:
based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes
influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative
acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March 1994) election last
held 11 December 1993 (next to be held December 1999); results -
Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (PDC) 58%, Arturo ALESSANDRI 24.4%, other
17.6%
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate (Senado):
election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held December 1997);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46 total, 38 elected)
Concertation of Parties for Democracy 21 (PDC 13, PS 4, PPD 3, PR 1),
Union for the Progress of Chile 15 (RN 11, UDI 3, UCC 1), right-wing
independents 10
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados):
election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held December 1997);
results - Concertation of Parties for Democracy 53.95% (PDC 27.16%, PS
12.01%, PPD 11.82%, PR 2.96%,); Union for the Progress of Chile 30.57%
(RN 15.25%, UDI 12.13%, UCC 3.19%); seats - (120 total) Concertation
of Parties for Democracy 70 (PDC 37, PPD 15, PR 2, PS 15, left-wing
independent 1), Union for the Progress of Chile 47 (RN 30, UDI 15, UCC
2), right-wing independents 3
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Political parties and leaders:
Concertation of Parties for Democracy consists mainly of four parties:
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Gutenberg MARTINEZ; Socialist Party
(PS), Camilo ESCALONA; Party for Democracy (PPD), Victor Manuel
REBOLLEDO; Radical Party (PR), Carlos GONZALEZ Marquez; Union for the
Progress of Chile consists mainly of three parties: National Renewal
(RN), Andres ALLAMAND; Independent Democratic Union (UDI), Jovino
NOVOA; Center Center Union (UCC), Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ
Other political or pressure groups:
revitalized university student federations at all major universities;
labor - United Labor Central (CUT) includes trade unionists from the
country's five largest labor confederations; Roman Catholic Church
Member of:
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John BIEHL del Rio
chancery:
1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 785-1746
FAX:
(202) 887-5579
consulate(s) general:
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco,
and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Curtis W. KAMMAN
embassy:
Codina Building, 1343 Agustinas, Santiago
mailing address:
Unit 4127, Santiago; APO AA 34033
telephone:
[56] (2) 671-0133
FAX:
[56] (2) 699-1141
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue
square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the
white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center;
design was based on the US flag

@Chile, Economy

Overview:
Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market economy, with the
degree of government intervention varying according to the philosophy
of the different regimes. Under the center-left government of
President AYLWIN, which took power in March 1990, spending on social
welfare has risen steadily. At the same time business investment,
exports and consumer spending have also grown substantially. The new
president, FREI, who takes office in March 1994, is expected to
emphasize social spending even more. Growth in 1991-93 has averaged 8%
annually, with an estimated one million Chileans having moved out of
poverty in the last four years. Copper remains vital to the health of
the economy; Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter of
copper.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $96 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5.8% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$7,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5.1% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$10.9 billion
expenditures:
$10.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.2 billion (1993)
Exports:
$10 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
copper 41%, other metals and minerals 8.7%, wood products 7.1%, fish
and fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1991)
partners:
EC 29%, Japan 17%, US 16%, Argentina 5%, Brazil 5% (1992)
Imports:
$9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials 15.4%, petroleum
10%, foodstuffs 5.7%
partners:
EC 24%, US 21%, Brazil 10%, Japan 10% (1992)
External debt:
$19.7 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 9.3% (1992 est.); accounts for 34% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
5,769,000 kW
production:
22.01 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,630 kWh (1992)
Industries:
copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel,
wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Agriculture:
accounts for about 7% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); major
exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major crops - wheat,
corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous fruit; livestock
products - beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in most foods; 1991
fish catch of 6.6 million metric tons; net agricultural importer
Illicit drugs:
a minor transshipment country for cocaine destined for the US and
Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $521 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $386 million
Currency:
1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 430.57 (January 1994), 404.35 (1993),
362.59 (1992), 349.37 (1991), 305.06 (1990), 267.16 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Chile, Communications

Railroads:
7,766 km total; 3,974 km 1.676-meter gauge, 150 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 3,642 km 1.000-meter gauge; 1,865 km 1.676-meter gauge
and 80 km 1.000-meter gauge electrified
Highways:
total:
79,993 km
paved:
10,984 km
unpaved:
gravel or earth 68,615 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
725 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas 320 km
Ports:
Antofagasta, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, Valparaiso, San
Antonio, Talcahuano, Arica
Merchant marine:
31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 449,253 GRT/755,821 DWT, bulk
10, cargo 7, chemical tanker 3, combination ore/oil 3, liquefied gas
tanker 3, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3
note:
in addition, 1 naval tanker and 1 military transport are sometimes
used commercially
Airports:
total:
392
usable:
349
with permanent-surface runways:
47
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
13
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
58
Telecommunications:
modern telephone system based on extensive microwave radio relay
facilities; 768,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 159 AM, no FM,
131 TV, 11 shortwave; satellite ground stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 3 domestic

@Chile, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army of the Nation, National Navy (including Naval Air, Coast Guard,
and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile (National
Police), Investigative Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 3,705,321; fit for military service 2,759,130; reach
military age (19) annually 120,512 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1 billion, 3.4% of GDP (1991 est.)

@China

Header
Affiliation:
(also see separate Taiwan entry)

@China, Geography

Location:
Eastern Asia, between India and Mongolia
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
9,596,960 sq km
land area:
9,326,410 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than the US
Land boundaries:
total 22,143.34 km, Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea
1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia
4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605
km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
Coastline:
14,500 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow Sea
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
boundary with India; bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve
disputed sections of the boundary with Russia; boundary with
Tajikistan in dispute; a short section of the boundary with North
Korea is indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly
Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin;
Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan;
claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
Tai), as does Taiwan
Climate:
extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrain:
mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and
hills in east
Natural resources:
coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony,
manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc,
uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
31%
forest and woodland:
14%
other:
45%
Irrigated land:
478,220 sq km (1991 - Chinese statistic)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution from the overwhelming use of coal as a fuel, produces
acid rain which is damaging forests; water pollution from industrial
effluents; many people do not have access to safe drinking water; less
than 10% of sewage receives treatment; deforestation; estimated loss
of one-third of agricultural land since 1957 to soil erosion and
economic development; desertification
natural hazards:
frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern
coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Whaling; signed,
but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note:
world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada)

@China, People

Population:
1,190,431,106 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.08% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
18.1 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.35 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.91 years
male:
66.93 years
female:
68.99 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.84 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Chinese
Ethnic divisions:
Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu,
Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Religions:
Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1% (est.)
note:
officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic
Languages:
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing
dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan
(Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages
(see Ethnic divisions entry)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
78%
male:

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