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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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last held 13 October 1991; results - UDF (and breakaway factions) 34%,
BSP 33%, MRF 7.5%; seats - (240 total) UDF 110, BSP 106, Movement for
Rights and Freedoms 24
note:
the UDF split in March 1993 to form the New Union for Democracy (NUD)
with 18 seats, and the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) with 92 seats
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), Filip DIMITROV, chairman, an
alliance of approximately 20 pro-Democratic parties including United
Democratic Center, Democratic Party, Radical Democratic Party,
Christian Democratic Union, Alternative Social Liberal Party,
Republican Party, Civic Initiative Movement, and about a dozen other
groups; Movement for Rights and Freedoms (mainly ethnic Turkish party)
(MRF), Ahmed DOGAN, chairman; Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), Zhan
VIDENOV, chairman; New Union for Democracy (NUD), Dimitar LUDZHEV,
chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa (Support) Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union;
Bulgarian Democratic Youth (formerly Communist Youth Union);
Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB);
Nationwide Committee for Defense of National Interests; Peasant Youth
League; Bulgarian Agrarian National Union - United (BZNS); Bulgarian
Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian National Union;
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Union of Macedonian
Societies (IMRO-UMS); numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest
groups with various agendas
Member of:
ACCT (observer), BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI (participating), CSCE, EBRD,
ECE, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ognyan Raytchev PISHEV
chancery:
1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 387-7969
FAX:
(202) 234-7973
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY
embassy:
1 Saborna Street, Sofia
mailing address:
Unit 25402, Sofia; APO AE 09213
telephone:
[359] (2) 88-48-01 through 05
FAX:
[359] (2) 80-19-77
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the
national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has
been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat
ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the
dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
from Nazi control)

@Bulgaria, Economy

Overview:
The Bulgarian economy continued its painful adjustment in 1993 from
the misdirected development undertaken during four decades of
Communist rule. Many aspects of a market economy have been put in
place and have begun to function, but much of the economy, especially
the industrial sector, has yet to re-establish market links lost with
the collapse of other centrally planned Eastern European economies.
The prices of many imported industrial inputs, especially energy
products, have risen markedly, and falling real wages have not
sufficed to restore competitiveness. The trade deficit, exacerbated by
UN trade sanctions against neighboring Serbia, grew in late 1993,
accelerating the depreciation of the lev. These difficulties in
adjusting to the challenges of a more open system, together with a
severe drought, caused nonagricultural output to fall by perhaps 8% in
1993. The government plans more extensive privatization in 1994 to
improve the management of state enterprises and to encourage foreign
investment in ailing state firms. Bulgaria resumed payments on its $10
billion in commercial debt in 1993 following the negotiation of a 50%
write-off. An IMF program and second agreement with official creditors
on Bulgaria's smaller amount of official debt are required to close
the debt deal.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $33.9 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
64% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
16% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$14 billion
expenditures:
$17.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $610 million (1993
est.)
Exports:
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and equipment 30.6%; agricultural products 24%; manufactured
consumer goods 22.2%; fuels, minerals, raw materials, and metals
10.5%; other 12.7% (1991)
partners:
former CEMA countries 57.7% (USSR 48.6%, Poland 2.1%, Czechoslovakia
0.9%); developed countries 26.3% (Germany 4.8%, Greece 2.2%); less
developed countries 15.9% (Libya 2.1%, Iran 0.7%) (1991)
Imports:
$2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
fuels, minerals, and raw materials 58.7%; machinery and equipment
15.8%; manufactured consumer goods 4.4%; agricultural products 15.2%;
other 5.9%
partners:
former CEMA countries 51.0% (former USSR 43.2%, Poland 3.7%);
developed countries 32.8% (Germany 7.0%, Austria 4.7%); less developed
countries 16.2% (Iran 2.8%, Libya 2.5%)
External debt:
$12 billion (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate -10% (1993 est.); accounts for about 37% of GDP (1990)
Electricity:
capacity:
11,500,000 kW
production:
45 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
5,070 kWh (1992)
Industries:
machine building and metal working, food processing, chemicals,
textiles, building materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals
Agriculture:
climate and soil conditions support livestock raising and the growing
of various grain crops, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, and tobacco;
more than one-third of the arable land devoted to grain; world's
fourth-largest tobacco exporter; surplus food producer
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan
route
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki
Exchange rates:
leva (Lv) per US$1 - 32.00 (January 1994), 24.56 (January 1993), 17.18
(January 1992), 16.13 (March 1991), 0.7446 (November 1990), 0.84
(1989); note - floating exchange rate since February 1991
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Bulgaria, Communications

Railroads:
4,300 km total, all government owned (1987); 4,055 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 245 km narrow gauge; 917 km double track; 2,640 km
electrified
Highways:
total:
36,930 km
paved:
33,902 km (including 276 km expressways)
unpaved:
earth 3,028 km (1991)
Inland waterways:
470 km (1987)
Pipelines:
crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,400 km
(1992)
Ports:
coastal - Burgas, Varna, Varna West; inland - Ruse, Vidin, and Lom on
the Danube
Merchant marine:
111 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,225,996 GRT/1,829,642 DWT,
bulk 48, cargo 30, chemical carrier 4, container 2, oil tanker 16,
passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6,
short-sea passenger 2
note:
Bulgaria owns 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,717 DWT operating
under Liberian registry
Airports:
total:
487
usable:
85
with permanent-surface runways:
32
with runways over 3659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
21
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
36
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial cable and
microwave radio relay; 2.6 million telephones; direct dialing to 36
countries; phone density is 29 phones per 100 persons (1992); almost
two-thirds of the lines are residential; 67% of Sofia households have
phones (November 1988); telephone service is available in most
villages; broadcast stations - 20 AM, 15 FM, and 29 TV, with 1 Soviet
TV repeater in Sofia; 2.1 million TV sets (1990); 92% of country
receives No. 1 television program (May 1990); 1 satellite ground
station using Intersputnik; INTELSAT is used through a Greek earth
station

@Bulgaria, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Troops, Internal
Troops
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,175,921; fit for military service 1,816,484; reach
military age (19) annually 70,306 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
5.77 billion leva, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of
defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results

@Burkina, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, between Ghana and Mali
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
274,200 sq km
land area:
273,800 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Colorado
Land boundaries:
total 3,192 km, Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Mali
1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was
submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983
and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides
agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger
Climate:
tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain:
mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and
southeast
Natural resources:
manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony,
copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
37%
forest and woodland:
26%
other:
27%
Irrigated land:
160 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural
activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing;
soil degradation; deforestation
natural hazards:
recurring droughts
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine
Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not
ratified - Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note:
landlocked

@Burkina, People

Population:
10,134,661 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.81% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
48.42 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
18.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
118.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
47.03 years
male:
46.18 years
female:
47.9 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.94 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective:
Burkinabe
Ethnic divisions:
Mossi (about 2.5 million), Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic)
10%
Languages:
French (official), tribal languages belong to Sudanic family, spoken
by 90% of the population
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
18%
male:
28%
female:
9%
Labor force:
NA (most adults are employed in subsistance agriculture; 52% of
population is 15 years of age or older)
by occupation:
agriculture 80%, industry 15%, commerce, services, and government 5%
note:
20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for
seasonal employment (1984)

@Burkina, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Burkina Faso
conventional short form:
Burkina
former:
Upper Volta
Digraph:
UV
Type:
parliamentary
Capital:
Ouagadougou
Administrative divisions:
30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde,
Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi,
Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore,
Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa,
Yatenga, Zoundweogo
Independence:
5 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)
Constitution:
2 June 1991
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law
Suffrage:
none
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987); election
last held December 1991
head of government:
Prime Minister Roch KABORE (since March 1994)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Assembly of People's Deputies:
elections last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (107 total), ODP-MT 78, CNPP-PSD
12, RDA 6, ADF 4, other 7
note:
the current law also provides for a second consultative chamber, which
had not been formally constituted as of 1 July 1992
Judicial branch:
Appeals Court
Political parties and leaders:
Organization for People's Democracy- Labor Movement (ODP-MT), ruling
party, Simon COMPAORE, Secretary General; National Convention of
Progressive Patriots-Social Democratic Party (CNPP-PSD), Moussa BOLY;
African Democratic Rally (RDA), Gerard Kango OUEDRAOGO; Alliance for
Democracy and Federation (ADF), Amadou Michel NANA
Other political or pressure groups:
committees for the defense of the revolution; watchdog/political
action groups throughout the country in both organizations and
communities
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Thomas Yara KAMBOU
chancery:
2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-5577 or 6895
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Donald J. McCONNELL
embassy:
Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
mailing address:
01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou
telephone:
[226] 30-67- 23 through 25
FAX:
[226] 31-23-68
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow
five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors
of Ethiopia

@Burkina, Economy

Overview:
One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina has a high
population density, few natural resources, and relatively infertile
soil. Economic development is hindered by a poor communications
network within a landlocked country. Agriculture provides about 40% of
GDP and is entirely of a subsistence nature. Industry, dominated by
unprofitable government-controlled corporations, accounts for about
15% of GDP.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0.7% (1992)
National product per capita:
$700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.8% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$483 million
expenditures:
$548 million, including capital expenditures of $189 million (1992)
Exports:
$300 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
cotton, gold, animal products
partners:
EC 42%, Cote d'Ivoire 11%, Taiwan 15%
Imports:
$685 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery, food products, petroleum
partners:
EC 49%, Africa 24%, Japan 6%
External debt:
$865 million (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.7% (1992); accounts for about 15% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
120,000 kW
production:
320 million kWh
consumption per capita:
40 kWh (1991)
Industries:
cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes,
textiles, gold mining and extraction
Agriculture:
accounts for about 40% of GDP; cash crops - peanuts, shea nuts,
sesame, cotton; food crops - sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock;
not self-sufficient in food grains
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.9
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $113 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05 (January 1994), 283.16 (1993),
264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Burkina, Communications

Railroads:
620 km total; 520 km Ouagadougou to Cote d'Ivoire border and 100 km
Ouagadougou to Kaya; all 1.00-meter gauge and single track
Highways:
total:
16,500 km
paved:
1,300 km
unpaved:
improved earth 7,400 km; unimproved earth 7,800 km (1985)
Airports:
total:
48
usable:
38
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
all services only fair; microwave radio relay, wire, and radio
communication stations in use; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Burkina, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, People's
Militia
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,013,763; fit for military service 1,029,960
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Burma, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and
Thailand
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
678,500 sq km
land area:
657,740 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,876 km, Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km
Coastline:
1,930 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or to the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest
monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild
temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
December to April)
Terrain:
central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
Natural resources:
petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal,
some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
15%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
49%
other:
34%
Irrigated land:
10,180 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation
natural hazards:
subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
landslides common during rainy season (June to September)
international agreements:
party to - Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

@Burma, People

Population:
44,277,014 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.86% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
28.45 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.84 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
63.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
59.98 years
male:
57.94 years
female:
62.15 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.64 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Burmese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Burmese
Ethnic divisions:
Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian
2%, other 5%
Religions:
Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%,
animist beliefs 1%, other 2%
Languages:
Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
81%
male:
89%
female:
72%
Labor force:
16.007 million (1992)
by occupation:
agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%, government 6.3%, other
4.1% (FY89 est.)

@Burma, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Union of Burma
conventional short form:
Burma
local long form:
Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as
Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
local short form:
Myanma Naingngandaw
former:
Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
Digraph:
BM
Type:
military regime
Capital:
Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)
Administrative divisions:
7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya,
singular - pyine); Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin State, Karan State,
Kayah State, Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine State,
Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tenasserim*
Independence:
4 January 1948 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 January (1948)
Constitution:
3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); National
Convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft chapter headings for a
new constitution
Legal system:
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE
(since 23 April 1992)
State Law and Order Restoration Council:
military junta which assumed power 18 September 1988
Legislative branch:
People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw):
last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened; results - NLD 80%;
seats - (485 total) NLD 396, the regime-favored NUP 10, other 79; was
dissolved after the coup of 18 September 1988
Judicial branch:
none; Council of People's Justices was abolished after the coup of 18
September 1988
Political parties and leaders:
Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA), leader NA;
National Unity Party (NUP; proregime), THA KYAW; National League for
Democracy (NLD), U AUNG SHWE
Other political or pressure groups:
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), headed by
the elected prime minister SEIN WIN (consists of individuals
legitimately elected to Parliament but not recognized by the military
regime; the group fled to a border area and joined with insurgents in
December 1990 to form a parallel government; Kachin Independence Army
(KIA); United Wa State Army (UWSA); Karen National Union (KNU);
several Shan factions, including the Mong Tai Army (MTA); All Burma
Student Democratic Front (ABSDF)
Member of:
AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador U THAUNG
chancery:
2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-9044 or 9045
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission, Charge d'Affaires Franklin P.
HUDDLE, Jr.
embassy:
581 Merchant Street, Rangoon
mailing address:
American Embassy, Box B, APO AP 96546
telephone:
[95] (1) 82055, 82181
FAX:
[95] (1) 80409
Flag:
red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all
in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a
stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

@Burma, Economy

Overview:
Burma has a mixed economy with about 70% private activity, mainly in
agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with about 30%
state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy industry, and
foreign trade. Government policy in the last five years, 1989-93, has
aimed at revitalizing the economy after four decades of tight central
planning. Thus, private activity has markedly increased; foreign
investment has been encouraged, so far with moderate success; and
efforts continue to increase the efficiency of state enterprises.
Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated
because of the volume of black market trade. A major ongoing problem
is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Inflation has
been running at 25% to 30% annually. Good weather helped boost GDP by
perhaps 5% in 1993. Although Burma remains a poor Asian country, its
rich resources furnish the potential for substantial long-term
increases in income, exports, and living standards.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $41 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$950 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
30% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$8.1 billion
expenditures:
$11.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$613.4 million (FY93)
commodities:
pulses and beans, teak, rice, hardwood
partners:
Singapore, China, Thailand, India, Hong Kong
Imports:
$1.02 billion (FY93)
commodities:
machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products
partners:
Japan, China, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia
External debt:
$4 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.9% (FY93 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
1,100,000 kW
production:
2.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
65 kWh (1992)
Industries:
agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood
products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron;
construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP and 66% of employment (including fish and
forestry); self-sufficient in food; principal crops - paddy rice,
corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; world's largest stand of hardwood
trees; rice and timber account for 55% of export revenues
Illicit drugs:
world's largest illicit producer of opium (2,575 metric tons in 1993)
and minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium
production has doubled since the collapse of Rangoon's antinarcotic
programs
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $158 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.9
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $424 million
Currency:
1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas
Exchange rates:
kyats (K) per US$1 - 6.2301 (December 1993), 6.1570 (1993), 6.1045
(1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990), 6.7049 (1989); unofficial - 105
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Burma, Communications

Railroads:
3,991 km total, all government owned; 3,878 km 1.000-meter gauge, 113
km narrow-gauge industrial lines; 362 km double track
Highways:
total:
27,000 km
paved:
bituminous 3,200 km
unpaved:
gravel, improved earth 17,700 km; unimproved earth 6,100 km
Inland waterways:
12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km
Ports:
Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein
Merchant marine:
47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 665,628 GRT/941,512 DWT, bulk
15, cargo 15, chemical 1, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 1,
container 2, oil tanker 2, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 5,
vehicle carrier 2
Airports:
total:
83
usable:
78
with permanent-surface runways:
24
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
38
Telecommunications:
meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for
business and government; international service is good; 53,000
telephones (1986); radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most
populous areas; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (1985); 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Burma, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 11,199,531; females age 15-49 11,273,643; males fit
for military service 5,979,710; females fit for military service
6,034,810; males reach military age (18) annually 445,933 (1994 est.);
females reach military age (18) annually 430,738 (1994 est.); both
sexes liable for military service
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Burundi, Geography

Location:
Central Africa, between Tanzania and Zaire
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
27,830 sq km
land area:
25,650 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 974 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire 233 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands
Terrain:
mostly rolling to hilly highland; some plains
Natural resources:
nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not
yet exploited), vanadium
Land use:
arable land:
43%
permanent crops:
8%
meadows and pastures:
35%
forest and woodland:
2%
other:
12%
Irrigated land:
720 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
soil exhaustion and erosion; deforestation; habitat loss threatening
wildlife populations
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note:
landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed
Population:
6,124,747 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.26% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
44.02 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
21.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
113.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
40.3 years
male:
38.31 years
female:
42.35 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.69 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Burundian(s)
adjective:
Burundi
Ethnic divisions:
Africans:
Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1% (other Africans
include about 70,000 refugees, mostly Rwandans and Zairians)
non-Africans:
Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Religions:
Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs
32%, Muslim 1%
Languages:
Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika
and in the Bujumbura area)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
50%
male:
61%
female:
40%
Labor force:
1.9 million (1983 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and commerce 1.5%,
services 1.5%
note:
52% of population of working age (1985)

@Burundi, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Burundi
conventional short form:
Burundi
local long form:
Republika y'u Burundi
local short form:
Burundi
Digraph:
BY
Type:
republic
Capital:
Bujumbura
Administrative divisions:
15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega,
Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana,
Ruyigi
Independence:
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution:
13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural political system
Legal system:
based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Interim President Sylvestre NTIBANTUNGANYA, Speaker of the National
Assembly, succeeded deceased President NTARYAMIRA in early April 1994
with a mandate for at least 90 days; on 11 July 1994 the mandate was
extended by the Constitutional Court for three more months at the
request of 12 political parties locked in negotiations on a new
broad-based government; elections will be held later in 1994
note:
President Melchior NDADAYE died in the military coup of 21 October
1993 and was succeeded on 5 February 1994 by President Cyprien
NTARYAMIRA, who was killed in a mysterious airplane explosion on 6
April 1994
head of government:
Prime Minister Anatole KANYENKIKO (since 7 February 1994); chosen by
the president
cabinet:
Council of Ministers ; appointed by prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale):
elections last held 29 June 1993 (next to be held NA): results -
FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA 21.4%; seats - (81 total) FRODIBU 65, UPRONA 16;
other parties won too small shares of the vote to win seats in the
assembly
note:
The National Unity Charter outlining the principles for constitutional
government was adopted by a national referendum on 5 February 1991
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
Unity for National Progress (UPRONA); Burundi Democratic Front
(FRODEBU); Organization of the People of Burundi (RBP); Socialist
Party of Burundi (PSB); People's Reconciliation Party (PRP)
Other political or pressure groups:
opposition parties legalized in March 1992; Burundi African Alliance
for the Salvation (ABASA); Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social
Development (RADDES)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jacques BACAMURWANKO, designated (January 1994)
chancery:
Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 342-2574
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Leonard J. LANGE
embassy:
Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address:
B. P. 34, 1720, Bujumbura
telephone:
[257] (223) 454
FAX:
[257] (222) 926
Flag:
divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and
green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk
superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars
outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two
stars below)

@Burundi, Economy

Overview:
A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of economic
development, Burundi is predominately agricultural with only a few
basic industries. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop,
which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to
pay for imports therefore continues to rest largely on the vagaries of
the climate and the international coffee market. As part of its
economic reform agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World
Bank support, Burundi is trying to diversify its agricultural exports
and attract foreign investment in industry. Several state-owned coffee
companies were privatized via public auction in September 1991.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-3.8% (1991)
National product per capita:
$700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.7% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$318 million
expenditures:
$326 million, including capital expenditures of $150 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$40.8 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
coffee 81%, tea, cotton, hides, and skins
partners:
EC 57%, US 19%, Asia 1%
Imports:
$188 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs, consumer goods
partners:
EC 45%, Asia 29%, US 2%
External debt:
$970 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 11% (1991 est.); accounts for about 15% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
55,000 kW
production:
105 million kWh
consumption per capita:
20 kWh (1991)
Industries:
light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of
imported components; public works construction; food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 50% of GDP; 90% of population dependent on subsistence
farming; marginally self-sufficient in food production; cash crops -
coffee, cotton, tea; food crops - corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes,
bananas, manioc; livestock - meat, milk, hides and skins
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $71 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $32 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $175 million
Currency:
1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 247.94 (November 1993), 208.30 (1992),
181.51 (1991), 171.26 (1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Burundi, Communications

Highways:
total:
6,285 km
paved:
1,099 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 2,500 km; improved, unimproved earth 2,686 km
(1990)
Inland waterways:
Lake Tanganyika
Ports:
Bujumbura (lake port) connects to transportation systems of Tanzania
and Zaire
Airports:
total:
5
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and low-capacity microwave
radio relay links; 8,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM,
1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Burundi, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,315,660; fit for military service 687,474; reach
military age (16) annually 67,949 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $28 million, 3.7% of GDP (1989)

@Cambodia, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand
and Vietnam
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
181,040 sq km
land area:
176,520 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundaries:
total 2,572 km, Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Coastline:
443 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
offshore islands and sections of the boundary with Vietnam are in
dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not defined; parts of border
with Thailand in dispute; maritime boundary with Thailand not clearly
defined
Climate:
tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to October); dry season (December
to March); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Natural resources:
timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower
potential
Land use:
arable land:
16%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
76%
other:
4%
Irrigated land:
920 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation resulting in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in
particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural
fisheries)
natural hazards:
monsoonal rains (June to November)
international agreements:
party to - Marine Life Conservation; signed, but not ratified -
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Note:
a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle
Sap

@Cambodia, People

Population:
10,264,628 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.87% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
45.09 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
16.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
110.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
49.26 years
male:
47.8 years
female:
50.8 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.81 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cambodian(s)
adjective:
Cambodian
Ethnic divisions:
Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Religions:
Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%
Languages:
Khmer (official), French
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
35%
male:
48%
female:
22%
Labor force:
2.5 million to 3 million
by occupation:
agriculture 80% (1988 est.)

@Cambodia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form:
Cambodia
local long form:
Reacheanachak Kampuchea
local short form:
Kampuchea
Digraph:
CB
Type:
multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional monarchy
established in September 1993
Capital:
Phnom Penh
Administrative divisions:
20 provinces (khet, singular and plural); Banteay Meanchey,
Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum,
Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Phnum Penh,
Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanokiri, Siemreab-Otdar
Meanchey, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
Independence:
9 November 1949 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 November 1949
Constitution:
promulgated September 1993
Legal system:
currently being defined
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated NA September 1993)
head of government:
power shared between First Prime Minister Prince Norodom RANARIDDH and
Second Prime Minister HUN SEN
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral; a 120-member constituent assembly based on proportional
representation within each province was establised following the
UN-supervised election in May 1993; the constituent assembly was
transformed into a legislature in September 1993 after delegates
promulgated the constitution
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court established under the constitution has not yet been
established and the future judicial system is yet to be defined by law
Political parties and leaders:
National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and
Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC) under Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH;
Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party (CPP) under
CHEA SIM; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party under SON SANN; Democratic
Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge) under KHIEU SAMPHAN
Member of:
ACCT (observer), AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
Ambassador SISOWATH SIRIRATH represents Cambodia at the United Nations
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Charles H. TWINING
embassy:
27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
mailing address:
Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone:
(855) 23-26436 or (855) 23-26438
FAX:
(855) 23-26437
Flag:
horizontal band of red separates two equal horizontal bands of blue
with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat in the
center

@Cambodia, Economy

Overview:
The Cambodian economy - virtually destroyed by decades of war - is
slowly recovering. Government leaders are moving toward restoring
fiscal and monetary discipline and have established good working
relations with international financial institutions. Despite such
positive developments, the reconstruction effort faces many tough
challenges. Rural Cambodia, where 90% of almost ten million Khmer
live, remains mired in poverty. The almost total lack of basic
infrastructure in the countryside will hinder development and will
contribute to a growing imbalance in growth between urban and rural
areas over the near term. Moreover, the new government's lack of
experience in administering economic and technical assistance
programs, and rampant corruption among officials, will slow the growth
of critical public sector investment. Inflation for 1993 as a whole
was 60%, less than a quarter of the 1992 rate, and was declining
during the year. The government hoped the rate would fall to 10% in
early 1994.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
7.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
60% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$350 million
expenditures:
$350 million, including capital expenditures of $133 million (1994
est.)
Exports:
$70 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
natural rubber, rice, pepper, raw timber
partners:
Thailand, Japan, India, Singapore, Malaysia, China, Vietnam
Imports:
$360 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
international food aid; fuels, consumer goods, machinery
partners:
Japan, India, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, China, Vietnam
External debt:
total outstanding bilateral official debt to OECD members $248 million
(yearend 1991), plus 840 million ruble debt to former CEMA countries
Industrial production:
growth rate 15.6% (year NA); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
35,000 kW
production:
70 million kWh
consumption per capita:
9 kWh (1990)
Industries:
rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem
mining
Agriculture:
accounts for 50% of GDP; mainly subsistence farming except for rubber
plantations; main crops - rice, rubber, corn; food shortages - rice,
meat, vegetables, dairy products, sugar, flour
Illicit drugs:
secondary transshipment country for heroin produced in the Golden
Triangle
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $725 million; Western
(non-US countries) (1970-89), $300 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $1.8 billion; donor countries and multilateral institutions
pledged $880 million in assistance in 1992
Currency:
1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen
Exchange rates:
riels (CR) per US$1 - 2,390 (December 1993), 2,800 (September 1992),
500 (December 1991), 560 (1990), 159.00 (1988), 100.00 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Cambodia, Communications

Railroads:
612 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned
Highways:
total:
13,351 km (some roads in serious disrepair)
paved:
bituminous 2,622 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth 7,105 km; unimproved earth
3,624 km
Inland waterways:
3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 meters; 282 km
navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters
Ports:
Kampong Saom, Phnom Penh
Airports:
total:
20
usable:
13
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
service barely adequate for government requirements and virtually
nonexistent for general public; international service limited to
Vietnam and other adjacent countries; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no
FM, 1 TV

@Cambodia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Khmer Royal Armed Forces (KRAF):
created in 1993 by the merger of the Cambodian People's Armed Forces
and the two non-Communist resistance armies; note - the KRAF is also
known as the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF)
Resistance forces:
National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,182,912; fit for military service 1,217,357; reach
military age (18) annually 67,463 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Cameroon, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Equatorial
Guinea and Nigeria
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
475,440 sq km
land area:
469,440 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total 4,591 km, Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Congo
523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km
Coastline:
402 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
50 nm
International disputes:
demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of
which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and
awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; boundary
commission, created with Nigeria to discuss unresolved land and
maritime boundaries in the vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula, has not
yet convened, but a commission was formed in January 1994 to study a
flare-up of the dispute
Climate:
varies with terrain from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in
north
Terrain:
diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center,
mountains in west, plains in north
Natural resources:
petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land:
13%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland:
54%
other:
13%
Irrigated land:
280 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing;
desertification; poaching
natural hazards:
recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Nuclear Test Ban
Note:
sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

@Cameroon, People

Population:
13,132,191 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.91% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
40.53 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
11.41 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
77.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
57.07 years
male:
55.03 years
female:
59.17 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.84 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cameroonian(s)
adjective:
Cameroonian
Ethnic divisions:
Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%,
Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%,
non-African less than 1%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%
Languages:
24 major African language groups, English (official), French
(official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
55%
male:
66%
female:
45%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%, other services 14.2%
(1983)
note:
50% of population of working age (15-64 years) (1985)

@Cameroon, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Cameroon
conventional short form:
Cameroon
former:
French Cameroon
Digraph:
CM
Type:
unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties
legalized 1990)
Capital:
Yaounde
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord,
Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest
Independence:
1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration)
National holiday:
National Day, 20 May (1972)
Constitution:
20 May 1972
Legal system:
based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982); election last held 11
October 1992; results - President Paul BIYA reelected with about 40%
of the vote amid widespread allegations of fraud; SDF candidate John
FRU NDI got 36% of the vote; UNDP candidate Bello Bouba MAIGARI got
19% of the vote
head of government:
Prime Minister Simon ACHIDI ACHU (since 9 April 1992)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale):
elections last held 1 March 1992 (next scheduled for March 1997);
results - (180 seats) CPDM 88, UNDP 68, UPC 18, MDR 6
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM), Paul BIYA, president, is
government-controlled and was formerly the only party, but opposition
parties were legalized in 1990
major opposition parties:
National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP); Social Democratic
Front (SDF); Cameroonian Democratic Union (UDC); Union of Cameroonian
Populations (UPC)
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA,
UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
chancery:
2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-8790 through 8794
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Harriet ISOM
embassy:
Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
mailing address:
B. P. 817, Yaounde
telephone:
[237] 23-40-14 and 23-05-12
FAX:
[237] 23-07-53
consulate(s):
none (Douala closed July 1993)
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with
a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Cameroon, Economy

Overview:
Because of its offshore oil resources and favorable agricultural
conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed, most diversified
primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces
many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries,
such as political instability, a top-heavy civil service, and a
generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. The development
of the oil sector led rapid economic growth between 1970 and 1985.
Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986, precipitated by steep declines
in the prices of major exports: coffee, cocoa, and petroleum. Export
earnings were cut by almost one-third, and inefficiencies in fiscal
management were exposed. In 1990-93, with support from the IMF and
World Bank, the government began to introduce reforms designed to spur
business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, and
recapitalize the nation's banks. Political instability following
suspect elections in 1992 brought IMF/WB structural adjustment to a
halt. Although the 50% devaluation of the currency in January 1994
improves the potential for export growth, mismanagement remains and is
the main barrier to economic improvement.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $19.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1990 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.7 billion
expenditures:
$2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $422 million (FY90
est.)
Exports:
$1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum products 51%, coffee, beans, cocoa, aluminum products,
timber
partners:
EC (particularly France) about 50%, US, African countries
Imports:
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer goods, transport
equipment
partners:
EC about 60% (France 41%, Germany 9%), African countries, Japan, US 4%
External debt:
$6 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.4% (FY87); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
755,000 kW
production:
2.19 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
190 kWh (1991)
Industries:
petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer
goods, textiles, sawmills
Agriculture:
the agriculture and forestry sectors provide employment for the
majority of the population, contributing nearly 25% to GDP and
providing a high degree of self-sufficiency in staple foods;
commercial and food crops include coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton,
rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock, root starches
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $479 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $4.75
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $125 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Cameroon, Communications

Railroads:
1,003 km total; 858 km 1.000-meter gauge, 145 km 0.600-meter gauge
Highways:
total:
65,000 km
paved:
2,682 km
unpaved:
gravel, improved earth 32,318 km; unimproved earth 30,000 km
Inland waterways:
2,090 km; of decreasing importance
Ports:
Douala
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT
Airports:
total:
61
usable:
49
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
21
Telecommunications:
good system of open wire, cable, troposcatter, and microwave radio
relay; 26,000 telephones, 2 telephones per 1,000 persons, available
only to business and government; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 11 FM, 1
TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Cameroon, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Naval Infantry), Air Force, National
Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,939,761; fit for military service 1,481,750; reach
military age (18) annually 137,020 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $219 million, less than 2% of GDP (1990
est.)

@Canada, Geography

Location:
Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North
Pacific Ocean north of the US
Map references:
Arctic Region, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
9,976,140 sq km
land area:
9,220,970 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than US
Land boundaries:
total 8,893 km, US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Coastline:
243,791 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary disputes with the US; Saint Pierre and Miquelon is
focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France
Climate:
varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrain:
mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Natural resources:
nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish,
timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
5%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
35%
other:
57%
Irrigated land:
8,400 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal
smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on
agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming
contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry
activities
natural hazards:
continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note:
second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location
between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of the
population is concentrated in the region near the US/Canada border

@Canada, People

Population:
28,113,997 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.18% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
14.1 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.39 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
5.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
78.13 years
male:
74.73 years
female:
81.71 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.84 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Canadian(s)
adjective:
Canadian
Ethnic divisions:
British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other European 20%,
indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%, other 28%
Languages:
English (official), French (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population:
97%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
13.38 million
by occupation:
services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%, construction 3%,
other 4% (1988)

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