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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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6.39 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
12.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.13 years
male:
72.43 years
female:
78.02 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.61 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective:
Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Ethnic divisions:
Muslim 44%, Serb 31%, Croat 17%, other 8%
Religions:
Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%
Languages:
Serbo-Croatian 99%
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1,026,254
by occupation:
agriculture 2%, industry, mining 45% (1991 est.)

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Government

Note:
The US recognizes the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is a new government being formed
by the Muslims and Croats. On 31 May 1994 a Croat president, Kresimir
ZUBAK, and a Muslim vice president, Ejup GANIC, were elected. Haris
SILAJDZIC, who is prime minister of the Republic, is also the prime
minister of the Federation.
Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
conventional short form:
Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form:
Republika Bosna i Hercegovina
local short form:
Bosna i Hercegovina
Digraph:
BK
Type:
emerging democracy
Capital:
Sarajevo
Administrative divisions:
109 districts (opstinas, singular - opstina) Banovici, Banja Luka,
Bihac, Bijeljina, Bileca, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanska
Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi, Bosanski Petrovac, Bosanski
Samac, Bosansko Grahovo, Bratunac, Brcko, Breza, Bugojno, Busovaca,
Cazin, Cajnice, Capljina, Celinac, Citluk, Derventa, Doboj, Donji
Vakuf, Foca, Fojnica, Gacko, Glamoc, Gorazde, Gornji Vakuf, Gracanica,
Gradacac, Grude, Han Pijesak, Jablanica, Jajce, Kakanj, Kalesija,
Kalinovik, Kiseljak, Kladanj, Kljuc, Konjic, Kotor Varos, Kresevo,
Kupres, Laktasi, Listica, Livno, Lopare, Lukavac, Ljubinje, Ljubuski,
Maglaj, Modrica, Mostar, Mrkonjic-Grad, Neum, Nevesinje, Odzak, Olovo,
Orasje, Posusje, Prijedor, Prnjavor, Prozor, (Pucarevo) Novi Travnik,
Rogatica, Rudo, Sanski Most, Sarajevo-Centar, Sarajevo-Hadzici,
Sarajevo-Ilidza, Sarajevo-Ilijas, Sarajevo-Novi Grad, Sarajevo-Novo,
Sarajevo-Pale, Sarajevo-Stari Grad, Sarajevo-Trnovo, Sarajevo-Vogosca,
Skender Vakuf, Sokolac, Srbac, Srebrenica, Srebrenik, Stolac,
Sekovici, Sipovo, Teslic, Tesanj, Drvar, Duvno, Travnik, Trebinje,
Tuzla, Ugljevik, Vares, Velika Kladusa, Visoko, Visegrad, Vitez,
Vlasenica, Zavidovici, Zenica, Zvornik, Zepce, Zivinice
note:
currently under negotiation with the assistance of international
mediators
Independence:
NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
NA
Constitution:
promulgated in 1974 (under the Communists), amended 1989, 1990, and
1991; the Assembly planned to draft a new constitution in 1991, before
conditions deteriorated; constitution of Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina (including Muslim and Croatian controlled parts of
Republic) ratified April 1994
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 20 December 1990), other members of
the collective presidency: Ejup GANIC (since NA November 1990), Nijaz
DURAKOVIC (since NA October 1993), Stjepan KLJUJIC (since NA October
1993), Ivo KOMSIC (since NA October 1993), Mirko PEJANOVIC (since NA
June 1992), Tatjana LJUJIC-MIJATOVIC (since NA December 1992)
head of government:
Prime Minister Haris SILAJDZIC (since NA October 1993); Deputy Prime
Minister Edib BUKVIC (since NA October 1993)
cabinet:
executive body of ministers; members of, and responsible to, the
National Assembly
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly
Chamber of Municipalities (Vijece Opeina):
elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA);
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (110 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 38,
HDZ BiH 23, Party of Democratic Changes 4, DSS 1, SPO 1
Chamber of Citizens (Vijece Gradanstvo):
elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA);
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (130 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 34,
HDZ BiH 21, Party of Democratic Changes 15, SRSJ BiH 12, MBO 2, DSS 1,
DSZ 1, LS 1
note:
legislative elections for Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina are
slated for late 1994
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Alija IZETBEGOVIC; Croatian
Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ BiH), KresimirZUBAK;
Serbian Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina (SDS BiH), Radovan
KARADZIC, president; Muslim-Bosnian Organization (MBO), Adil
ZULFIKARPASIC, president; Democratic Party of Socialists (DSS), Nijaz
DURAKOVIC, president; Party of Democratic Changes, leader NA; Serbian
Movement for Renewal (SPO), Milan TRIVUNCIC; Alliance of Reform Forces
of Yugoslavia for Bosnia and Herzegovina (SRSJ BiH), Dr. Nenad
KECMANOVIC, president; Democratic League of Greens (DSZ), Drazen
PETROVIC; Liberal Party (LS), Rasim KADIC, president
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
CEI, CSCE, ECE, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM (guest), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Minister-Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim Seven
ALKALAJ
chancery:
Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 10036
telephone:
(202) 833-3612, 3613, and 3615
FAX:
(202) 833-2061
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Victor JACKOVICH
embassy:
address NA
mailing address:
NA
telephone:
NA
FAX:
NA
Flag:
white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white Roman
crosses with a white diagonal band running from the upper hoist corner
to the lower fly side

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Economy

Overview:
Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation.
Although agriculture has been almost all in private hands, farms have
been small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally has been a
net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one
reflection of the rigidities of Communist central planning and
management. Tito had pushed the development of military industries in
the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of
Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of April 1994, Bosnia and Herzegovina
was being torn apart by the continued bitter interethnic warfare that
has caused production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar,
and human misery to multiply. No reliable economic statistics for
1992-93 are available, although output clearly has fallen
substantially below the levels of earlier years.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; production is sharply down because of interethnic and
interrepublic warfare (1991-93)
Electricity:
capacity:
NA kW
production:
NA kWh
consumption per capita:
NA kWh
Industries:
steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and
bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products,
wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's armaments including tank
and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances), oil refining (1991)
Agriculture:
accounted for 9.0% of GDP in 1989; regularly produces less than 50% of
food needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support orchards,
vineyards, livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters and heavy
precipitation leach soil fertility reducing agricultural output in the
mountains; farms are mostly privately held, small, and not very
productive (1991)
Illicit drugs:
NA
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 dinar = 100 para; Croatian dinar used in Croat-held area, presumably
to be replaced by new Croatian kuna; old and new Serbian dinars used
in Serb-held area; hard currencies probably supplanting local
currencies in areas held by Bosnian government
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Communications

Railroads:
NA km
Highways:
total:
21,168 km
paved:
11,436 km
unpaved:
gravel 8,146 km; earth 1,586 km (1991)
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note - pipelines now
disrupted
Ports:
coastal - none; inland - Bosanski Brod on the Sava River
Airports:
total:
28
usable:
24
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3659:
0
with runways 2440-3659 m:
3
with runways 1220-2439 m:
6
Telecommunications:
telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and
expansion, many urban areas being below average compared with services
in other former Yugoslav republics; 727,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 9 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 840,000 radios; 1,012,094 TVs; satellite
ground stations - none

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,298,102; fit for military service 1,054,068; reach
military age (19) annually 38,283 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Botswana, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
600,370 sq km
land area:
585,370 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 4,013 km, Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813
km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
short section of boundary with Namibia is indefinite; quadripoint with
Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; recent dispute with
Namibia over uninhabited Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe)
River
Climate:
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain:
predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in
southwest
Natural resources:
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore,
silver
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
75%
forest and woodland:
2%
other:
21%
Irrigated land:
20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
overgrazing; desertification; water scarcity
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity
Note:
landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

@Botswana, People

Population:
1,359,352 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.45% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
32.19 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.72 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
39.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
63.05 years
male:
60.03 years
female:
66.16 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.06 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective:
Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic divisions:
Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white 1%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%
Languages:
English (official), Setswana
Literacy:
age 15 and over able to read and write simple sentences (1990 est.)
total population:
23%
male:
32%
female:
16%
Labor force:
428,000 (1992)
by occupation:
220,000 formal sector employees, most others are engaged in cattle
raising and subsistence agriculture (1992 est.); 14,300 are employed
in various mines in South Africa (March 1992)

@Botswana, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Botswana
conventional short form:
Botswana
former:
Bechuanaland
Digraph:
BC
Type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
Gaborone
Administrative divisions:
10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng,
Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern; in addition, there are 4
town councils - Francistown, Gaborone, Lobaste, Selebi-Phikwe
Independence:
30 September 1966 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 30 September (1966)
Constitution:
March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review
limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Sir Ketumile MASIRE (since 13 July 1980); Vice President
Festus MOGAE (since 9 March 1992); election last held 7 October 1989
(next to be held October 1994); results - President Sir Ketumile
MASIRE was reelected by the National Assembly
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
House of Chiefs:
is a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of chiefs of the 8
principal tribes, 4 elected subchiefs, and 3 members selected by the
other 12
National Assembly:
elections last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (38 total of which 34
are elected and 4 are appointed) BDP 31, BNF 3, unfilled seats pending
new elections 4
Judicial branch:
High Court, Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Sir Ketumile MASIRE; Botswana
National Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA; Botswana People's Party (BPP),
Knight MARIPE; Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ,
UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE
chancery:
Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 244-4990 or 4991
FAX:
(202) 244-4164
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Howard JETER
embassy:
address NA, Gaborone
mailing address:
P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone:
[267] 353-982
FAX:
[267] 356-947
Flag:
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

@Botswana, Economy

Overview:
The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops.
Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80% of the
population, but produces only about 50% of food needs. The driving
force behind the rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been
the mining industry. This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds,
has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to 50% in 1991. No other
sector has experienced such growth, especially not agriculture, which
is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. The unemployment rate
remains a problem at 25%. Although diamond production was down
slightly in 1992, substantial gains in coal output and manufacturing
helped boost the economy. Recovery in sluggish diamond markets in
second half 1993 helped Botswana achieve moderate growth of 3% for the
year.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
14% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.7 billion
expenditures:
$1.99 billion, including capital expenditures of $652 million (FY94)
Exports:
$1.7 billion (f.o.b. 1992)
commodities:
diamonds 78%, copper and nickel 6%, meat 5%
partners:
Switzerland, UK, SACU (Southern African Customs Union)
Imports:
$1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum
products
partners:
Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union), UK, US
External debt:
$344 million (December 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.8% (FY91); accounts for about 53% of GDP, including
mining
Electricity:
capacity:
220,000 kW
production:
901 million kWh (in addition 228,000,000 kWh were imported)
consumption per capita:
874 kWh (1992 est.)
Industries:
mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash;
livestock processing
Agriculture:
accounts for only 5% of GDP; subsistence farming predominates; cattle
raising supports 50% of the population; must import up to of 80% of
food needs
Economic aid:
recipient:
US aid (1992), $13 million; Norway (1992), $16 million; Sweden (1992),
$15.5 million; Germany (1992), $3.6 million; EC/Lome-IV (1992), $3-6
million in grants; $28.7 million in long-term projects (1992)
Currency:
1 pula (P) = 100 thebe
Exchange rates:
pula (P) per US$1 - 3.1309 (January 1994), 2.4190 (1993), 2.1327
(1992), 2.0173 (1991), 1.8601 (1990), 2.0125 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Botswana, Communications

Railroads:
712 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways:
total:
11,514 km
paved:
1,600 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, gravel 1,700 km; improved earth 5,177 km; unimproved
earth 3,037 km
Airports:
total:
101
usable:
90
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
30
Telecommunications:
the small system is a combination of open-wire lines, microwave radio
relay links, and a few radio-communications stations; 26,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 7 AM, 13 FM, no TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Botswana, Defense Forces

Branches:
Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing), Botswana
National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 294,603; fit for military service 154,997; reach
military age (18) annually 15,156 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $196 million, 4.9% of GDP (FY93/94)

@Bouvet Island

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of Norway)

@Bouvet Island, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the South Atlantic Ocean, 2,575 km south-southwest
of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)
Map references:
Antarctic Region
Area:
total area:
58 sq km
land area:
58 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
29.6 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
4 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
antarctic
Terrain:
volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly
inaccessible
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (all ice)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
covered by glacial ice

@Bouvet Island, People

Population:
uninhabited

@Bouvet Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Bouvet Island
Digraph:
BV
Type:
territory of Norway
Capital:
none; administered from Oslo, Norway
Independence:
none (territory of Norway)

@Bouvet Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Bouvet Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Telecommunications:
automatic meteorological station

@Bouvet Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Norway

@Brazil, Geography

Location:
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
8,511,965 sq km
land area:
8,456,510 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than the US
note:
includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da
Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Land boundaries:
total 14,691 km, Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643
km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru
1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km
Coastline:
7,491 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
short section of the boundary with Paraguay, just west of Salto das
Sete Quedas (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana, is in dispute; two short
sections of boundary with Uruguay are in dispute - Arroio Invernada
(Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the
islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay River
Climate:
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Natural resources:
iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, phosphates, tin,
hydropower, gold, platinum, petroleum, timber
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
19%
forest and woodland:
67%
other:
6%
Irrigated land:
27,000 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation in Amazon Basin; air and water pollution in Rio de
Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation
and water pollution caused by improper mining activities
natural hazards:
recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Tropical Timber
Note:
largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every
South American country except Chile and Ecuador

@Brazil, People

Population:
158,739,257 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.28% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
21.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.63 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
59.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
62.25 years
male:
57.41 years
female:
67.32 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.44 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Brazilian(s)
adjective:
Brazilian
Ethnic divisions:
Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, Amerindian, black 6%, white
55%, mixed 38%, other 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic (nominal) 70%
Languages:
Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
81%
male:
82%
female:
80%
Labor force:
57 million (1989 est.)
by occupation:
services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

@Brazil, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form:
Brazil
local long form:
Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form:
Brasil
Digraph:
BR
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
Brasilia
Administrative divisions:
26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district*
(distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara,
Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato
Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui,
Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia,
Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Independence:
7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Constitution:
5 October 1988
Legal system:
based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over
18 and under 70 years of age
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Itamar FRANCO (since 29 December 1992); election last held
15 November 1989, with runoff on 17 December 1989 (next to be held
October 1994); results - Fernando COLLOR de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio
LULA da Silva 47%; note - first free, direct presidential election
since 1960; Fernando COLLOR de Mello was impeached in December 1992
and succeeded by former Vice President Itamar FRANCO
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional)
Federal Senate (Senado Federal):
election last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994);
results - percent of vote by party PMBD 33%, PFL 16%, PSDB 12%, PDS
4%, PDT 6%, PT 1%, other 28%; seats - (81 total as of 3 February 1991)
PMDB 27, PFL 15, PSDB 10, PTB 8, PDT 5, other 16
Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos Deputados):
election last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994);
results - PMDB 21%, PFL 17%, PDT 9%, PDS 8%, PRN 7.9%, PTB 7%, PT 7%,
other 23.1%; seats - (503 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 108, PFL
87, PDT 46, PDS 43, PRN 40, PTB 35, PT 35, other 109
Judicial branch:
Supreme Federal Tribunal
Political parties and leaders:
National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Daniel TOURINHO, president;
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Luiz HENRIQUE da Silveira,
president; Liberal Front Party (PFL), Jorge BORNHAUSEN, president;
Workers' Party (PT), Luis Inacio LULA da Silva, president; Brazilian
Workers' Party (PTB), Rodrigues PALMA, president; Democratic Workers'
Party (PDT), Leonel BRIZOLA, president; Progressive Renewal Party
(PPR), Paulo MALUF, president; Brazilian Social Democracy Party
(PSDB), Tasso JEREISSATI, president; Popular Socialist Party (PPS),
Roberto FREIRE, president; Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Joao
AMAZONAS, secretary general; Liberal Party (PL), Flavio ROCHA,
president
Other political or pressure groups:
left wing of the Catholic Church and labor unions allied to leftist
Workers' Party are critical of government's social and economic
policies
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA,
RG, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR,
UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Paulo Tarso FLECHA de LIMA
chancery:
3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 745-2700
FAX:
(202) 745-2827
consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, Hong Kong (Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands),
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s):
Houston and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY
embassy:
Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal
mailing address:
APO AA 34030
telephone:
[55] (61) 321-7272
FAX:
[55] (61) 225-9136
consulate(s) general:
Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
consulate(s):
Porto Alegre, Recife
Flag:
green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue
celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state
and district) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over
Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E
PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

@Brazil, Economy

Overview:
The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and manufacturing sectors,
entered the 1990s with declining real growth, runaway inflation, an
unserviceable foreign debt of $122 billion, and a lack of policy
direction. In addition, the economy remained highly regulated,
inward-looking, and protected by substantial trade and investment
barriers. Ownership of major industrial and mining facilities is
divided among private interests - including several multinationals -
and the government. Most large agricultural holdings are private, with
the government channeling financing to this sector. Conflicts between
large landholders and landless peasants have produced intermittent
violence. The COLLOR government, which assumed office in March 1990,
launched an ambitious reform program that sought to modernize and
reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices, deregulating the
economy, and opening it to increased foreign competition. The
government also obtained an IMF standby loan in January 1992 and
reached agreements with commercial bankers on the repayment of
interest arrears and on the reduction of debt and debt service
payments. Galloping inflation (the rate doubled in 1992 and by March
1994 had risen to 42% per month) continues to undermine economic
stability. Itamar FRANCO, who assumed the presidency following
President COLLOR'S resignation in December 1992, was out of step with
COLLOR'S reform agenda; initiatives to redress fiscal problems,
privatize state enterprises, and liberalize trade and investment
policies have lost momentum. Brazil's natural resources remain a
major, long-term economic strength
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $785 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5% (1993)
National product per capita:
$5,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2,709% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
4.9% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$113 billion
expenditures:
$109 billion, including capital expenditures of $23 billion (1992)
Exports:
$38.8 billion (f.o.b. 1993)
commodities:
iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee, motor vehicle
parts
partners:
EC 27.6%, Latin America 21.8%, US 17.4%, Japan 6.3% (1993)
Imports:
$25.7 billion (f.o.b. 1993)
commodities:
crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs, coal
partners:
US 23.3%, EC 22.5%, Middle East 13.0%, Latin America 11.8%, Japan 6.5%
(1993)
External debt:
$119 billion (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 9.5% (1993); accounts for 39% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
63,765,000 kW
production:
242.184 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,531 kWh (1992)
Industries:
textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber,
iron ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts, metalworking, capital
goods, tin
Agriculture:
accounts for 11% of GDP; world's largest producer and exporter of
coffee and orange juice concentrate and second-largest exporter of
soybeans; other products - rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, beef;
self-sufficient in food, except for wheat
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for domestic
consumption; government has a modest eradication program to control
cannabis and coca cultivation; important transshipment country for
Bolivian and Colombian cocaine headed for the US and Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.5 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million; former Communist
countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion
Currency:
1 cruzeiro real (CR$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
CR$ per US$1 - 390.845 (January 1994), 88.449 (1993), 4.513 (1992),
0.407 (1991), 0.068 (1990), 0.003 (1989)
note:
on 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real, equal to 1,000 cruzeiros, was
introduced; another new currency, the real, will be introduced on 1
July 1994
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Brazil, Communications

Railroads:
30,133 km total; 24,690 km 1.000-meter gauge, 5,120 km 1.600-meter
gauge, 310 km mixed 1.600-1.000-meter gauge, 13 km 0.760-meter gauge;
2,150 km electrified
Highways:
total:
1,670,148 km
paved:
161,503 km
unpaved:
gravel/earth 1,508,645 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
50,000 km navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural gas 1,095 km
Ports:
Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio
de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos
Merchant marine:
220 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,139,176 GRT/8,695,682 DWT,
bulk 53, cargo 40, chemical tanker 14, combination ore/oil 12,
container 11, liquified gas 11, oil tanker 62, passenger-cargo 5,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11
note:
in addition, 1 naval tanker is sometimes used commercially
Airports:
total:
3,581
usable:
3,024
with permanent-surface runways:
436
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
22
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
598
Telecommunications:
good system; extensive microwave radio relay facilities; 9.86 million
telephones; broadcast stations - 1,223 AM, no FM, 112 TV, 151
shortwave; 3 coaxial submarine cables, 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations and 64 domestic satellite earth stations

@Brazil, Defense Forces

Branches:
Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil (including Marines), Brazilian Air
Force, Military Police (paramilitary)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 43,489,704; fit for military service 29,286,530; reach
military age (18) annually 1,674,930 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 3% of GDP (1990)

@British Indian Ocean Territory

Header
Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, in the Indian Ocean, south of India about halfway
between Africa and Indonesia
Map references:
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
60 sq km
land area:
60 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes the island of Diego Garcia
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
698 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
the entire Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Mauritius
Climate:
tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)
Natural resources:
coconuts, fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost
island, occupies strategic location in central Indian Ocean; island is
site of joint US-UK military facility

@British Indian Ocean Territory, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants
note:
there are UK-US military personnel; civilian inhabitants, known as the
Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK-US military
facilities

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
British Indian Ocean Territory
conventional short form:
none
Abbreviation:
BIOT
Digraph:
IO
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
none
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government:
Commissioner Thomas GEORGE (since September 1991); Administrator Mr.
R. G. WELLS (since NA 1991); note - both reside in the UK
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and six
blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and yellow crown
centered on the outer half of the flag

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Economy

Overview:
All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of Diego
Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located. Construction
projects and various services needed to support the military
installations are done by military and contract employees from the UK,
Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no industrial or
agricultural activities on the islands.
Electricity:
provided by the US military

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on Diego Garcia
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Diego Garcia
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
1 on Diego Garcia
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,229-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
minimal facilities; broadcast stations (operated by US Navy) - 1 AM, 1
FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@British Virgin Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

@British Virgin Islands, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 110 km east of Puerto
Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
150 sq km
land area:
150 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes the island of Anegada
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
80 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
7%
meadows and pastures:
33%
forest and woodland:
7%
other:
33%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)
international agreements:
NA
Note:
strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

@British Virgin Islands, People

Population:
12,864 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.24% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
20.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.09 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
19.51 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.67 years
male:
70.83 years
female:
74.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.27 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
British Virgin Islander(s)
adjective:
British Virgin Islander
Ethnic divisions:
black 90%, white, Asian
Religions:
Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God 7%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other
2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)
Languages:
English (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population:
98%
male:
98%
female:
98%
Labor force:
4,911 (1980)
by occupation:
NA

@British Virgin Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
British Virgin Islands
Abbreviation:
BVI
Digraph:
VI
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Road Town
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Territory Day, 1 July
Constitution:
1 June 1977
Legal system:
English law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
Peter Alfred PENFOLD (since 14 October 1991)
head of government:
Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA September 1986)
cabinet:
Executive Council; appointed by the governor
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Council:
election last held 12 November 1990 (next to be held by November
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total) VIP 6,
IPM 1, independents 2
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO; Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H.
Lavity STOUTT; Independent Progressive Movement (IPM), E. Walwyln
BREWLEY
Member of:
CARICOM (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau),
IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag;
the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical
column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word VIGILATE
(Be Watchful)

@British Virgin Islands, Economy

Overview:
The economy, one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean area, is
highly dependent on the tourist industry, which generates about 21% of
the national income. In 1985 the government offered offshore
registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the islands, and,
in consequence, incorporation fees generated about $2 million in 1987.
The economy slowed in 1991 because of the poor performances of the
tourist sector and tight commercial bank credit. Livestock raising is
the most significant agricultural activity. The islands' crops,
limited by poor soils, are unable to meet food requirements.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $133 million (1991)
National product real growth rate:
2% (1991)
National product per capita:
$10,600 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NEGL% (1992)
Budget:
revenues:
$51 million
expenditures:
$88 million, including capital expenditures of $38 million (1991)
Exports:
$2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals
partners:
Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
Imports:
$11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
partners:
Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
External debt:
$4.5 million (1985)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4% (1985)
Electricity:
capacity:
10,500 kW
production:
43 million kWh
consumption per capita:
3,510 kWh (1990)
Industries:
tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore
financial center
Agriculture:
livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@British Virgin Islands, Communications

Highways:
total:
106 km (1983)
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Road Town
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone service; submarine
cable communication links to Bermuda; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no
FM, 1 TV

@British Virgin Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Brunei, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, on the northern coast of Borneo almost completely
surrounded by Malaysia
Map references:
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
5,770 sq km
land area:
5,270 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Delaware
Land boundaries:
total 381 km, Malysia 381 km
Coastline:
161 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country;
all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam;
parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984,
Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa
Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain:
flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
79%
other:
18%
Irrigated land:
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not
ratified - Law of the Sea
natural hazards:
typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Note:
close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and
Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an
enclave of Malaysia

@Brunei, People

Population:
284,653 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.7% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
26.18 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.04 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
5.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
25.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.1 years
male:
69.46 years
female:
72.78 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.43 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bruneian(s)
adjective:
Bruneian
Ethnic divisions:
Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%
Religions:
Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs
and other 15% (1981)
Languages:
Malay (official), English, Chinese
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population:
77%
male:
85%
female:
69%
Labor force:
89,000 (includes members of the Army)
by occupation:
government 47.5%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and
construction 41.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.8% (1986)
note:
33% of labor force is foreign (1988)

@Brunei, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form:
Brunei
Digraph:
BX
Type:
constitutional sultanate
Capital:
Bandar Seri Begawan
Administrative divisions:
4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and
Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence:
1 January 1984 (from UK)
National holiday:
National Day 23 February (1984)
Constitution:
29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of
Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January
1984)
Legal system:
based on Islamic law
Suffrage:
none
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji
HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)
cabinet:
Council of Cabinet Ministers; composed chiefly of members of the royal
family
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri):
elections last held in March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to
an appointive body by decree of the sultan; an elected legislative
Council is being considered as part of constitution reform, but
elections are unlikely for several years
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman;
Brunei National Democratic Party (the first legal political party and
now banned), leader NA
Member of:
APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, ICAO, IDB, IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, UNTAC, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador JAYA bin Abdul Latif
chancery:
2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 342-0159
FAX:
(202) 342-0158
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Theresa A. TULL
embassy:
Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan
mailing address:
American Embassy Box B, APO AP 96440
telephone:
[673] (2) 229-670
FAX:
[673] (2) 225-293
Flag:
yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and
black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red
is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed
flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a
scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

@Brunei, Economy

Overview:
The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship,
government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It
is almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas,
with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for more than 50%
of GDP. Per capita GDP is among the highest in the Third World, and
substantial income from overseas investment supplements domestic
production. The government provides for all medical services and
subsidizes food and housing.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1991)
National product per capita:
$9,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3.7% (1989)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.3 billion
expenditures:
$1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $255 million (1989
est.)
Exports:
$2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
partners:
Japan 53%, UK 12%, South Korea 9%, Thailand 7%, Singapore 5% (1990)
Imports:
$2 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
partners:
Singapore 35%, UK 26%, Switzerland 9%, US 9%, Japan 5% (1990)
External debt:
$0
Industrial production:
growth rate 12.9% (1987); accounts for 52.4% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
310,000 kW
production:
890 million kWh
consumption per capita:
3,300 kWh (1990)
Industries:
petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Agriculture:
imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops and livestock
include rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $153
million
Currency:
1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.6032 (January 1994), 1.6158 (1993),
1.6290 (1992), 1.7276 (1991), 1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989); note - the
Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Brunei, Communications

Railroads:
13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge private line
Highways:
total:
1,090 km
paved:
bituminous 370 km (with another 52 km under construction)
unpaved:
gravel or earth 720 km
Inland waterways:
209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters
Pipelines:
crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km
Ports:
Kuala Belait, Muara
Merchant marine:
7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476
GRT/340,635 DWT
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runway over 3,659 m:
1
with runway 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runway 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
service throughout country is adequate for present needs;
international service good to adjacent Malaysia; radiobroadcast
coverage good; 33,000 telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 4 AM/FM,
1 TV; 74,000 radio receivers (1987); satellite earth stations - 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

@Brunei, Defense Forces

Branches:
Land Force, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 79,486; fit for military service 46,258; reach
military age (18) annually 2,756 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 9% of GDP (1990)

@Bulgaria, Geography

Location:
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Romania and Turkey
Map references:
Africa, Arctic Region, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Middle
East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
110,910 sq km
land area:
110,550 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
total 1,808 km, Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all
with Serbia), Turkey 240 km
Coastline:
354 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain:
mostly mountains with lowlands in north and south
Natural resources:
bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land use:
arable land:
34%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland:
35%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw
sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from
air pollution; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical
plants and industrial wastes
natural hazards:
subject to earthquakes, landslides
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from
Europe to Middle East and Asia

@Bulgaria, People

Population:
8,799,986 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.32% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
11.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
11.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
12 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.24 years
male:
69.99 years
female:
76.67 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.71 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bulgarian(s)
adjective:
Bulgarian
Ethnic divisions:
Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian
0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%
Religions:
Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman Catholic 0.5%,
Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5%
Languages:
Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
total population:
93%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
4.3 million
by occupation:
industry 33%, agriculture 20%, other 47% (1987)

@Bulgaria, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Bulgaria
conventional short form:
Bulgaria
Digraph:
BU
Type:
emerging democracy
Capital:
Sofia
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Burgas, Grad Sofiya,
Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sofiya, Varna
Independence:
22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:
Independence Day 3 March (1878)
Constitution:
adopted 12 July 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence; has accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Zhelyu Mitev ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990); Vice President
(vacant); election last held January 1992; results - Zhelyu ZHELEV was
elected by popular vote
head of government:
Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Lyuben Borisov
BEROV (since 30 December 1992); Deputy Chairman of the Council of
Ministers (Deputy Prime Minister) Evgeniy MATINCHEV (since 30 December
1992)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Narodno Sobranie):

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