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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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1.62 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Belgian(s)
adjective:
Belgian
Ethnic divisions:
Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%
Languages:
Dutch 56%, French 32%, German 1%, legally bilingual 11% divided along
ethnic lines
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
4.126 million
by occupation:
services 63.6%, industry 28%, construction 6.1%, agriculture 2.3%
(1988)

@Belgium, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Belgium
conventional short form:
Belgium
local long form:
Royaume de Belgique
local short form:
Belgique
Digraph:
BE
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Brussels
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Flemish:
provincien, singular - provincie); Antwerpen, Brabant, Hainaut, Liege,
Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen
Independence:
4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)
National holiday:
National Day, 21 July (ascension of King Leopold to the throne in
1831)
Constitution:
7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a
constitutional package creating a federal state
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial
review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state:
King ALBERT II (since NA August 1993)
head of government:
Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March 1992)
cabinet:
Cabinet; the king appoints the ministers who are chosen by the
legislature
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
Senate:
(Flemish - Senaat, French - Senat); elections last held 24 November
1991 (next to be held by November 1996); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (184 total; of which 106 are directly elected) CVP
20, SP 14, PVV (now VLD) 13, VU 5, AGALEV 5, VB 5, ROSSEN 1, PS 18,
PRL 9, PSC 9, ECOLO 6, FDF 1
Chamber of Representatives:
(Flemish - Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers, French - Chambre des
Representants); elections last held 24 November 1991 (next to be held
by November 1996); results - CVP 16.7%, PS 13.6%, SP 12.0%, PVV (now
VLD) 11.9%, PRL 8.2%, PSC 7.8%, VB 6.6%, VU 5.9%, ECOLO 5.1%, AGALEV
4.9%, FDF 2.6%, ROSSEM 3.2%, FN 1.5%; seats - (212 total) CVP 39, PS
35, SP 28, PVV (now VLD) 26, PRL 20, PSC 18, FB 12, VU 10, ECOLO 10,
AGALEV 7, FDF 3, ROSSEM 3, FN 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish - Hof van Cassatie, French - Cour de
Cassation)
Political parties and leaders:
Flemish Social Christian (CVP), Johan van HECKE, president;
Francophone Social Christian (PSC), Melchior WATHELET, president;
Flemish Socialist (SP), Frank VANDENBROUCKE, president; Francophone
Socialist (PS), Philippe BUSQUIN; Flemish Liberals and Democrats
(VLD), Guy VERHOFSTADT, president; Francophone Liberal (PRL), Jean
GOL, president; Francophone Democratic Front (FDF), Georges CLERFAYT,
president; Volksunie (VU), Bert ANCIAUX, president; Communist Party
(PCB), Louis VAN GEYT, president; Vlaams Blok (VB), Karel DILLEN,
chairman; ROSSEM, Jean Pierre VAN ROSSEM; National Front (FN), Werner
van STEEN; AGALEV (Flemish Greens), no president; ECOLO (Francophone
Ecologists), no president; other minor parties
Other political or pressure groups:
Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian
Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers,
manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical
professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of
Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as the Flemish Action
Committee Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax Christi
Member of:
AG (observer), ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australian Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC,
CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, G-10, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO,
MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UNTAC, UNTSO,
UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Juan CASSIERS
chancery:
3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 333-6900
FAX:
(202) 333-3079
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Alan J. BLINKEN
embassy:
27 Boulevard du Regent, Brussels
mailing address:
B-1000 Brussels, APO AE 09724
telephone:
[32] (2) 513-3830
FAX:
[32] (2) 511-2725
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the
design was based on the flag of France

@Belgium, Economy

Overview:
This small private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central
geographic location, highly developed transport network, and
diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated
mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north, although the
government is encouraging reinvestment in the southern region of
Walloon. With few natural resources Belgium must import substantial
quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures,
making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets.
Three fourths of its trade is with other EC countries. The economy
grew at a strong 4% pace during the period 1988-90, but economic
growth slowed to a 1% pace in 1991-92 and dropped by 1.5% in 1993.
Belgium's public debt has risen to 140% of GDP, and the government is
trying to control its expenditures to bring the figure more into line
with other industrialized countries.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $177.5 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
-1.5% (1993)
National product per capita:
$17,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
13.5% (March 1994)
Budget:
revenues:
$97.8 billion
enditures:
$109.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
7 billion (f.o.b., 1992) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
commodities:
iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors, diamonds,
petroleum products
partners:
EC 75.5%, US 3.7%, former Communist countries 1.4% (1991)
Imports:
$120 billion (c.i.f., 1992) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
commodities:
fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners:
EC 73%, US 4.8%, oil-exporting less developed countries 4%, former
Communist countries 1.8% (1991)
External debt:
$31.3 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -0.1% (1993 est.); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
17,500,000 kW
production:
68 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
6,790 kWh (1992)
Industries:
engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed food
and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum,
coal
Agriculture:
accounts for 2.0% of GDP; emphasis on livestock production - beef,
veal, pork, milk; major crops are sugar beets, fresh vegetables,
fruits, grain, tobacco; net importer of farm products
Illicit drugs:
source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors;
important gateway country for cocaine entering the European market
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.8 billion
Currency:
1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 36.242 (January 1994), 34.597 (1993),
32.150 (1992), 34.148 (1991), 33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Belgium, Communications

Railroads:
Belgian National Railways (SNCB) operates 3,568 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, government owned; 2,563 km double track; 2,207 km
electrified
Highways:
total:
137,876 km
paved:
129,603 km (including 1,631 km of limited access divided highway)
unpaved:
8,273 km (1989)
Inland waterways:
2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)
Pipelines:
crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural gas 3,300 km
Ports:
Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Oostende, Zeebrugge
Merchant marine:
21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 36,200 GRT/52,039 DWT, bulk 1,
cargo 9, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 5
Airports:
total:
42
usable:
42
with permanent-surface runways:
24
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
15
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated
domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities;
extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network;
4,720,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 39 FM, 32 TV; 5
submarine cables; 2 satellite earth stations - Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
and EUTELSAT systems; nationwide mobile phone system

@Belgium, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,558,109; fit for military service 2,130,172; reach
military age (19) annually 61,710 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $3.8 billion, 1.8% of GDP (1993)

@Belize, Geography

Location:
Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea between Guatemala and
Mexico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
22,960 sq km
land area:
22,800 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
total 516 km, Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km
Coastline:
386 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south
note:
from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's
territorial sea is 3 miles; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act,
1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for
the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences
with Guatemala
International disputes:
maritime border with Guatemala in dispute; desultory negotiations to
resolve the dispute have begun
Climate:
tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)
Terrain:
flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Natural resources:
arable land potential, timber, fish
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
2%
forest and woodland:
44%
other:
52%
Irrigated land:
20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents,
agricultural runoff
natural hazards:
frequent devastating hurricanes (September to December) and coastal
flooding (especially in south)
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Climate Change
Note:
national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to Belmopan
because of hurricanes; only country in Central America without a
coastline on the North Pacific Ocean

@Belize, People

Population:
208,949 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.42% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
34.74 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-4.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
35.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.08 years
male:
66.14 years
female:
70.12 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.39 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Belizean(s)
adjective:
Belizean
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%, other 8%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist 6%,
Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's
Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)
Languages:
English (official), Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib)
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
91%
male:
91%
female:
91%
Labor force:
51,500
by occupation:
agriculture 30%, services 16%, government 15.4%, commerce 11.2%,
manufacturing 10.3%
note:
shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel (1985)

@Belize, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Belize
former:
British Honduras
Digraph:
BH
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Belmopan
Administrative divisions:
6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Independence:
21 September 1981 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 21 September (1981)
Constitution:
21 September 1981
Legal system:
English law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17 November 1993)
head of government:
Prime Minister Manuel ESQUIVEL (since July 1993); Deputy Prime
Minister Dean BARROW (since NA 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice from the prime
minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly
Senate:
consists of an 8-member body, 5 are appointed on the advice of the
prime minister, 2 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 1
after consultation with the Belize Advisory Council
National Assembly:
elections last held 30 June 1993 (next to be held June 1998); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) PUP 13 UDP 15
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
People's United Party (PUP), George PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA;
United Democratic Party (UDP), Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean
BARROW; National Alliance for Belizean Rights, Philip GOLDSON
Other political or pressure groups:
Society for the Promotion of Education and Research (SPEAR), Assad
SHOMAN; United Workers Front, leader NA
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dean LINDO
chancery:
2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-9636
FAX:
(202) 332-6888
consulate(s) general:
Miami
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Eugene L. SCASSA
embassy:
Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
mailing address:
P. O. Box 286, Belize City
telephone:
[501] (2) 77161 through 77163
FAX:
[501] (2) 30802
Flag:
blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges;
centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of
arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany
tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade)
on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

@Belize, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry,
and merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming increasing
importance. Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and provides 75%
of export earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost
40% of hard currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner,
is assisting in efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an
agricultural diversification program.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $550 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5.3% (1992)
National product per capita:
$2,700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$126.8 million
expenditures:
$123.1 million, including capital expenditures of $44.8 million (FY91
est.)
Exports:
$116 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
sugar, citrus, clothing, fish products, bananas, molasses, wood
partners:
US 51%, UK, other EC (1992)
Imports:
$273 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, food, manufactured goods,
fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners:
US 57%, UK 8%, other EC 7%, Mexico (1992)
External debt:
$143.7 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.7% (1990); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
34,532 kW
production:
90 million kWh
consumption per capita:
393 kWh (1992)
Industries:
garment production, citrus concentrates, sugar refining, rum,
beverages, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 30% of GDP (including fish and forestry); commercial
crops include sugar cane, bananas, coca, citrus fruits; expanding
output of lumber and cultured shrimp; net importer of basic foods
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine; an illicit producer of cannabis for
the international drug trade; eradication program cut marijuana
production from 200 metric tons in 1987 to about 50 metric tons in
1991
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $104 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $215
million
Currency:
1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Belize, Communications

Highways:
total:
2,710 km
paved:
500 km
unpaved:
gravel 1,600 km; improved earth 300 km; unimproved earth 310 km
Inland waterways:
825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable
Ports:
Belize City; additional ports for shallow draught craft include
Corozol, Punta Gorda, Big Creek
Merchant marine:
25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,509 GRT/80,345 DWT, bulk 6,
cargo 11, container 2, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 3
Airports:
total:
47
usable:
38
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,229-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
8,650 telephones; above-average system based on microwave radio relay;
broadcast stations - 6 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Belize, Defense Forces

Branches:
British Forces Belize withdrawn by the end of 1993 except for a small
training detachment, Belize Defense Force (including Army, Navy, Air
Force, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 48,789; fit for military service 29,040; reach
military age (18) annually 2,175 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $4.8 million, 1.8% of GDP (1992)

@Benin, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Nigeria and
Togo
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
112,620 sq km
land area:
110,620 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
total 1,989 km, Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644
km
Coastline:
121 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:
mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
Natural resources:
small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber
Land use:
arable land:
12%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
35%
other:
45%
Irrigated land:
60 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
limited supply of safe drinking water; illegal hunting threatens
wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
natural hazards:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
recent droughts have severely affected marginal agriculture in north;
no natural harbors

@Benin, People

Population:
5,341,710 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.33% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
47.67 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
14.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
110.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
51.77 years
male:
49.92 years
female:
53.68 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.79 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Beninese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Beninese
Ethnic divisions:
African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba,
Bariba), Europeans 5,500
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%
Languages:
French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south),
tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
23%
male:
32%
female:
16%
Labor force:
1.9 million (1987)
by occupation:
agriculture 60%, transport, commerce, and public services 38%,
industry less than 2%
note:
49% of population of working age (1985)

@Benin, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Benin
conventional short form:
Benin
local long form:
Republique Populaire du Benin
local short form:
Benin
former:
Dahomey
Digraph:
BN
Type:
republic under multiparty democratic rule dropped Marxism-Leninism
December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to
multiparty system completed 4 April 1991
Capital:
Porto-Novo
Administrative divisions:
6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Mono, Oueme, Zou
Independence:
1 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
National Day, 1 August (1990)
Constitution:
2 December 1990
Legal system:
based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Nicephore SOGLO (since 4 April 1991); election last held 10
and 24 March 1991; results - Nicephore SOGLO 68%, Mathieu KEREKOU 32%
cabinet:
Executive Council; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale):
elections last held 10 and 24 March 1991; results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (64 total) UDFP-MDPS-ULD 12, PNDD/PRD 9, PSD/UNSP 8,
NCC 7, RND 7, MNDD/MSUP/UDRN 6, UDS 5, RDL 4, ASD/BSD 3, ADP/UDRS 2,
UNDP 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of the Democratic Union for the Forces of Progress (UDFP),
Timothee ADANLIN; Movement for Democracy and Social Progress (MDPS),
Jean-Roger AHOYO; Union for Liberty and Development (ULD), Marcellin
DEGBE; Alliance of the National Party for Democracy and Development
(PNDD) and the Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Pascal Chabi KAO;
Alliance of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the National Union
for Solidarity and Progress (UNSP), Bruno AMOUSSOU; Our Common Cause
(NCC), Albert TEVOEDJRE; National Rally for Democracy (RND), Joseph
KEKE; Alliance of the National Movement for Democracy and Development
(MNDD), leader NA; Movement for Solidarity, Union, and Progress
(MSUP), Adebo ADENIYI; Union for Democracy and National Reconstruction
(UDRN), Azaria FAKOREDE; Union for Democracy and National Solidarity
(UDS), Mama Amadou N'DIAYE; Assembly of Liberal Democrats for National
Reconstruction (RDL), Severin ADJOVI; Alliance of the Alliance for
Social Democracy (ASD), Robert DOSSOU; Bloc for Social Democracy
(BSD), Michel MAGNIDE; Alliance of the Alliance for Democracy and
Progress (ADP), Akindes ADEKPEDJOU; Democratic Union for Social
Renewal (UDRS), Bio Gado Seko N'GOYE; National Union for Democracy and
Progress (UNDP), Robert TAGNON; Party for Progress and Democracy,
Thiophile NATA; African Rally for Progress and Solidarity (RAPS),
Florentin MITO-BABA; The Benin Renaissance Party , Desire VIEYRA and
Rosine SOGLO; The Patriotic Union for the Republic (UPR), Jean-Marie
ZAHOUN; Union for the Conservation of Democracy, Bernard HOUEGNON
note:
as of May 1994, Benin had about 60 political parties
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Candide AHOUANSOU
chancery:
2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 232-6656
FAX:
(202) 265-1996
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ruth A. DAVIS
embassy:
Rue Caporal Anani Bernard, Cotonou
mailing address:
B. P. 2012, Cotonou
telephone:
[229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92
FAX:
[229] 30-14-39 and 30-19-74
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical
green band on the hoist side

@Benin, Economy

Overview:
Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world because of
limited natural resources and a poorly developed infrastructure.
Agriculture accounts for about 35% of GDP, employs about 60% of the
labor force, and generates a major share of foreign exchange earnings.
The industrial sector contributes only about 10% to GDP and employs 2%
of the work force. Low prices in recent years have kept down hard
currency earnings from Benin's major exports of agricultural products,
primarily cotton. A World Bank supported structural adjustment program
begun in 1989 has helped strengthen the economy through such measures
as trimming the government payroll, reforming the tax system, and
encouraging private investment, both domestic and foreign. Benin has
experienced 3 consecutive years of moderate growth as a result.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1991)
National product per capita:
$1,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$218 million
expenditures:
$355 million, including capital expenditures of $100 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$328.8 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, cotton, palm products, cocoa
partners:
FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 4%
Imports:
$482.3 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products, intermediate
goods, capital goods, light consumer goods
partners:
France 20%, Thailand 8%, Netherlands 7%, US 5%
External debt:
$1 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -0.7% (1988); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
30,000 kW
production:
25 million kWh
consumption per capita:
5 kWh (1991)
Industries:
textiles, cigarettes, construction materials, beverages, food
production, petroleum
Agriculture:
accounts for 35% of GDP; small farms produce 90% of agricultural
output; production is dominated by food crops - corn, sorghum,
cassava, beans, rice; cash crops include cotton, palm oil, peanuts;
poultry and livestock output has not kept up with consumption
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $46 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.3
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $101 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Benin, Communications

Railroads:
578 km, all 1.000-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
total:
8,435 km
paved:
1,038 km
unpaved:
crushed stone 2,600 km; improved earth 1,530 km; unimproved earth
3,267 km
Inland waterways:
navigable along small sections, important only locally
Ports:
Cotonou
Airports:
total:
7
usable:
6
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
fair system of open wire, submarine cable, and radio relay microwave;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@Benin, Defense Forces

Branches:
Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,209,226; females age 15-49 1,120,105; males fit for
military service 611,257; females fit for military service 573,775;
males reach military age (18) annually 58,293 (1994 est.);
femalesreach military age (18) annually 56,735 (1994 est.); both sexes
are liable for miltary service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $29 million, 1.7% of GDP (1988 est.)

@Bermuda

Header
Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

@Bermuda, Geography

Location:
Northern North America, in the western North Atlantic Ocean, 1,050 km
east of North Carolina
Map references:
North America
Area:
total area:
50 sq km
land area:
50 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
103 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Terrain:
low hills separated by fertile depressions
Natural resources:
limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
20%
other:
80%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to hurricanes (June to November)
international agreements:
NA
Note:
some reclaimed land leased by US Government; consists of about 360
small coral islands with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater
lakes

@Bermuda, People

Population:
61,158 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.77% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
15.14 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
13.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.03 years
male:
73.36 years
female:
76.97 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.81 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bermudian(s)
adjective:
Bermudian
Ethnic divisions:
black 61%, white and other 39%
Religions:
Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist Episcopal (Zion)
10%, Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other 28%
Languages:
English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population:
98%
male:
98%
female:
99%
Labor force:
32,000
by occupation:
clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%, professional and technical
13%, administrative and managerial 10%, sales 7%, agriculture and
fishing 2% (1984)

@Bermuda, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Bermuda
Digraph:
BD
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Hamilton
Administrative divisions:
9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*,
Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths,
Southampton, Warwick
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Bermuda Day, 22 May
Constitution:
8 June 1968
Legal system:
English law
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
Lord David WADDINGTON (since 25 August 1992)
head of government:
Premier John William David SWAN (since NA January 1982); Deputy
Premier J. Irving PEARMAN (since 5 October 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet; nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
Senate:
consists of an 11-member body appointed by the governor
House of Assembly:
elections last held 5 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total) UBP
22, PLP 18
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D. SWAN; Progressive Labor Party
(PLP), Frederick WADE; National Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL
Other political or pressure groups:
Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU), Ottiwell SIMMONS
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), CCC, ICFTU, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
consulate general:
Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton
mailing address:
P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; PSC 1002, FPO AE 09727-1002
telephone:
(809) 295-1342
FAX:
(809) 295-1592
Flag:
red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding
a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off
Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

@Bermuda, Economy

Overview:
Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world,
having successfully exploited its location by providing luxury tourist
facilities and financial services. The tourist industry attracts more
than 90% of its business from North America. The industrial sector is
small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land.
About 80% of food needs are imported.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.63 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
-1.5% (1991)
National product per capita:
$27,100 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.4% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
6% (1991)
Budget:
revenues:
$327.5 million
expenditures:
$308.9 million, including capital expenditures of $35.4 million (FY91
est.)
Exports:
$60 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
semitropical produce, light manufactures, re-exports of
pharmaceuticals
partners:
US 55%, UK 32%, Canada 11%, other 2%
Imports:
$468 million (f.o.b.,1991)
commodities:
fuel, foodstuffs, machinery
partners:
US 60%, UK 8%, Venezuela 7%, Canada 5%, Japan 5%, other 15%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
154,000 kW
production:
504 million kWh
consumption per capita:
8,370 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism, finance, structural concrete products, paints,
pharmaceuticals, ship repairing
Agriculture:
accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods must be imported;
produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers, dairy products
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $277
million
Currency:
1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Bermuda, Communications

Highways:
total:
210 km
paved:
210 km
note:
in addition, there are 400 km of paved and unpaved roads that are
privately owned
Ports:
Freeport, Hamilton, Saint George
Merchant marine:
67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,407,518 GRT/5,775,281 DWT,
bulk 15, cargo 4, container 3, liquefied gas 14, oil tanker 20,
refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7
note:
a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
modern, fully automatic telephone system; 52,670 telephones; broadcast
stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations

@Bermuda, Defense Forces

Branches:
Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Bhutan, Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, in the Himalayas, between China and India
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
47,000 sq km
land area:
47,000 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than half the size of Indiana
Land boundaries:
total 1,075 km, China 470 km, India 605 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in
central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Terrain:
mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Natural resources:
timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
70%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
340 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
soil erosion; limited access to safe drinking water
natural hazards:
violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the source of the
country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon
international agreements:
party to - Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls
several key Himalayan mountain passes

@Bhutan, People

Population:
716,380 (July 1994 est.)
note:
other estimates range as high as 1.7 million (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.34% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
39.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
15.93 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
121 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
50.6 years
male:
51.15 years
female:
50.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.42 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bhutanese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Bhutanese
Ethnic divisions:
Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Religions:
Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
Languages:
Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects; Nepalese
speak various Nepalese dialects
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
note:
massive lack of skilled labor

@Bhutan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Bhutan
conventional short form:
Bhutan
Digraph:
BT
Type:
monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Capital:
Thimphu
Administrative divisions:
18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha,
Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel,
Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu,
Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
Independence:
8 August 1949 (from India)
National holiday:
National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen Wangchuck became first
hereditary king)
Constitution:
no written constitution or bill of rights
Legal system:
based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
each family has one vote in village-level elections
Executive branch:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde):
nominated by the king
cabinet:
Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog); appointed by the king
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu); no national elections
Judicial branch:
High Court
Political parties and leaders:
no legal parties
Other political or pressure groups:
Buddhist clergy; Indian merchant community; ethnic Nepalese
organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign
Member of:
AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC,
ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
no formal diplomatic relations; the Bhutanese mission to the UN in New
York has consular jurisdiction in the US
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is
maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in New Delhi (India)
Flag:
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper
triangle is orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the
dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the
hoist side

@Bhutan, Economy

Overview:
The economy, one of the world's least developed, is based on
agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of
the population and account for about 50% of GDP. Rugged mountains
dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other
infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned
with that of India through strong trade and monetary links. The
industrial sector is small and technologically backward, with most
production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects,
such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's
hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are its most
important natural resources; however, the government limits the number
of tourists to 4,000 per year to minimize foreign influence. Much of
the impetus for growth has come from large public-sector companies.
Nevertheless, in recent years, Bhutan has shifted toward decentralized
development planning and greater private initiative. The government
privatized several large public-sector firms, is revamping its trade
regime and liberalizing administerial procedures over industrial
licensing. The government's industrial contribution to GDP decreased
from 13% in 1988 to about 10% in 1992.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $500 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5% (FY93 est.)
National product per capita:
$700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11% (October 1993)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$100 million
expenditures:
$112 million, including capital expenditures of $60 million (FY92
est.)
note:
the government of India finances nearly one-quarter of Bhutan's budget
expenditures
Exports:
$66 million (f.o.b., FY93 est.)
commodities:
cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, electricity (to
India), precious stones, spices
partners:
India 82%, Bangladesh, Singapore
Imports:
$125 million (c.i.f., FY93 est.)
commodities:
fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics
partners:
India 60%, Japan, Germany, US, UK
External debt:
$141 million (June 1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for 8% of GDP; primarily cottage industry
and home based handicrafts
Electricity:
capacity:
336,000 kW
production:
1.5422 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,203 kWh (25.8% is exported to India leaving 1,633 kWh per capita;
1990-91)
Industries:
cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium
carbide
Agriculture:
accounts for 45% of GDP; based on subsistence farming and animal
husbandry; self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains; other
production - rice, corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy products,
eggs
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $115 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11 million
Currency:
1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian currency is also legal
tender
Exchange rates:
ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 31.370 (January 1994), 30.493 (1993), 25.918
(1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989); note - the
Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Bhutan, Communications

Highways:
total:
2,165 km
paved:
NA
unpaved:
gravel 1,703 km
undifferentiated:
462 km
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
domestic telephone service is very poor with very few telephones in
use; international telephone and telegraph service is by land line
through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990); broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, no TV (1990)

@Bhutan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 424,558; fit for military service 226,851; reach
military age (18) annually 17,310 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Bolivia, Geography

Location:
Central South America, between Brazil and Chile
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,098,580 sq km
land area:
1,084,390 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundaries:
total 6,743 km, Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the
Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio
Lauca water rights
Climate:
varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrain:
rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills,
lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Natural resources:
tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron
ore, lead, gold, timber
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
25%
forest and woodland:
52%
other:
20%
Irrigated land:
1,650 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation contributing to loss of biodiversity; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification; industrial pollution of water supplies used
for drinking and irrigation
natural hazards:
flooding in the northeast (March to April)
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but
not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Tropical Timber
Note:
landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable
lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru; cold, thin air of high plateau is
obstacle to efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity
by those unaccustomed to it from birth

@Bolivia, People

Population:
7,719,445 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.28% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
32.22 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.37 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
73.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
63.31 years
male:
60.86 years
female:
65.88 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.21 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bolivian(s)
adjective:
Bolivian
Ethnic divisions:
Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed European and Indian ancestry)
25%-30%, European 5%-15%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)
Languages:
Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
78%
male:
85%
female:
71%
Labor force:
3.54 million
by occupation:
agriculture NA, services and utilities 20%, manufacturing, mining and
construction 7% (1993)

@Bolivia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Bolivia
conventional short form:
Bolivia
local long form:
Republica de Bolivia
local short form:
Bolivia
Digraph:
BL
Type:
republic
Capital:
La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of
judiciary)
Administrative divisions:
9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca,
Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence:
6 August 1825 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Constitution:
2 February 1967
Legal system:
based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age,
universal and compulsory (single)
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamente (since 6 August 1993);
Vice President Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde (since 6 August 1993);
election last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results -
Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (MNR) 34%, Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN/MIR
alliance) 20%, Carlos PALENQUE Aviles (CONDEPA) 14%, Max FERNANDEZ
Rojas (UCS) 13%, Antonio ARANIBAR Quiroga (MBL) 5%; no candidate
received a majority of the popular vote; Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA won
a congressional runoff election on 4 August 1993 after forming a
coalition with Max FERNANDEZ and Antonio ARANIBAR
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president from panel proposed by the Senate
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados):
elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (130 total) MNR 52, UCS 20, ADN
17, MIR 17, CONDEPA 13, MBL 7, ARBOL 1, ASD 1, EJE 1, PDC 1
Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores):
elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) MNR 17, ADN 4, MIR 4,
CONDEPA 1, UCS 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Political parties and leaders:
Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime PAZ Zamora;
Nationalist Democratic Action (ADN), Jorge LANDIVAR; Nationalist
Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA; Civic
Solidarity Union (UCS), Max FERNANDEZ Rojas; Conscience of the
Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE Aviles; Free Bolivia Movement
(MBL), Antonio ARANIBAR; Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation
Movement (MRTK-L), Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde; Christian Democrat
Party (PDC), Jorge AGREDA
Member of:
AG, ECLAC, FAO, GATT, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Andres PETRICEVIC
chancery:
3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-4410 through 4412
FAX:
(202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Charles R. BOWERS
embassy:
Banco Popular del Peru Building, corner of Calle Mercado and Calle
Colon, La Paz
mailing address:
P. O. Box 425, La Paz, or APO AA 34032
telephone:
[591] (2) 350251 or 350120
FAX:
[591] (2) 359875
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the
coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of
Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the
yellow band

@Bolivia, Economy

Overview:
With its long history of semifeudal social controls, dependence on
volatile prices for its mineral exports, and bouts of hyperinflation,
Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and least developed Latin
American countries. However, Bolivia has experienced generally
improving economic conditions since the PAZ Estenssoro administration
(1985-89) introduced market-oriented policies which reduced inflation
from 11,700% in 1985 to about 20% in 1988. PAZ Estenssoro was followed
as President by Jaime PAZ Zamora (1989-93) who continued the
free-market policies of his predecessor, despite opposition from his
own party and from Bolivia's once powerful labor movement. By
maintaining fiscal discipline, PAZ Zamora helped reduce inflation to
9.3% in 1993, while GDP grew by an annual average of 3.25% during his
tenure. Inaugurated in August 1993, President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA has
vowed to advance government market-oriented economic reforms he helped
launch as PAZ Estenssoro's Planning Minister. A major privatization
bill was passed by the Bolivian legislature in late March 1994.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $15.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.2% (1993)
National product per capita:
$2,100 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.3% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
5.8% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$3.19 billion
expenditures:
$3.19 billion, including capital expenditures of $552.4 million (1994
est.)
Exports:
$752 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
metals 35%, natural gas 26%, other 39% (coffee, soybeans, sugar,
cotton, timber)
partners:
US 16% , Argentina (1992 est.)
Imports:
$1.17 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
food, petroleum, consumer goods, capital goods
partners:
US 23.3% (1992)
External debt:
$3.8 billion (January 1994)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7% (1992); accounts for almost 30% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
865,000 kW
production:
1.834 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
250 kWh (1992)
Industries:
mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage, tobacco, handicrafts,
clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces 15% of its
revenues
Agriculture:
accounts for about 21% of GDP (including forestry and fisheries);
principal commodities - coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice,
potatoes, timber; self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
world's second-largest producer of coca (after Peru) with an estimated
45,500 hectares under cultivation in 1992; voluntary and forced
eradication program unable to prevent production from rising to 80,300
metric tons in 1992 from 78,200 tons in 1989; government considers all
but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate coca products and cocaine
exported to or through Colombia and Brazil to the US and other
international drug markets
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $990 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$2.025 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $340 million
Currency:
1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 4.5 (March 1994), 4.4604 (November 1993),
3.9005 (1992), 3.5806 (1991), 3.1727 (1990), 2.6917 (1989), 2.3502
(1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Bolivia, Communications

Railroads:
3,684 km total, all narrow gauge; 3,652 km 1.000-meter gauge and 32 km
0.760-meter gauge, all government owned, single track
Highways:
total:
42,815 km
paved:
1,865 km
unpaved:
gravel 12,000 km; improved/unimproved earth 28,950 km
Inland waterways:
10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km
Ports:
none; maritime outlets are Arica and Antofagasta in Chile, Matarani
and Ilo in Peru
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,214 GRT/6,390 DWT
Airports:
total:
1,395
usable:
1,188
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
165
Telecommunications:
very poor telephone service for the general population; 144,300
telephones - 18.7 telephones per 1,000 persons; microwave radio relay
system being expanded; improved international services; broadcast
stations - 129 AM, no FM, 43 TV, 68 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Bolivia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy includes Marines (La Fuerza Naval
Boliviana), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police Force
( Policia Nacional de Bolivia)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,835,661; fit for military service 1,194,077; reach
military age (19) annually 79,580 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $130.48 million; NA% of GDP (1994 est.)

@Bosnia and Herzegovina

Header
Note:
Bosnia and Herzegovina is suffering from interethnic civil strife
which began in March 1992 after the Government of Bosnia and
Herzegovina held a referendum on independence. Bosnia's Serbs -
supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance
aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining
Serb-held areas to a "greater Serbia." Since the onset of the
conflict, which has driven approximately half of the pre-war
population of 4.4 million from their homes, both the Bosnian Serbs and
the Bosnian Croats have asserted control of more than three-quarters
of the territory formerly under the control of the Government of
Bosnia and Herzegovina. The UN and the EU are continuing to try to
mediate a plan for peace. In March 1994 Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian
Croats signed an agreement in Washington, DC, creating a Federation of
Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is to include territories in which
Muslims or Croats predominated, according to the 1991 census. Bosnian
Serbs refused to become a part of this Federation.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Geography

Location:
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula, between
Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro
Map references:
Africa, Arctic Region, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe,
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
51,233 sq km
land area:
51,233 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
total 1,459 km, Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km
with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro)
Coastline:
20 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth
exclusive economic zone:
12 nm
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
as of May 1994, members of the Bosnian Serb armed factions, desirous
of establishing a separate state linked with neighboring Serbia,
occupied 70% of Bosnia after having killed or driven out non-Serb
inhabitants; the Bosnian Croats, occupied and declared an independent
state in an additional 10% of Bosnia in 1993, but in March 1994, this
faction and the Bosnian Government settled their dispute and entered
into a bicommunal Federation; a Bosnian Government army commander who
opposes the leadership of Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC is leading an
insurrection in the government-held enclave of Bihac
Climate:
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool
summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain:
mountains and valleys
Natural resources:
coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, copper,
chromium, lead, zinc
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
25%
forest and woodland:
36%
other:
17%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution from metallurgical plants; water scarce; sites for
disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties and
destruction of infrastructure because of civil strife
natural hazards:
subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
Protection

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, People

Population:
4,651,485 (July 1994 est.)
note:
all data dealing with population is subject to considerable error
because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic
cleansing
Population growth rate:
0.69% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.33 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:

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