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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 44 out of 46

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Organization of American States (OAS)

established - 30 April 1948

effective - 13 December 1951

aim - to promote regional peace and security as well as economic and social
development

members - (35) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados,
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba
(excluded from formal participation since 1962), Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname,
Trinidad and Tobago, US, Uruguay, Venezuela

observers - (31) Algeria, Angola, Austria, Belgium, Central American
Parliament, Cyprus, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, EU, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Holy See, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea,
Morocco, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi
Arabia, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia

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Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC)

established - 9 January 1968

aim - to promote cooperation in the petroleum industry

members - (10) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia, Syria, UAE

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Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)

established - 18 June 1981

effective - 4 July 1981

aim - to promote political, economic, and defense cooperation

members - (7) Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

associate member - (1) British Virgin Islands

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Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

established - 14 September 1960

aim - to coordinate petroleum policies

members - (12) Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya,
Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela

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Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)

established - 22-25 September 1969

aim - to promote Islamic solidarity and cooperation in economic, social,
cultural, and political affairs

members - (47 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan
(suspended), Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin,
Brunei, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The
Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco,
Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia,
Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen,
Palestine Liberation Organization

observers - (4) Kazakhstan, Mozambique, Nigeria, "Turkish Republic of
Northern Cyprus"

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Paris Club

see Group of 10

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Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

established - 29 July 1899

aim - to facilitate the settlement of international disputes

members - (78) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China,
Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala,
Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan,
Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay,
Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Slovakia, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda,
Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zimbabwe

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Population Commission

established - 3 October 1946

aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with population
matters of importance to the UN

members - (27) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

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Rio Group (RG)

note - formerly known as Grupo de los Ocho, established in December 1986

established - NA 1988

aim - a consultation mechanism on regional Latin American issues

members - (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Mexico, Paraguay, Peru (suspended), Uruguay, Venezuela; note-Panama was
expelled in 1988; Peru was suspended after April 1992 coup

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Second World

another term for the traditionally Marxist-Leninist states with
authoritarian governments and command economies based on the Soviet model;
the term is fading from use; see centrally planned economies

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socialist countries in general, countries in which the government owns and
plans the use of the major factors of production; note - the term is
sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for Communist countries

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South

a popular term for the poorer, less industrialized countries generally
located south of the developed countries; the counterpart of the North; see
less developed countries (LDCs)

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South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

established - 8 December 1985

aim - to promote economic, social, and cultural cooperation

members - (7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri
Lanka

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South Pacific Commission (SPC)

established - 6 February 1947

effective - 29 July 1948

aim - to promote regional cooperation in economic and social matters

members - (27) American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France,
French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of
Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, NZ, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Trust
Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn
Islands, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, UK, US, Vanuatu, Wallis
and Futuna, Western Samoa

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South Pacific Forum (SPF)

established - 5 August 1971

aim - to promote regional cooperation in political matters

members - (15) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands,
Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon
Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa

observer - (1) Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau)

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South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement (SPARTECA)

established - NA 1981

aim - to redress unequal trade relationship of Australia and New Zealand
with small island economies in Pacific region

members - (15) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands,
Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon
Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa

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Southern African Customs Union (SACU)

established - 11 December 1969

aim - to promote free trade and cooperation in customs matters

members - (9) Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland

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Southern African Development Community (SADC)

note - evolved from the Southern African Development Coordination
Conference (SADCC)

established - 17 August 1992

aim - to promote regional economic development and integration

members - (10) Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia,
Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

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Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR)

established - 26 March 1991

aim - regional economic cooperation

members - (4) Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay

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Statistical Commission

established - 21 June 1946

aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with development and
standardization of national statistics of interest to the UN

members - (25) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

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Third World

another term for the less developed countries; the term is fading from use;
see less developed countries (LDCs)

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underdeveloped countries

refers to those less developed countries with the potential for above-
average economic growth; see less developed countries (LDCs)

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undeveloped countries

refers to those extremely poor less developed countries (LDCs) with little
prospect for economic growth; see least developed countries (LLDCs)

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Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC)

see Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)

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United Nations (UN)

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - to maintain international peace and security and to promote
cooperation involving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems

members - (183 excluding Yugoslavia) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria,
Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia,
Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana,
Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt,
El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland,
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of
Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama,
Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon
Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe; note - all UN members are represented in the General
Assembly

observers - (2 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Holy See,
Switzerland, Palestine Liberation Organization

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United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM II)

note - successor to original UNAVEM

established - 20 December 1988

aim - established by the UN Security Council to verify the withdrawal of
Cuban troops from Angola

members - (25) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Congo, Czech Republic,
Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jordan, Malaysia, Morocco,
Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Spain,
Sweden, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe

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United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization UN International
Children's Emergency Fund

established - 11 December 1946

aim - to help establish child health and welfare services

members - (41) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

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United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(UNCTAD)

established - 30 December 1964

aim - to promote international trade

members - (187) all UN members plus Holy See, Switzerland, Tonga

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United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

established - 22 November 1965

aim - to provide technical assistance to stimulate economic and social
development

members - (48) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

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United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)

established - 31 May 1974

aim - established by the UN Security Council to observe the 1973 Arab-
Israeli ceasefire

members - (4) Austria, Canada, Finland, Poland

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United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

established - 16 November 1945

effective - 4 November 1946

aim - to promote cooperation in education, science, and culture

members - (178) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica,
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The
Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama,
Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands,
Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,
Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa,
Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

associate members - (3) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Netherlands Antilles

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United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)

established - 15 December 1972

aim - to promote international cooperation on all environmental matters

members - (58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

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United Nations Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

established - 4 March 1964

aim - established by the UN Security Council to serve as a peacekeeping
force between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus

members - (8) Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland,
Sweden, UK

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United Nations General Assembly

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - primary deliberative organ in the UN

members - (184) all UN members are represented in the General Assembly

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United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

established - 17 November 1966

effective - 1 January 1967

aim - UN specialized agency that promotes industrial development especially
among the members

members - (165) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo,
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,
Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea,
Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE,
UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia
(suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

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United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

established - 19 March 1978

aim - established by the UN Security Council to confirm the withdrawal of
Israeli forces, restore peace, and reestablish Lebanese authority in
southern Lebanon

members - (10) Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, Norway,
Poland, Sweden

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United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)

established - 9 April 1991

aim - established by the UN Security Council to observe and monitor the
demilitarized zone established between Iraq and Kuwait

members - (33) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, China, Denmark,
Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland,
Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia,
Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela
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United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

established - 13 August 1948

aim - established by the UN Security Council to observe the 1949
India-Pakistan ceasefire

members - (8) Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway, Sweden,
Uruguay

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United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara
(MINURSO)

established - 29 April 1991

aim - established by the UN Security Council to supervise the
referendum in Western Sahara

members - (26) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada,
China, Egypt, France, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Honduras, Ireland, Italy,
Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Switzerland, Tunisia,
UK, US, Venezuela

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United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)

established - 20 May 1991

aim - established by the UN Security Council to verify ceasefire
arrangements and to monitor the maintenance of public order pending the
organization of a new National Civil Police

members - (16) Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, France,
Guyana, India, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Venezuela

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United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)

established - 1993 for a period of six months

aim - to verify compliance with the cease-fire agreement reached 27 July
1993 and investigate reports of violations of that agreement

members - (10) Austria, Bangladesh, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany,
Greece, Poland, Sierra Leone, Sweden, Switzerland

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United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR)

established - 1993 for six months

aim - to monitor the Uganda/Rwanda border to verify that no military
assistance reaches Rwanda across the border

members - (10) Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Fiji, Hungary,
Netherlands, Senegal Slovakia, Zimbabwe

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United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

established - 3 December 1949

effective - 1 January 1951

aim - to try to ensure the humanitarian treatment of refugees and find
permanent solutions to refugee problems

members - (46) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil,
Canada, China, Colombia, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Madagascar, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway,
Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania,
Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire

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United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ)

established - 16 December 1992

aim - established by the UN Security Council to supervise the ceasefire

members - (18) Argentina, Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde,
Czech Republic, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Malaysia, Portugal,
Russia, Spain, Sweden, Uruguay, Zambia

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United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM)

established - 24 April 1992

aim - established by the UN Security Council to facilitate an immediate
cessation of hostilities, to maintain a ceasefire in order to promote a
political settlement, and to provide urgent humanitarian assistance

members - (33) Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Botswana, Egypt,
France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jordan,
South Korea, Malaysia, Morocco, Namibia, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Romania, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, US, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

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United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

note - acronym retained from predecessor organization UN Fund for
Population Activities

established - NA July 1967

aim - to assist in both developed and developing countries dealing with
population problems

members - (51) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

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United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)

established - 28 February 1992

aim - established by the UN Security Council to create conditions for peace
and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the
"Yugoslav" crisis

members - (34) Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada,
Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Ghana, India,
Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Luxembourg, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, Venezuela

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United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near
East (UNRWA)

established - 8 December 1949

aim - to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees

members - (10) Belgium, Egypt, France, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria,
Turkey, UK, US

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United Nations Secretariat

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - to serve as the primary administrative organ of the UN; a Secretary
General is appointed for a five-year term by the General Assembly on the
recommendation of the Security Council

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United Nations Security Council

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - to maintain international peace and security

permanent members - (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US

nonpermanent members - (10) elected for two-year terms by the UN General
Assembly; Brazil (1993-94), Cape Verde (1992-93), Djibouti (1993-94),
Hungary (1992-93), Japan (1992-93), Morocco (1992-93), NZ (1993-94),
Pakistan (1993-94), Spain (1993-94), Venezuela (1992-93)

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United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)

established - 28 February 1992

aim - established by the UN Security Council to contribute to the
restoration and maintenance of peace and to the holding of free elections

members - (45) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Egypt, Fiji,
France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway,
Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden,
Thailand, Tunisia, UK, US, Uruguay

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United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)

established - NA May 1948

aim - initially established by the UN Security Council to supervise the
1948 Arab-Israeli ceasefire and subsequently extended to work in the Sinai,
Lebanon, Jordan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan

members - (19) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile,
China, Denmark, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, NZ, Norway,
Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, US

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United Nations Trusteeship Council

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - to supervise the administration of the UN trust territories; only one
of the original 11 trusteeships remains - the Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands (Palau)

members - (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US

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Universal Postal Union (UPU)

established - 9 October 1874, affiliated with the UN 15 November 1947

effective - 1 July 1948

aim - UN specialized agency that promotes international postal cooperation

members-(185) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia,
Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See,
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea,
South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands,
Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Overseas
Territories of the UK, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao
Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand,
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK,
US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia
(suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

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Warsaw Pact (WP)

was established 14 May 1955 to promote mutual defense; members met 1 July
1991 to dissolve the alliance; member states at the time of dissolution
were Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the USSR;
earlier members included East Germany and Albania

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West African Development Bank (WADB)

note - also known as Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD)

established - 14 November 1973

aim - to promote regional economic development and integration

members - (7) Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal,
Togo

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West African Economic Community (CEAO)

note - acronym from Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest

established - 3 June 1972

aim - to promote regional economic development

members - (7) Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania, Niger,
Senegal

observers - (2) Guinea, Togo

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Western European Union (WEU)

established - 23 October 1954

effective - 6 May 1955

aim - mutual defense and progressive political unification

members - (9) Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
Portugal, Spain, UK

associate members - (4) Greece, Iceland, Norway, Turkey

observers - (2) Denmark, Ireland

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World Bank

see International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

-----

World Bank Group

includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD),
International Development Association (IDA), and International Finance
Corporation (IFC)

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World Confederation of Labor (WCL)

established - 19 June 1920 as the International Federation of Christian
Trade Unions (IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968

aim - to promote the trade union movement

members - (99 national organizations) Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia,
Bonaire Island, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Cuba, Curacao, Cyprus, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
France, French Guiana, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran,
Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico,
Montserrat, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan,
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico,
Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, UK, US,
Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

World Court

see International Court of Justice (ICJ)

-----

World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)

established - 3 October 1945

aim - to promote the trade union movement

members - (86) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia,
Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Finland, France, The
Gambia, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Madagascar, Martinique, Mauritius,
Mexico, Mongolia, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Puerto Rico, Reunion,
Romania, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Sweden, Syria, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uruguay, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Zaire

-----

World Food Council (WFC)

established - 17 December 1974

aim - ECOSOC organization that studies world food problems and recommends
solutions

members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

-----

World Food Program (WFP)

established - 24 November 1961

aim - ECOSOC organization that provides food aid to assist in development
or disaster relief

members - (42) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

-----

World Health Organization (WHO)

established - 22 July 1946

effective - 7 April 1948

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with health matters

members - (186) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica,
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino,
Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu,
Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

associate members - (2) Puerto Rico, Tokelau

-----

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

established - 14 July 1967

effective - 26 April 1970

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with the protection of literary,
artistic, and scientific works

members - (140) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia,
Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Benin,
Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt,
El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,
Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, San Marino, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine,
UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended),
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

established - 11 October 1947

effective - 4 April 1951

aim - specialized UN agency concerned with meteorological cooperation

members - (173) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil,
British Caribbean Territories, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,
Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia,
Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong
Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea,
Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint
Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra
Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South
Africa (suspended), Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

World Tourism Organization (WTO)

established - 2 January 1975

aim - to promote tourism as a means of contributing to economic
development, international understanding, and peace

members - (109) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Austria,
Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Cote
d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt,
Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South
Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco,
Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay,
Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and
Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE,
US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

associate members-(4) Aruba, Macau, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico

observer-(1) Holy See

-----

Zangger Committee (ZC)

established-early 1970s

aim-to establish guidelines for the export control provisions of the
nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

members-(29) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US


Appendix D: Abbreviations for Selected International Environmental
Agreements

A Air Pollution
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Nitrogen
Oxides Protocol)
Air Pollution-Sulphur
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Sulphur
Protocol)
Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Volatile Organic
Compounds Protocol)
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

B Biodiversity
Convention on Biological Diversity

C Climate Change
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

E Endangered Species
Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)
Environmental Modification
Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of
Environmental Modification Techniques

H Hazardous Wastes
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal

L Law of the Sea
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)

M Marine Dumping
Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and
Other Matter; note - also known as the London Convention
Marine Life Conservation
Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High
Seas

N Nuclear Test Ban
Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer
Space, and Under Water

O Ozone Layer Protection
Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer

S Ship Pollution
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships
(MARPOL)

T Tropical Timber
International Tropical Timber Agreement

W Wetlands
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially As
Waterfowl Habitat; note - also known as Ramsar
Whaling
International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

Note: Not all of the selected international environmental agreements have
abbreviations.

6 April 1994

Appendix E: Selected International Environmental Agreements


Air Pollution

see Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

-----

Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides

see Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Nitrogen
Oxides Protocol)

-----

Air Pollution-Sulphur

see Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Sulphur
Protocol)

-----

Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds

see Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Volatile
Organic Compounds Protocol)
-----
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

see Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

-----

Antarctic Treaty

date opened for signature - 1959

objective - to ensure that Antarctica is used for peaceful purposes,
for international cooperation in scientific research, and that it does
not become the scene or object of international discord

parties - (42) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary,
India, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Netherlands, New
Zealand, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia,
Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United
Kingdom, United States, Uruguay

-----

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous
Wastes and Their Disposal

note - abbreviated as Hazardous Wastes

date opened for signature - 1989

objective - to reduce transboundary movements of wastes subject to the
Convention to a minimum consistent with the environmentally sound and
efficient management of such wastes; to minimize the amount and
toxicity of wastes generated and ensure their environmentally sound
management as closely as possible to the source of generation; and to
assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and
other wastes they generate

parties - (65) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China,
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia,
European Union, Finland, France, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Mexico,
Monaco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland,
Syria, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, United Arab Emirates, United
Kingdom, Uruguay

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
convention: Afghanistan, Bolivia, Colombia, Germany, Greece,
Guatemala, Haiti, Israel, Lebanon, New Zealand, Russia, Thailand,
Turkey, United States, Venezuela

-----

Biodiversity

see Convention on Biological Diversity

-----

Convention on Biological Diversity

note - abbreviated as Biodiversity

date opened for signature - 1992

objective - to develop national strategies for the conservation and
sustainable use of biological diversity

parties - (53) Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Australia, The
Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Brazil, Burkina, Canada, China,
Cook Islands, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, European Union,
Fiji, Germany, Guinea, Hungary, India, Japan, Jordan, Malawi, Maldives,
Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal,
New Zealand, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Portugal, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Seychelles, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sweden, Tunisia, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zambia

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
convention: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Austria,
Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Bulgaria, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica,
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El
Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana,
Greece, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland,
Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia,
Malta, Mauritania, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino,
Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon
Islands, South Africa, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Switzerland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Tuvalu, Ukraine,
United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, former Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zimbabwe

-----

Climate Change

see United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

-----

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High
Seas

note - abbreviated as Marine Life Conservation

date opened for signature - 1958

objective - to solve through international cooperation the problems
involved in the conservation of living resources of the high seas,
considering that through the development of modern techniques some of
these resources are in danger of being over exploited

parties - (37) Australia, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina,
Cambodia, Colombia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Finland, France,
Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Portugal, Senegal, Sierra
Leone, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States,
Venezuela, former Yugoslavia

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
convention: Afghanistan, Argentina, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ghana,
Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Lebanon, Liberia, Nepal, New
Zealand, Pakistan, Panama, Sri Lanka, Taiwan (Canada signed on behalf
of Taiwan), Tunisia, Uruguay

-----

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution

date opened for signature - 1979

objective - to protect the human environment against air pollution and
to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range
transboundary air pollution

parties - (38) Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, European
Union, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, former
Yugoslavia

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
convention: Holy See, San Marino

-----

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Nitrogen Oxides
Protocol)

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides

date opened for signature - 1988

objective - to provide for the control or reduction of nitrogen oxides
and their transboundary fluxes

parties - (23) Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic,
Denmark, European Union, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Slovakia,
Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
convention: Belgium, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Spain

-----

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Sulphur Protocol)

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution-Sulphur

date opened for signature - 1985; a second protocol to further reduce
sulfur dioxide emissions was completed in 1994

objective - to provide for a 30% reduction in sulfur emissions or
transboundary fluxes by 1993

parties - (21) Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Slovakia,
Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine

-----

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Volatile Organic
Compounds Protocol)

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds

date opened for signature - 1991, but not yet in force

objective - to provide for the control and reduction of emissions of
Volatile Organic Compounds in order to reduce their transboundary
fluxes so as to protect human health and the environment from adverse
effects

parties - (8) Finland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
convention: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, European
Union, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Ukraine,
United Kingdom, United States

-----

Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Flora and Fauna (CITES)

note - abbreviated as Endangered Species

date opened for signature - 1973

objective - to protect certain endangered species from overexploitation
by means of a system of import/export permits

parties - (104) Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark,
Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia,
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Liberia, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Rwanda, Senegal, Singapore, Somalia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United
Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
convention: Cambodia, Ireland, Kuwait, Lesotho, Vietnam

-----

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and
Other Matter (London Convention)

note - abbreviated as Marine Dumping

date opened for signature - 1972

objective - to control pollution of the sea by dumping, and to
encourage regional agreements supplementary to the Convention

parties - (70) Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Belgium,
Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia,
Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, European Union,
Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya,
Kiribati, Libya, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Nauru,
Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saint Lucia, Seychelles,
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Suriname, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom,
United States, Vanuatu, former Yugoslavia, Zaire

-----

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of
Environmental Modification Techniques

note - abbreviated as Environmental Modification

date opened for signature - 1976

objective - to prohibit the military or other hostile use of
environmental modification techniques in order to further world peace
and trust among nations

parties - (62) Afghanistan, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Canada, Cape Verde, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Dominica, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary,
India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos,
Malawi, Mauritius, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway,
Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia, Sao
Tome and Principe, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
convention: Bolivia, Ethiopia, Holy See, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon,
Liberia, Luxembourg, Morocco, Nicaragua, Portugal, Sierra Leone, Syria,
Turkey, Uganda, Zaire

-----

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially As
Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar)

note - abbreviated as Wetlands

date opened for signature - 1971

objective - to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of
wetlands now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological
functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and
recreational value

parties - (65) Algeria, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Canada, Chad, Chile, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway,
Pakistan, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, South
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia,
Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam,
former Yugoslavia, Zambia

-----

Endangered Species

see Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Flora and Fauna (CITES)

-----

Environmental Modification

see Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use
of Environmental Modification Techniques

-----

Hazardous Wastes

see Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal

-----

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships
(MARPOL)

note - abbreviated as Ship Pollution

date opened for signature - 1973/78

objective - to preserve the marine environment by achieving the
complete elimination of pollution by oil and other harmful substances
and the minimization of accidental discharge of such substances

parties - (83) Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, The Bahamas, Belgium, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma, Canada,
China, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon,
Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia,
Lebanon, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands,
Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain,
Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu,
Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Vietnam,
former Yugoslavia

-----

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

note - abbreviated as Whaling

date opened for signature - 1946

objective - to protect all species of whales from overfishing and
safeguard for future generations the great natural resources
represented by whale stocks; to establish a system of international
regulation for the whale fisheries to ensure proper conservation and
development of whale stocks

parties - (39) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Belize,
Brazil, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France,
Germany, India, Ireland, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Mauritius, Mexico,
Monaco, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Zealand, Norway, Oman,
Peru, Philippines, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Senegal, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States

-----

International Tropical Timber Agreement

note - abbreviated as Tropical Timber

date opened for signature - 1983; a new agreement was opened for
signature in 1994, but is not yet in force

objective - to provide an effective framework for cooperation between
tropical timber producers and consumers and to encourage the
development of national policies aimed at sustainable utilization and
conservation of tropical forests and their genetic resources

parties - (45) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Burma, Cameroon, Canada,
China, Colombia, Congo, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France,
Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, South Korea, Liberia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Nepal,
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Portugal,
Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and
Tobago, United Kingdom, United States, Zaire

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
agreement: Bolivia, Brazil, Cote d'Ivoire, European Union, Honduras,
Peru, Philippines

-----

Law of the Sea

see United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)

-----

Marine Dumping

see Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes
and Other Matter (London Convention)

-----

Marine Life Conservation

see Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the
High Seas
-----
Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer

note - abbreviated as Ozone Layer Protection

date opened for signature - 1987

objective - to protect the ozone layer by taking precautionary measures
to control emissions of substances that deplete it

parties - (136) Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium,
Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Burma, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chile,
China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt,
El Salvador, European Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Honduras,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macau, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Namibia,
Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Panama,
Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab
Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
protocol: Congo, Morocco

-----

Nuclear Test Ban

see Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer
Space, and Under Water

-----

Ozone Layer Protection

see Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

-----

Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

note - abbreviated as Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

date opened for signature - 1991, but not yet in force

objective - to enhance the protection of the Antarctic environment and
dependent and associated ecosystems

parties - (9) Argentina, Australia, Ecuador, France, Netherlands,
Norway, Peru, Spain, Sweden

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
protocol: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China,
Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece,
Guatemala, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, New
Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South
Africa, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay

-----

Ship Pollution

see International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships
(MARPOL)

-----

Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space,
and Under Water

note - abbreviated as Nuclear Test Ban

date opened for signature - 1963

objective - to obtain an agreement on general and complete disarmament
under strict international control in accordance with the objectives of
the United Nations; to put an end to the armaments race and eliminate
incentives for the production and testing of all kinds of weapons,
including nuclear weapons

parties - (112) Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh,
Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,
Fiji, Finland, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala,
Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South
Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia,
Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay,
Venezuela, former Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
treaty: Algeria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Haiti, Mali,
Paraguay, Portugal, Somalia, Vietnam

-----

Tropical Timber

see International Tropical Timber Agreement

-----

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)

note - abbreviated as Law of the Sea

date opened for signature - 1982, but not yet in force

objective - to set up a comprehensive new legal regime for the sea and
oceans and, as far as environmental provisions are concerned, to
establish material rules concerning environmental standards as well as
enforcement provisions dealing with pollution of the marine environment

parties - (60) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Costa Rica,
Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominica, Egypt,
Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Honduras, Iceland, Indonesia, Iraq, Jamaica, Kenya, Kuwait, Mali,
Malta, Marshall Islands, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia,
Namibia, Nigeria, Oman, Paraguay, Philippines, Saint Kitts and Nevis,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe,
Senegal, Seychelles, Slovakia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad
and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Yemen, former Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
convention: Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Brunei, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Canada, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Denmark,
Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, European
Union, Finland, France, Gabon, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hungary,
India, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Laos,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritania, Mauritius, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Niger, Niue, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra
Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Tuvalu, Ukraine,
United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa

-----

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

note - abbreviated as Climate Change

date opened for signature - 1992

objective-to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in
the atmosphere at a low enough level to prevent dangerous anthropogenic
interference with the climate system

parties - (64) Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina,
Canada, China, Cook Islands, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica,
Ecuador, European Union, Fiji, France, Germany, Guinea, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Maldives, Malta, Marshall
Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia,
Monaco, Mongolia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Seychelles, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia,
Tuvulu, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the
convention: Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh,
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Burma,
Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus,
Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia,
Finland, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea-
Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama,
Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and
Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon
Islands, South Africa, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
Trinidad and Tobago, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western
Samoa, Yemen, former Yugoslavia, Zaire

-----

Wetlands

see Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially As
Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar)

-----

Whaling
see International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

Appendix F: Weights and Measures

Mathematical Notation

Mathematical Power Name
10^18 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 one quintillion
10^15 or 1,000,000,000,000,000 one quadrillion
10^12 or 1,000,000,000,000 one trillion
10^9 or 1,000,000,000 one billion
10^6 or 1,000,000 one million
10^3 or 1,000 one thousand
10^2 or 100 one hundred
10^1 or 10 ten
10^0 or 1 one
10-^1 or 0.1 one-tenth
10-^2 or 0.01 one-hundredth
10-^3 or 0.001 one-thousandth
10-^6 or 0.000 001 one-millionth
10-^9 or 0.000 000 001 one-billionth
10-^12 or 0.000 000 000 001 one-trillionth
10-^15 or 0.000 000 000 000 001 one-quadrillionth
10-^18 or 0.000 000 000 000 000 00 one-quintillionth

Metric Interrelationships

Conversions from a multiple or submultiple to the basic units of meters,
liters, or grams can be done using the table. For example, to convert from
kilometers to meters, multiply by 1,000 (9.26 kilometers equals 9,260
meters) or to convert from meters to kilometers, multiply by 0.001 (9,260
meters equals 9.26 kilometers).

Prefix Symbol Length, weight,
or capacity Area Volume
exa E 10^18 10^36 10^54
peta P 10^15 10^30 10^45
tera T 10^12 10^24 10^36
giga G 10^9 10^18 10^27
mega M 10^6 10^12 10^18
hectokilo hk 10^5 10^10 10^15
myria ma 10^4 10^8 10^12
kilo k 10^3 10^6 10^9
hecto h 10^2 10^4 10^6
basic unit - 1 meter, 1 meter^2 1 meter^3
1 gram,
1 liter
deci d 10-^1 10-^2 10-^3
centi c 10-^2 10-^4 10-^6
milli m 10-^3 10-^6 10-^9
decimilli dm 10-^4 10-^8 10-^12
centimilli cm 10-^5 10-^10 10-^15
micro u 10-^6 10-^12 10-^18
nano n 10-^9 10-^18 10-^27
pico p 10-^12 10-^24 10-^36
femto f 10-^15 10-^30 10-^45
atto a 10-^18 10-^36 10-^54

Equivalents

Units Metric Equivalent US Equivalent

acre 0.404 685 64 hectares 43,560 feet^2
acre 4,046,856 4 meters^2 4,840 yards^2
acre 0.004 046 856 4 0.001 562 5 miles^2,
kilometers^2 statute
are 100 meters^2 119.599 yards^2
barrel
(petroleum, US) 158.987 29 liters 42 gallons
(proof spirits, US) 151.416 47 liters 40 gallons
(beer, US) 117.347 77 liters 31 gallons
bushel 35.239 07 liters 4 pecks
cable 219.456 meters 120 fathoms
chain (surveyor's) 20.116 8 meters 66 feet
cord (wood) 3.624 556 meters^3 128 feet^3
cup 0.236 588 2 liters 8 ounces, liquid (US)
degrees, Celsius (water boils at 100 multiply by 1.8 and add 32
degrees C, freezes at to obtain degrees F
0 degrees C)
degrees, Fahrenheit subtract 32 and divide water boils at 212 degrees
by 1.8 to obtain F, freezes at 32 degrees F)
degrees C
dram, avdp. 1.771 845 2 grams 0.0625 5 ounces, avdp.
dram, troy 3.887 934 6 grams 0.125 ounces, troy
dram, liquid (US) 3.696 69 milliliters 0.125 ounces, liquid
fathom 1.828 8 meters 6 feet
foot 30.48 centimeters 12 inches
foot 0.304 8 meters 0.333 333 3 yards
foot 0.000 304 8 kilometers 0.000 189 39 miles, statute
foot^2 929.030 4 centimeters^2 144 inches^2
foot^2 0.092 903 04 meters^2 0.111 111 1 yards^2
foot^3 28.316 846 592 liters 7.480 519 gallons
foot^3 0.028 316 847 meters^3 1,728 inches^3
furlong 201.168 meters 220 yards
gallon, liquid (US) 3.785 411 784 liters 4 quarts, liquid
gill (US) 118.294 118 milliliters 4 ounces, liquid
grain 64.798 91 milligrams 0.002 285 71 ounces, advp.
gram 1,000 milligrams 0.035 273 96 ounces, advp.
hand (height of horse) 10.16 centimeters 4 inches
hectare 10,000 meters^2 2.471 053 8 acres
hundredweight, long 50.802 345 kilograms 112 pounds, avdp.
hundredweight, short 45.359 237 kilograms 100 pounds, avdp.
inch 2.54 centimeters 0.083 333 33 feet
inch^2 6.451 6 centimeters^2 0.006 944 44 feet^2
inch^3 16.387 064 centimeters^3 0.000 578 7 feet^3
inch^3 16.387 064 milliliters 0.029 761 6 pints, dry
inch^3 16.387 064 milliliters 0.034 632 0 pints, liquid
kilogram 0.001 tons, metric 2.204 623 pounds, avdp.
kilometer 1,000 meters 0.621 371 19 miles, statute
kilometer^2 100 hectares 247.105 38 acres
kilometer^2 1,000,000 meters^2 0.386 102 16 miles^2,
statute
knot (1 nautical
mi/hr) 1.852 kilometers/hour 1.151 statute miles/hour
league, nautical 5.559 552 kilometers 3 miles, nautical
league, statute 4.828.032 kilometers 3 miles, statute
link (surveyor's) 20.116 8 centimeters 7.92 inches
liter 0.001 meters^3 61.023 74 inches^3
liter 0.1 dekaliter 0.908 083 quarts, dry
liter 1,000 milliliters 1.056 688 quarts, liquid
meter 100 centimeters 1.093 613 yards
meter^2 10,000 centimeters^2 1.195 990 yards^2
meter^3 1,000 liters 1.307 951 yards^3
micron 0.000 001 meter 0.000 039 4 inches
mil 0.025 4 millimeters 0.001 inch
mile, nautical 1.852 kilometers 1.150 779 4 miles, statute
mile^2, nautical 3.429 904 kilometers^2 1.325 miles^2, statute
mile, statute 1.609 344 kilometers 5,280 feet or 8 furlongs
mile^2, statute 258.998 811 hectares 640 acres or 1 section
mile^2, statute 2.589 988 11
kilometers^2 0.755 miles^2, nautical
minim (US) 0.061 611 52 milliliters 0.002 083 33 ounces, liquid
or one-sixtieth of a dram
ounce, avdp. 28.349 523 125 grams 437.5 grains
ounce, liquid (US) 29.573 53 milliliters 0.062 5 pints, liquid
ounce, troy 31.103 476 8 grams 480 grains
pace 76.2 centimeters 30 inches
peck 8.809 767 5 liters 8 quarts, dry
pennyweight 1.555 173 84 grams 24 grains
pint, dry (US) 0.550 610 47 liters 0.5 quarts, dry
pint, liquid (US) 0.473 176 473 liters 0.5 quarts, liquid
point (typographical) 0.351 459 8 millimeters 0.013 837 inches
pound, avdp 453.592 37 grams 16 ounces, avdp
pound, troy 373.241 721 6 grams 12 ounces, troy
quart, dry (US) 1.101 221 liters 2 pints, dry
quart, liquid (US) 0.946 352 946 liters 2 pints, liquid
quintal 100 kilograms 220.462 26 pounds, avdp.
rod 5.029 2 meters 5.5 yards
scruple 1.295 978 2 grams 20 grains
section (US) 2.589 988 1 kilometers^2 1 mile^2, statute
or 640 acres
span 22.86 centimeters 9 inches
stere 1 meter^3 1.307 95 yards^3
tablespoon 14.786 76 milliliters 3 teaspoons
teaspoon 4.928 922 milliliters 0.333 333 tablespoons
ton, long or
deadweight 1,016.046 909 kilograms 2,240 pounds, avdp.
ton, metric 1,000 kilograms 2,204.623 pounds, avdp.
ton, metric 1,000 kilograms 32,150.75 ounces, troy
ton, register 2.831 684 7 meters^3 100 feet^3
ton, short 907.184 74 kilograms 2,000 pounds, avdp.
township (US) 93.239 572 kilometers^2 36 miles^2, statute
yard 0.914 4 meters 3 feet
yard^2 0.836 127 36 meters^2 9 feet^2
yard^3 0.764 554 86 meters^3 27 feet^3

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