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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 43 out of 46

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see West African Economic Community (CEAO)

-----

Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale (CEEAC)

see Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)

-----

Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs (CEPGL)

see Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)

-----

Communist countries

traditionally the Marxist-Leninist states with authoritarian governments
and command economies based on the Soviet model; most of the successor
states are no longer Communist; see centrally planned economies

-----

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)

established - 3 July 1973

aim - discusses issues of mutual concern and reviews implementation of the
Helsinki Agreement

members - (53) Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Holy See,
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia,
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK,
US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia (suspended)

observer - (1) The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

-----

Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN)

see European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)

-----

Contadora Group (CG)

was established 5 January 1983 (on the Panamanian island of Contadora) to
reduce tensions and conflicts in Central America but evolved into the Rio
Group (RG); members included Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela

-----

Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf

see Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

-----

Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM)

note - was abolished 31 March 1994; COCOM members are working on a new
organization with expanded membership which focuses on nonproliferation
export controls as opposed to East-West controls of advanced technology

established - NA 1949

aim - to control the export of strategic products and technical data from
member countries to proscribed destinations

members - (17) Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany,
Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain,
Turkey, UK, US

cooperating countries - (14) Austria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hong Kong,
Hungary, Ireland, South Korea, NZ, Poland, Singapore, Slovakia, Sweden,
Switzerland, Taiwan

-----

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA)
also known as CMEA or Comecon,

was established 25 January 1949 to promote the development of socialist
economies and was abolished 1 January 1991; members included Afghanistan
(observer), Albania (had not participated since 1961 break with USSR),
Angola (observer), Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia (observer),
GDR, Hungary, Laos (observer), Mongolia, Mozambique (observer), Nicaragua
(observer), Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yemen (observer), Yugoslavia
(associate)

-----

Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU)

established - 3 June 1957

effective - 30 May 1964

aim - to promote economic integration among Arab nations

members - (11 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Egypt, Iraq,
Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, UAE, Yemen,
Palestine Liberation Organization

-----

Council of Europe (CE)

established - 5 May 1949

effective - 3 August 1949

aim - to promote increased unity and quality of life in Europe

members - (32) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK

guests - (8) Albania, Belarus, Croatia, Latvia, Moldova, Russia, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ukraine

observers - (2) Holy See, Israel

-----

Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS)

established - 5 March 1992

aim - to promote cooperation among the Baltic Sea states in the areas of
aid to new democratic institutions, economic development, humanitarian aid,
energy and the environment, cultural programs and education, and
transportation and communication

members - (10) Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden

observers - (2) Belarus, Ukraine

-----

Council of the Entente (Entente)

established - 29 May 1959

aim - to promote economic, social, and political coordination

members - (5) Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Niger, Togo

-----

Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)

established - 15 December 1950

aim - to promote international cooperation in customs matters

members - (126) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia,
Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chile, China, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon,
The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Hong
Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Niger, Nigeria,
Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland,
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

developed countries (DCs)

the top group in the comprehensive but mutually exclusive hierarchy of
developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and
less developed countries (LDCs); includes the market-oriented economies of
the mainly democratic nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development (OECD), Bermuda, Israel, South Africa, and the European
ministates; also known as the First World, high-income countries, the
North, industrial countries; generally have a per capita GNP/GDP in excess
of $10,000 although four OECD countries and South Africa have figures well
under $10,000 and two of the excluded OPEC countries have figures of more
than $10,000; the 35 DCs are: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium,
Bermuda, Canada, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Holy See, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, San
Marino, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

-----

developing countries

an imprecise term for the less developed countries with growing economies;
see less developed countries (LDCs)

-----

East African Development Bank (EADB)

established - 6 June 1967

effective - 1 December 1967

aim - to promote economic development

members - (3) Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda

-----

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)

established - 28 March 1947 as Economic Commission for Asia and the Far
East (ECAFE)

aim - to carryout the commitment of the Economic and Social Council of the
UN to promote economic development

members - (48) Afghanistan, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan,
Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, Fiji, France, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Japan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia,
Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea,
Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan,
Thailand, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,
Vietnam, Western Samoa

associate members - (10) American Samoa, Cook Islands, French Polynesia,
Guam, Hong Kong, Macau, New Caledonia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands,
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau)

-----

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)

established - 9 August 1973 as Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA)

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission for the UN's
Economic and Social Council

members - (12 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Bahrain, Egypt,
Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE,
Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization

-----

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - to coordinate the economic and social work of the UN; includes five
regional commissions (see Economic Commission for Africa, Economic
Commission for Europe, Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific,
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia) and six functional
commissions (see Commission for Social Development, Commission on Human
Rights, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Commission on the Status of Women,
Population Commission, Statistical Commission, Commission on Science and
Technology for Development, Commission on Sustainable Development,
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, and Commission on
Transnational Corporations)

members - (54) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

-----

Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)

established - 29 April 1958

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission of the UN's
Economic and Social Council

members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi,
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote
d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The
Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa (suspended), Sudan,
Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

associate members - (2) France, UK

-----

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE)

see Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)

-----

Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)

established - 28 March 1947

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission of the UN's
Economic and Social Council

members - (54) Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia,
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia

-----

Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)

see Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

-----

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

established - 25 February 1948 as Economic Commission for Latin America
(ECLA)

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission of the UN's
Economic and Social Council

members - (41) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados,
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Italy, Jamaica, Mexico, Netherlands,
Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Spain, Suriname, Trinidad and
Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela

associate members - (6) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat,
Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands

-----

Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA)

see Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)

-----

Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)-acronym from
Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale

established - 18 October 1983

aim - to promote regional economic cooperation and establish a Central
African Common Market

members - (10) Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo,
Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Zaire

observer - (1) Angola

-----

Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)

note - acronym from Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs

established - 26 September 1976

aim - to promote regional economic cooperation and integration

members - (3) Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire

-----

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

established - 28 May 1975

aim - to promote regional economic cooperation

members - (16) Benin, Burkina, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, The Gambia,
Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria,
Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

-----

Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)

established - NA 1985

aim - to promote regional cooperation in trade, transportation,
communications, tourism, cultural affairs, and economic development

members - (11) Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus",
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

-----

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)

established - 15 April 1991

aim - to facilitate the transition of seven centrally planned economies in
Europe (Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, former
USSR, and former Yugoslavia) to market economies by committing 60% of its
loans to privatization

members - (58) Albania, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium,
Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, European
Community (EC), European Investment Bank (EIB), Estonia, Finland, France,
Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan,
Kazakhstan, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Russia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tajikistan, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia; note - includes all
25 members of the OECD; also includes the EC as a single entity

-----

European Community (or European Communities, EC) was established 8 April
1965 to integrate the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the
European Coal and Steel Community (ESC), the European Economic Community
(EEC or Common Market), and to establish a completely integrated common
market and an eventual federation of Europe; merged into the European Union
(EU) on 7 February 1992; member states at the time of merger were Belgium,
Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
Portugal, Spain, UK

-----

European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

established - 4 January 1960

effective - 3 May 1960

aim - to promote expansion of free trade

members - (7) Austria, Finland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Sweden,
Switzerland

-----

European Investment Bank (EIB)

established - 25 March 1957

effective - 1 January 1958

aim - to promote economic development of the EU

members - (12) Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK

-----

European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)

note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization Conseil Europeen
pour la Recherche Nucleaire

established - 1 July 1953

effective - 29 September 1954

aim - to foster nuclear research for peaceful purposes only

members - (19) Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK

observers - (6) EC, Israel, Russia, Turkey, United Nations Educational,
Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Yugoslavia

-----

European Space Agency (ESA)

established - 31 July 1973

effective - 1 May 1975

aim - to promote peaceful cooperation in space research and technology

members - (13) Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy,
Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK

associate member - (1) Finland

cooperating state - (1) Canada

-----

European Union (EU)

note - evolved from the European Community (EC)

established - 7 February 1992

effective - 1 November 1993

aim - to coordinate policy among the 12 members in three fields: economics,
building on the European Economic Community's (EEC) efforts to establish a
common market and eventually a common currency; defense, within the concept
of a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); and justice and home
affairs, including immigration, drugs, terrorism, and improved living and
working conditions

members-(12) Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK

-----

First World

another term for countries with advanced, industrialized economies; this
term is fading from use; see developed countries (DCs)

-----

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

established - 16 October 1945

aim - UN specialized agency to raise living standards and increase
availability of agricultural products

members - (162) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei,
Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo,
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, EC, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,
Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea,
Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE,
UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

associate member - (1) Puerto Rico

-----

Former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE)

the middle group in the comprehensive but mutually exclusive hierarchy of
developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and
less developed countries (LDCs); these countries are in political and
economic transition and may well be grouped differently in the near future;
this group of 27 countries consists of Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic,
Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania,
Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Tajikistan, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

-----

Four Dragons

the four small Asian less developed countries (LDCs) that have experienced
unusually rapid economic growth; also known as the Four Tigers; this group
includes Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan

-----

Four Tigers

another term for the Four Dragons; see Four Dragons

-----

Franc Zone (FZ)

established - NA

aim - to form a monetary union among countries whose currencies are linked
to the French franc

members - (15) Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad,
Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Mali,
Niger, Senegal, Togo; note - France includes metropolitan France, the four
overseas departments of France (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique,
Reunion), the two territorial collectivities of France (Mayotte, Saint
Pierre and Miquelon), and the three overseas territories of France (French
Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna)

-----

Front Line States (FLS)

established - NA

aim - to achieve black majority rule in South Africa

members - (7) Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

-----

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

note - to be subsumed by the World Trade Organization on 31 December 1994

established - 30 October 1947

effective - 1 January 1948

aim - to promote the expansion of international trade on a
nondiscriminatory basis

members - (117) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana,
Brazil, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba,
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El
Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, South Korea,
Kuwait, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives,
Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda,
UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

-----

Group of 2 (G-2)

established - informal term that came into use about 1986

aim - bilateral economic cooperation between the two most powerful economic
giants

members - (2) Japan, US

-----

Group of 3 (G-3)

established - NA October 1990

aim - mechanism for policy coordination

members - (3) Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela

-----

Group of 5 (G-5)

established - 22 September 1985

aim - to coordinate the economic policies of the five major non-Communist
economic powers

members - (5) France, Germany, Japan, UK, US

-----

Group of 6 (G-6)

note - also known as Groupe des Six Sur le Desarmement not to be confused
with the Big Six

established - 22 May 1984

aim - to achieve nuclear disarmament

members - (6) Argentina, Greece, India, Mexico, Sweden, Tanzania

-----

Group of 7 (G-7)

note - membership is the same as the Big Seven

established - 22 September 1985

aim - to facilitate economic cooperation among the seven major non-
Communist economic powers

members - (7) Group of 5 (France, Germany, Japan, UK, US) plus Canada and
Italy

-----

Group of 8 (G-8)

established - NA October 1975

aim - to facilitate economic cooperation among the developed countries
(DCs) that participated in the Conference on International Economic
Cooperation (CIEC), held in several sessions between NA December 1975 and 3
June 1977

members - (8) Australia, Canada, EU (as one member), Japan, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, US

-----

Group of 9 (G-9)

established - NA

aim - informal group that meets occasionally on matters of mutual interest

members - (9) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary,
Romania, Sweden, Yugoslavia

-----

Group of 10 (G-10)

note - also known as the Paris Club, wealthiest members of the IMF who
provide most of the money to be loaned and act as the informal steering
committee; name persists in spite of the addition of Switzerland on NA
April 1984


established - NA October 1962

aim - to make credit policy

members - (11) Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands,
Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

-----

Group of 11 (G-11)

note - also known as the Cartagena Group

established - 22 June 1984, in Cartagena, Colombia

aim - to provide a forum for largest debtor nations in Latin America

members - (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

-----

Group of 15 (G-15)

note - byproduct of the Non-Aligned Movement

established - September 1989

aim - to promote economic cooperation among developing nations; to act as
the main political organ for the Non-Aligned Movement

members - (15) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Indonesia,
Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Senegal, Venezuela, Yugoslavia,
Zimbabwe

-----

Group of 19 (G-19)

established - NA October 1975

aim - to represent the interests of the less developed countries (LDCs)
that participated in the Conference on International Economic Cooperation
(CIEC) held in several sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 June 1977

members - (19) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Cameroon, Egypt, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Saudi
Arabia, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia

-----

Group of 24 (G-24)

established - NA January 1972

aim - to promote the interests of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and
Latin America within the IMF

members - (24) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt,
Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Iran, Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria,
Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago,
Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire

-----

Group of 30 (G-30)

established - NA 1979

aim - to discuss and propose solutions to the world's economic problems

members - (30) informal group of 30 leading international bankers,
economists, financial experts, and businessmen organized by Johannes
Witteveen (former managing director of the IMF)

-----

Group of 33 (G-33)

established - NA 1987

aim - to promote solutions to international economic problems

members - (33) leading economists from 13 countries

-----

Group of 77 (G-77)

established - NA October 1967

aim - to promote economic cooperation among developing countries; name
persists in spite of increased membership

members - (128 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan,
Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia,
Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South
Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar,
Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UAE, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
Palestine Liberation Organization

-----

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

note - also known as the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the
Gulf

established - 25 May 1981

aim - to promote regional cooperation in economic, social, political, and
military affairs

members - (6) Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE

-----

Habitat

see Commission on Human Settlements

-----

Hexagonal Group

see Central European Initiative (CEI)

-----

high-income countries

another term for the industrialized countries with high per capita
GNPs/GDPs; see developed countries (DCs)

-----

industrial countries

another term for the developed countries; see developed countries (DCs)

-----

Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

note - also known as Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

established - 8 April 1959

effective - 30 December 1959

aim - to promote economic and social development in Latin America

members - (44) Argentina, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize,
Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Guatemala,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico,
Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Spain,
Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay,
Venezuela

-----

Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD)

established - 15-16 January 1986

aim - to promote cooperation on drought-related
matters

members - (6) Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda

-----

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

established - 26 October 1956

effective - 29 July 1957

aim - to promote peaceful uses of atomic energy

members - (116) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia,
Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa
Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia,
Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Holy See,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia,
Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritius,
Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra
Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia
(suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

International Bank for Economic Cooperation (IBEC)

was established on 22 October 1963 to promote economic cooperation and
development; members were Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam; now it is a Russian bank
with a new charter

-----

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

note - also known as the World Bank

established - 22 July 1944

effective - 27 December 1945

aim - UN specialized agency that initially promoted economic rebuilding
after World War II and now provides economic development loans

members - (177) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,
Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and
Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)

established - NA 1919

aim - to promote free trade and private enterprise and to represent
business interests at national and international levels

members - (59 national councils) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium,
Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus,
Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Iceland,
India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, South Korea,
Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands,
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Togo,
Tunisia, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire

-----

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

established - 7 December 1944

effective - 4 April 1947

aim - UN specialized agency to promote international cooperation in civil
aviation

members - (181) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica,
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,
Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea,
South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of
Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru,
Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands,
Somalia, South Africa (suspended), Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

-----

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

established - NA 1863

aim - to provide humanitarian aid in wartime

members - (25 individuals) all Swiss nationals

-----

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)

established - NA December 1949

aim - to promote the trade union movement

members - (164 national organizations in the following 117 areas) Antigua
and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Basque Country, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Botswana,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Curacao, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia,
Falkland Islands, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Holy See, Honduras, Hong Kong, Iceland,
India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, South
Korea, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Montserrat, Morocco, Netherlands, New
Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania,
Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, San Marino, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK,
US, Venezuela, Western Samoa, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

note - also known as the World Court

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - primary judicial organ of the UN

members - (15 judges) elected by the UN General Assembly and Security
Council to represent all principal legal systems

-----

International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL)

established - 13 June 1956

aim - to promote international cooperation between criminal police
authorities

members - (170) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,
Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland,
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru,
Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and
Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

subbureaus - (11) American Samoa, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin
Islands, Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Macau, Montserrat, Puerto
Rico, Turks and Caicos Islands

-----

International Development Association (IDA)

established - 26 January 1960

effective - 24 September 1960

aim - UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate that provides economic loans
for low income countries

members - (156)

Part I - (24 more economically advanced countries) Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Russia, South
Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UAE, UK, US

Part II - (132 less developed nations) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria,
Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western
Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

International Energy Agency (IEA)

established - 15 November 1974

aim - established by the OECD to promote cooperation on energy matters,
especially emergency oil sharing and relations between oil consumers and
oil producers

members - (23) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

-----

International Finance Corporation (IFC)

established - 25 May 1955

effective - 20 July 1956

aim - UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate that helps private
enterprise sector in economic development

members - (159) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina,
Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia,
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland,
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

established - NA November 1974

aim - UN specialized agency that promotes agricultural development

members - (150)

Category I - (21 industrialized aid contributors) Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy,
Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK,
US

Category II - (12 petroleum-exporting aid contributors) Algeria, Gabon,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE,
Venezuela

Category III - (117 aid recipients) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua
and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin,
Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba,
Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Israel,
Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,
Nicaragua, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

International Investment Bank (IIB)

established on 7 July 1970; to promote economic development; members were
Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland,
Romania, USSR, Vietnam; now it is a Russian bank with a new charter

-----

International Labor Organization (ILO)

established - 11 April 1919 (affiliated with the UN 14 December 1946)

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with world labor issues

members - (169) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,
Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania,
Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

note - name changed from Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative
Organization (IMCO) on 22 May 1982

established - 17 March 1958

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with world maritime affairs

members - (146) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium,
Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria,
Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia,
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland,
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Turkmenistan, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam,
Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire

associate members - (2) Hong Kong, Macau

-----

International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT)

established - 3 September 1976

effective - 26 July 1979

aim - to provide worldwide communications for maritime shipping and other
applications

members - (69) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba,
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia,
Germany, Greece, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy,
Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Liberia, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Monaco,
Mozambique, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia,
Singapore, Slovakia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia,
Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Yugoslavia

-----

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

established - 22 July 1944

effective - 27 December 1945

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with world monetary stability and
economic development

members - (179) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,
Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao
Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda,
Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam,
Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

observers-(3) Holy See, North Korea, Monaco

-----

International Olympic Committee (IOC)

established-23 June 1894

aim-to promote the Olympic ideals and administer the Olympic games: 1994
Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway (12-27 February); 1996 Summer
Olympics in Atlanta, United States (20 July-4 August); 1998 Winter Olympics
in Nagano, Japan (date NA)

members-(184) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra,
Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria,
Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium,
Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana,
Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Cameroon,
Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland,
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guam,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland,
India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,
Jordan, Kazahkstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan,
Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

established as Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of
Migrants from Europe; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for European
Migration (ICEM) on 15 November 1952; renamed Intergovernmental Committee
for Migration (ICM) in November 1980; current name adopted 14 November 1989

established - 5 December 1951

aim - to facilitate orderly international emigration and immigration

members - (48) Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium,
Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Kenya, South Korea,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland,
Thailand, Uganda, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia

observers - (40) Albania, Belize, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cape Verde, Croatia,
Czech Republic, Federation of Ethnic Communities' Council of Australia
Inc., Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Holy See, India, Indonesia, Japan, Japan
International Friendship and Welfare Foundation, Jordan, Latvia, Malta,
Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, NZ, Niwano Peace Foundation, Partnership with the
Children of the Third World, Presiding Bishop's Fund for World
Relief/Episcopal Church, Refugee Council of Australia, Romania, Russia, San
Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain,
Turkey, UK, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe

-----

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

established - NA February 1947

aim - to promote the development of international standards

members - (73 national standards organizations) Albania, Algeria,
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,
Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Libya, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia,
Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia,
Zimbabwe

correspondent members - (20) Bahrain, Barbados, Brunei, Estonia, Hong Kong,
Jordan, Kuwait, Lithuania, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Malta, Mauritius,
Nepal, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Seychelles, Uganda, UAE

-----

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

established - NA 1928

aim - to promote worldwide humanitarian aid through the International
Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in wartime, and League of Red Cross and
Red Crescent Societies (LORCS) in peacetime

members - (9) 2 representatives from ICRC, 2 from LORCS, and 5 from
national societies elected by the international conference of the
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

-----

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

established - 9 December 1932

effective - 1 January 1934

affiliated with the UN - 15 November 1947

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with world telecommunications

members - (182) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated
States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia,
South Africa (suspended), Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended),
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT)

established - 20 August 1971

effective - 12 February 1973

aim - to develop and operate a global commercial telecommunications
satellite system

members - (126) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia,
Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica,
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,
Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Holy See,
Honduras, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand,
Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

nonsignatory users - (56) Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahrain, Belarus,
Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Comoros, Cook Islands, Cuba, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea,
Eritrea, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kiribati,
North Korea, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, Maldives, Malta,
Marshall Islands, Moldova, Mongolia, Namibia, Nauru, Niue, Poland, Sao Tome
and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon
Islands, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname,
Tajikistan, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tonga, Turkmenistan,
Tuvalu, Ukraine, Vanuatu, Western Samoa

-----

Islamic Development Bank (IDB)

established - 15 December 1973

aim - to promote Islamic economic aid and social development

members - (47 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan
(suspended), Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin,
Brunei, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The
Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco,
Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia,
Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen,
Palestine Liberation Organization

-----

Latin American Economic System (LAES)

note - also known as Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA)

established - 17 October 1975

aim - to promote economic and social development through regional
cooperation

members - (27) Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua,
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela

-----

Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)

note - also known as Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)

established - 12 August 1980

effective - 18 March 1981

aim - to promote freer regional trade

members - (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

observers - (16) Commission of the European Communities, Costa Rica, Cuba,
Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Inter-American
Development Bank, Italy, Nicaragua, Organization of American States,
Panama, Portugal, Spain, United Nations Development Program, United Nations
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

-----

League of Arab States (LAS)

see Arab League (AL)

-----

League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS)

established - 5 May 1919

aim - to provide humanitarian aid in peacetime

members - (153) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina,
Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,
Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

associate members - (2) Equatorial Guinea, Gabon

-----

least developed countries (LLDCs)

that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) initially identified
by the UN General Assembly in 1971 as having no significant economic
growth, per capita GNPs/GDPs normally less than $1,000, and low literacy
rates; also known as the undeveloped countries. The 42 LLDCs are:
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina, Burma, Burundi,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial
Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti,
Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique,
Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan,
Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen

-----

less developed countries (LDCs)

the bottom group in the comprehensive but mutually exclusive hierarchy of
developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and
less developed countries (LDCs); mainly countries with low levels of
output, living standards, and technology; per capita GNPs/GDPs are
generally below $5,000 and often less than $1,500; however, the group also
includes a number of countries with high per capita incomes, areas of
advanced technology, and rapid rates of growth; includes the advanced
developing countries, developing countries, Four Dragons (Four Tigers),
least developed countries (LLDCs), low-income countries, middle-income
countries, newly industrializing economies (NIEs), the South, Third World,
underdeveloped countries, undeveloped countries; the 174 LDCs are:
Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands,
Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman
Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Christmas Island,
Cocos Islands, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands,
Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Gaza Strip,
Ghana, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala,
Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jersey, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North
Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Macau,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Isle of Man, Marshall
Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Federated States of
Micronesia, Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru,
Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Oman, Trust Territory of
the Pacific Islands (Palau), Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Rwanda,
Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and
Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands,
Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turks and
Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, UAE, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam,
Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara, Western
Samoa, Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

low-income countries

another term for those less developed countries with below-average per
capita GNPs/GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)

-----

London Suppliers Group

see Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

-----

Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (MERCOSUR)

see Southern Cone Common Market

-----

middle-income countries

another term for those less developed countries with above-average per
capita GNPs/GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)

-----

Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

established - April 1987

aim - to arrest missile proliferation by controlling the export of key
missile technologies and equipment

members - (25) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
UK, US

-----

Near Abroad

the 14 non-Russian successor states of the USSR, in which 25 million ethnic
Russians live and in which Moscow has expressed a strong national security
interest

-----

newly industrializing countries (NICs)

former term for the newly industrializing economies; see newly
industrializing economies (NIEs)

-----

newly industrializing economies (NIEs)

that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) that has experienced
particularly rapid industrialization of their economies; formerly known as
the newly industrializing countries (NICs); also known as advanced
developing countries; usually includes the Four Dragons (Hong Kong, South
Korea, Singapore, Taiwan) plus Brazil

-----

Nonaligned Movement (NAM)

established - 1-6 September 1961

aim - to establish political and military cooperation apart from the
traditional East or West blocs

members - (107 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan,
Algeria, Angola, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin,
Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia,
Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt,
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica,
Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda,
Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UAE,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization

observers - (21) African National Congress, Afro-Asian Solidarity
Organization, Antigua and Barbuda, Arab League, Armenia, Brazil, China,
Costa Rica, Croatia, Dominica, El Salvador, Islamic Conference, Kanaka
Socialist National Liberation Front (New Caledonia), Mexico, Mongolia,
Organization of African Unity, Pan Africanist Congress of Azania, Socialist
Party of Puerto Rico, Thailand, UN, Uruguay

guests - (21) Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada,
Dominican Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, NZ,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland

-----

Nordic Council (NC)

established - 16 March 1952

effective - 12 February 1953

aim - to promote regional economic, cultural, and environmental cooperation

members - (5) Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden; note - Denmark
includes Faroe Islands and Greenland, and Finland includes Aland Islands

-----

Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)

established - 4 December 1975

effective - 1 June 1976

aim - to promote economic cooperation and development

members - (5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland
(including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden

-----

North

a popular term for the rich industrialized countries generally located in
the northern portion of the Northern Hemisphere; the counterpart of the
South; see developed countries (DCs)

-----

North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC)

note - an extension of NATO

established - 8 November 1991

effective - 20 December 1991

aim - to form a forum to discuss cooperation concerning mutual political
and security issues

members - (38) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US,
Uzbekistan

-----

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

established - 17 September 1949

aim - to promote mutual defense and cooperation

members - (16) Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland,
Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, UK, US

-----

Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)

established - NA 1958

aim - associated with OECD, seeks to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear
energy

members - (23) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

-----

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

note - also known as the London Suppliers Group

established - 1974

aim - to establish guidelines for exports of technical information,
processing equipment for uranium enrichment and nuclear materials to
countries of proliferation concern and regions of conflict and instability

members - (28) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

-----

Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la America Latina
y el Caribe (OPANAL)

see Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the
Caribbean (OPANAL)

-----

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

established - 14 December 1960

effective - 30 September 1961

aim - to promote economic cooperation and development

members - (25) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg,
Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Turkey, UK, US

special member - (1) EU

-----

Organization of African Unity (OAU)

established - 25 May 1963

aim - to promote unity and cooperation among African states

members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi,
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote
d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The
Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia,
Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sao Tome and
Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan,
Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

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