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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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Yemeni rials per US$1 - 12.0 (official); 70 (market rate, April 1994)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Yemen, Communications

Highways:
total:
15,500 km
paved:
4,000 km
unpaved:
natural surface 11,500 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 644 km; petroleum products 32 km
Ports:
Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Khalf, Al Mukalla, Mocha, Nishtun, Ra's Kathib,
Salif
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,309 GRT/6,568 DWT, cargo 2, oil
tanker 1
Airports:
total:
46
usable:
40
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
18
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
11
Telecommunications:
since unification in 1990, efforts are still being made to create a
national domestic civil telecommunications network; the network
consists of microwave radio relay, cable and troposcatter; 65,000
telephones (est.); broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 10 TV; satellite
earth stations - 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1
Intersputnik, 2 ARABSAT; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia, and
Djibouti

@Yemen, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,142,519; fit for military service 1,219,985; reach
military age (14) annually 137,497 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $762 million, 14% of GDP (1992)

@Zaire, Geography

Location:
Central Africa, between Congo and Zambia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,345,410 sq km
land area:
2,267,600 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than one-quarter the size of US
Land boundaries:
total 10,271 km, Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km, Central African
Republic 1,577 km, Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, Sudan 628 km, Uganda
765 km, Zambia 1,930 km
Coastline:
37 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled; long section with Congo along
the Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands
has been made)
Climate:
tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in
southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of
Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to
February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season
April to October
Terrain:
vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east
Natural resources:
cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold,
silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite,
iron ore, coal, hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
78%
other:
15%
Irrigated land:
100 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution;
deforestation
natural hazards:
periodic droughts in south
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Environmental Modification
Note:
straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that controls the lower
Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical
rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands

@Zaire, People

Population:
42,684,091 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.17% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
48.39 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
16.74 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
110.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
47.4 years
male:
45.57 years
female:
49.29 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.7 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Zairian(s)
adjective:
Zairian
Ethnic divisions:
over 200 African ethnic groups, the majority are Bantu; four largest
tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande
(Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population
Religions:
Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other
syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 10%
Languages:
French, Lingala, Swahili, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
72%
male:
84%
female:
61%
Labor force:
15 million (13% of the labor force is wage earners; 51% of the
population is of working age)
by occupation:
agriculture 75%, industry 13%, services 12% (1985)

@Zaire, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Zaire
conventional short form:
Zaire
local long form:
Republique du Zaire
local short form:
Zaire
former:
Belgian Congo Congo/Leopoldville Congo/Kinshasa
Digraph:
CG
Type:
republic with a strong presidential system
Capital:
Kinshasa
Administrative divisions:
10 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 town* (ville); Bandundu,
Bas-Zaire, Equateur, Haut-Zaire, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental,
Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Shaba, Sud-Kivu
Independence:
30 June 1960 (from Belgium)
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Regime (Second Republic), 24 November (1965)
Constitution:
24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February 1978; amended
April 1990; new transitional constitution promulgated in April 1994
Legal system:
based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (since 24
November 1965) election last held 29 July 1984 (next to be scheduled
by High Council, the opposition-controlled transition legislature);
results - President MOBUTU was reelected without opposition
head of government:
Prime Minister Etienne TSHISEKEDI (since NA 1993); note - de facto
executive authority is exercised by President MOBUTU
cabinet:
National Executive Council; appointed by the president on
recommendation of the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
parliament:
a single body consisting of the High Council of the Republic and the
Parliament of the Transition with membership equally divided between
presidential supporters and opponents
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
sole legal party until January 1991 - Popular Movement of the
Revolution (MPR); other parties include Union for Democracy and Social
Progress (UDPS), Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba; Democratic Social
Christian Party (PDSC), Joseph ILEO; Union of Federalists and
Independent Republicans (UFERI), NGUZ a Karl-I-Bond; Unified Lumumbast
Party (PALU), Antoine GIZENGA
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador TATANENE Manata
chancery:
1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 234-7690 or 7691
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission John YATES
embassy:
310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa
mailing address:
Unit 31550, Kinshasha; APO AE 09828
telephone:
[243] (12) 21532, 21628
FAX:
[243] (12) 21232 or 21534/5, ext. 2308
consulate(s) general:
Lubumbashi (closed and evacuated in October 1991 because of the poor
security situation)
Flag:
light green with a yellow disk in the center bearing a black arm
holding a red flaming torch; the flames of the torch are blowing away
from the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Zaire, Economy

Overview:
Zaire's economy has continued to disintegrate. While meaningful
economic figures are difficult to come by, Zaire's hyperinflation, the
largest government deficit ever, and plunging mineral production have
made the country one of the world's poorest. Most formal transactions
are conducted in hard currency as indigenous banknotes have lost
almost all value, and a barter economy now flourishes in all but the
largest cities. Most individuals and families hang on grimly through
subsistence farming and petty trade. The government has not been able
to meet its financial obligations to the International Momentary Fund
or put in place the financial measures advocated by the IMF. Although
short-term prospects for improvement are dim, improved political
stability would boost Zaire's long-term potential to effectively
exploit its vast wealth of mineral and agricultural resources.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $21 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
35%-40% per month (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
copper, coffee, diamonds, cobalt, crude oil
partners:
US, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, UK, Japan, South Africa
Imports:
$1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport
equipment, fuels
partners:
South Africa, US, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK
External debt:
$9.2 billion (May 1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
2,580,000 kW
production:
6 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
160 kWh (1991)
Industries:
mining, mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles,
footwear, and cigarettes), processed foods and beverages, cement,
diamonds
Agriculture:
cash crops - coffee, palm oil, rubber, quinine; food crops - cassava,
bananas, root crops, corn
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $6.9
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $263 million
note:
except for humanitarian aid to private organizations, no US assistance
was given to Zaire in 1992
Currency:
1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta
Exchange rates:
zaire (Z) per US$1 - 7,915,000 (September 1993), 1,990,000 (1992),
15,587 (1991), 719 (1990), 381 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Zaire, Communications

Railroads:
5,254 km total; 3,968 km 1.067-meter gauge (851 km electrified); 125
km 1.000-meter gauge; 136 km 0.615-meter gauge; 1,025 km 0.600-meter
gauge; limited trackage in use because of civil strife
Highways:
total:
146,500 km
paved:
2,800 km
unpaved:
gravel, improved earth 46,200 km; unimproved earth 97,500 km
Inland waterways:
15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes
Pipelines:
petroleum products 390 km
Ports:
Matadi, Boma, Banana
Merchant marine:
1 passenger cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,489 GRT/13,481
DWT
Airports:
total:
278
usable:
233
with permanent-surface runways:
25
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
72
Telecommunications:
barely adequate wire and microwave service; broadcast stations - 10
AM, 4 FM, 18 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT,
14 domestic

@Zaire, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary National Gendarmerie, Civil Guard,
Special Presidential Division
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 9,178,659; fit for military service 4,674,819
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $49 million, 0.8% of GDP (1988)

@Zambia, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, between Zaire and Zimbabwe
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
752,610 sq km
land area:
740,720 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,664 km, Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km,
Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zaire 1,930 km, Zimbabwe 797 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement;
Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled
Climate:
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrain:
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Natural resources:
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium,
hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
47%
forest and woodland:
27%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
320 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros and elephant populations;
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
Note:
landlocked

@Zambia, People

Population:
9,188,190 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.83% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
45.99 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
17.65 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
85 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
44.18 years
male:
43.82 years
female:
44.54 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.68 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Zambian(s)
adjective:
Zambian
Ethnic divisions:
African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%
Religions:
Christian 50-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages:
English (official)
note:
about 70 indigenous languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
73%
male:
81%
female:
65%
Labor force:
2.455 million
by occupation:
agriculture 85%, mining, manufacturing, and construction 6%, transport
and services 9%

@Zambia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Zambia
conventional short form:
Zambia
former:
Northern Rhodesia
Digraph:
ZA
Type:
republic
Capital:
Lusaka
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern,
North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence:
24 October 1964 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Constitution:
2 August 1991
Legal system:
based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Frederick CHILUBA (since 31 October 1991); Vice President
Levy MWANAWASA (since 31 October 1991); election last held 31 October
1991 (next to be held in 1996); results - Frederick CHILUBA 84%,
Kenneth KAUNDA 16%
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president from members of the National
Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly:
elections last held 31 October 1991 (next to be held in 1996); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150 total) MMD 125, UNIP 25;
note - the MMD's majority was weakened by the defection of 13 of its
parliamentary members during 1993 and the defeat of its candidates in
4 of the resulting by-elections
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), Frederick CHILUBA; United
National Independence Party (UNIP), Kebby MUSOKATWANE; National Party
(NP), Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA;
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFTU, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dunstan Weston KAMANA
chancery:
2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-9717 through 9721
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roland KUCHEL
embassy:
corner of Independence Avenue and United Nations Avenue, Lusaka
mailing address:
P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone:
[260-1] 228-595, 228-601, 228-602, 228-603
FAX:
[260-1] 261-538
Flag:
green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black,
and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag

@Zambia, Economy

Overview:
The economy has been in decline for more than a decade with falling
imports and growing foreign debt. Economic difficulties stem from a
chronically depressed level of copper production and ineffective
economic policies. In 1991 real GDP fell by 2% and in 1992 by 3% more.
An annual population growth of 3% has brought a decline in per capita
GDP of 50% over the past decade. A high inflation rate has also added
to Zambia's economic woes in recent years.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-2.8% (1992)
National product per capita:
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
191% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$665 million
expenditures:
$767 million, including capital expenditures of $300 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$1 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco
partners:
EC countries, Japan, South Africa, US, India
Imports:
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, manufactures
partners:
EC countries, Japan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, US
External debt:
$7.6 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -2% (1991); accounts for 40% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
2,775,000 kW
production:
12 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,400 kWh (1991)
Industries:
copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages,
chemicals, textiles, and fertilizer
Agriculture:
accounts for 12% of GDP and 85% of labor force; crops - corn (food
staple), sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower, tobacco, cotton,
sugarcane, cassava; cattle, goats, beef, eggs
Illicit drugs:
role as regional transshipment center for mandrax and heroin
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $4.8 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.8
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $533 million
Currency:
1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee
Exchange rates:
Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1 - 344.8276 (October 1993), 156.25 (1992),
61.7284 (1991), 28.9855 (1990), 12.9032 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Zambia, Communications

Railroads:
1,266 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 13 km double track
Highways:
total:
36,370 km
paved:
6,500 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, gravel, stabilized earth 7,000 km; improved, unimproved
earth 22,870 km
Inland waterways:
2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula Rivers, Lake Tanganyika
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,724 km
Ports:
Mpulungu (lake port)
Airports:
total:
113
usable:
103
with permanent-surface runways:
13
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
22
Telecommunications:
facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; high-capacity
microwave connects most larger towns and cities; broadcast stations -
11 AM, 5 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

@Zambia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,882,053; fit for military service 988,913
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $45 million, 1% of GDP (1992 est.)

@Zimbabwe, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
390,580 sq km
land area:
386,670 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Montana
Land boundaries:
total 3,066 km, Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225
km, Zambia 797 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement
Climate:
tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
Terrain:
mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains
in east
Natural resources:
coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore,
vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
NA% (coffee is a permanent crop)
meadows and pastures:
12%
forest and woodland:
62%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
2,200 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution
natural hazards:
recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
international agreements:
party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea; signed,
but not ratified - Biodiversity
Note:
landlocked

@Zimbabwe, People

Population:
10,975,078 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.2% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
37.24 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
18.1 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
tatal population:
42.06 years
male:
40.44 years
female:
43.74 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.1 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Zimbabwean(s)
adjective:
Zimbabwean
Ethnic divisions:
African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%), white 1%, mixed and
Asian 1%
Religions:
syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian
25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%
Languages:
English (official), Shona, Sindebele
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.);
total population:
67%
male:
74%
female:
60%
Labor force:
3.1 million
by occupation:
agriculture 74%, transport and services 16%, mining, manufacturing,
construction 10% (1987)

@Zimbabwe, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form:
Zimbabwe
former:
Southern Rhodesia
Digraph:
ZI
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Harare
Administrative divisions:
8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East,
Mashonaland West, Masvingo (Victoria), Matabeleland North,
Matabeleland South, Midlands
Independence:
18 April 1980 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
Constitution:
21 December 1979
Legal system:
mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987);
Co-Vice President Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987);
Co-Vice President Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990); election last
held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1996); results -
Robert MUGABE 78.3%, Edgar TEKERE 21.7%
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president; responsible to Parliament
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament:
elections last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150 total, 120
elected) ZANU-PF 117, ZUM 2, ZANU-S 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Robert
MUGABE; Zimbabwe African National Union-Sithole (ZANU-S), Ndabaningi
SITHOLE; Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM), Edgar TEKERE and Abel
MUYOREWA; Democratic Party (DP), Emmanuel MAGOCHE; Forum Party, Enock
DUMBUTSHENA
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAVEM II,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Amos Bernard Muvengwa MIDZI
chancery:
1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 332-7100
FAX:
(202) 483-9326
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward Gibson LANPHER
embassy:
172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address:
P. O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone:
[263] (4) 794-521
FAX:
[263] (4) 796-488
Flag:
seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red,
yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black
based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a
red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

@Zimbabwe, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture employs three-fourths of the labor force and supplies
almost 40% of exports. The manufacturing sector, based on agriculture
and mining, produces a variety of goods and contributes 35% to GDP.
Mining accounts for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but supplies
of minerals and metals account for about 40% of exports. Wide
fluctuations in agricultural production over the past six years have
resulted in an uneven growth rate, one that on average has matched the
3% annual increase in population. Helped by an IMF/World Bank
structural adjustment program, output rose 3.5% in 1991. A severe
drought in 1991/92 caused the economy to contract by about 10% in
1992.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $15.9 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
22% (January 1994 est.)
Unemployment rate:
at least 35% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.7 billion
expenditures:
$2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $253 million (FY93)
Exports:
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
agricultural 35% (tobacco 30%, other 10%), manufactures 25%, gold 12%,
ferrochrome 10%, textiles 8% (1992)
partners:
UK 14%, Germany 11%, South Africa 10%, Japan 7%, US 5% (1991)
Imports:
$1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment 41%, other manufactures 23%,
chemicals 16%, fuels 12% (1991)
partners:
South Africa 25%, UK 15%, Germany 9%, US 6%, Japan 5% (1991)
External debt:
$3.5 billion (December 1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.3% (1992); accounts for 35% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
3,650,000 kW
production:
8.18 billion kWh (1992)
consumption per capita:
740 kWh (1992)
Industries:
mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals, foodstuffs,
fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood products
Agriculture:
accounts for 20% of GDP and employs 74% of population; 40% of land
area divided into 4,500 large commercial farms and 42% in communal
lands; crops - corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee,
sugarcane, peanuts; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs;
self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1 - 8.1037 (January 1994), 6.4725
(1993), 5.1046 (1992), 3.4282 (1991), 2.4480 (1990), 2.1133 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Zimbabwe, Communications

Railroads:
2,745 km 1.067-meter gauge (including 42 km double track, 355 km
electrified)
Highways:
total:
85,237 km
paved:
15,800 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, gravel, stabilized earth 39,090 km; improved earth
23,097 km; unimproved earth 7,250 km
Inland waterways:
Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication
Pipelines:
petroleum products 212 km
Airports:
total:
477
usable:
401
with permanent-surface runways:
22
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
28
Telecommunications:
system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor
maintenance; consists of microwave links, open-wire lines, and radio
communications stations; 247,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 8
AM, 18 FM, 8 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Zimbabwe, Defense Forces

Branches:
Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Republic
Police (including Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49 2,371,186; fit for military service 1,472,603 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $412.4 million, about 6% of GDP (FY91 est.)

Appendix A: The United Nations System

The UN is composed of six principal organs and numerous subordinate
agencies and bodies as follows:

1) Secretariat

2) General Assembly:

Habitat Commission on Human Settlements
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNEP United Nations Environment Program
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNHCR United Nations Office of High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNITAR UN Institute for Training and Research
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees
in the Near East
UN Special Fund
UN University
WFC World Food Council
WFP World Food Program

3) Security Council:

Peacekeeping Forces and Organizations
UNAVEM II United Nations Angola Verification Mission
UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
UNFICYP United Nations Force in Cyprus
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and
Pakistan
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization
UNIKOM United Nations Iran-Kuwait Observation Mission
MINURSO United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western
Sahara
ONUSAL United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador
UNTAC United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
UNPROFOR United Nations Protection Force
UNOSOM II United Nations Operation in Somalia
UNOMIG United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia
UNOMOZ United Nations Operation in Mozambique
UNOMUR United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda

Commissions Established Pursuant to SC Res.687
UNSCOM UN Special Commission
United National Compensation Commission
UN Iraq/Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission

4) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC):

Specialized agencies
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
IDA International Development Association
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFC International Finance Corporation
ILO International Labor Organization
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
ITU International Telecommunication Union
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UPU Universal Postal Union
WHO World Health Organization
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization

Related organizations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency

Regional commissions
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

Functional commissions
Commission on Human Rights
Commission on Narcotics Drugs
Commission for Social Development
Commission on the Status of Women
Population Commission
Statistical Commission
Commission on Science and Technology for Development
Commission on Sustainable Development
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Commission on Transnational Corporations

5) Trusteeship Council

6) International Court of Justice (ICJ)

Appendix B: Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups

A ABEDA Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa
ACC Arab Cooperation Council
ACCT Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique; see Agency
for Cultural and Technical Cooperation
ACP African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries
AfDB African Development Bank
AFESD Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
AG Andean Group
AL Arab League
ALADI Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion; see Latin
American Integration Association (LAIA)
AMF Arab Monetary Fund
AMU Arab Maghreb Union
ANZUS Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty
APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
AsDB Asian Development Bank
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations

B BAD Banque Africaine de Developpement; see African Development
Bank (AfDB)
BADEA Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique; see
Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)
BCIE Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico; see Central
American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)
BDEAC Banque de Developpment des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see
Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)
Benelux Benelux Economic Union
BID Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo; see Inter-American
Development Bank (IADB)
BIS Bank for International Settlements
BOAD Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement; see West African
Development Bank (WADB)
BSEC Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone

C C Commonwealth
CACM Central American Common Market
CAEU Council of Arab Economic Unity
CARICOM Caribbean Community and Common Market
CBSS Council of the Baltic Sea States
CCC Customs Cooperation Council
CDB Caribbean Development Bank
CE Council of Europe
CEAO Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest; see West
African Economic Community (CEAO)
CEEAC Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see
Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)
CEI Central European Initiative
CEMA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; also known as CMEA
or Comecon; abolished 1 January 1991
CEPGL Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs; see Economic
Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)
CERN Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire; see European
Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
CG Contadora Group
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
CMEA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known
as Comecon; abolished 1 January 1991
COCOM Coordinating Committee on Export Controls
Comecon Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known
as CMEA; abolished 1 January 1991
CP Colombo Plan
CSCE Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe

D DC developed country

E EADB East African Development Bank
EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EC European Community; see European Union (EU)
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECAFE Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; see Economic
and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America; see Economic
Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ECO Economic Cooperation Organization
ECOSOC Economic and Social Council
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
ECSC European Coal and Steel Community
ECWA Economic Commission for Western Asia; see Economic and
Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
EEC European Economic Community
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EIB European Investment Bank
Entente Council of the Entente
ESA European Space Agency
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
EU European Union
Euratom European Atomic Energy Community

F FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FLS Front Line States
FZ Franc Zone

G G-2 Group of 2
G-3 Group of 3
G-5 Group of 5
G-6 Group of 6 (not to be confused with the Big Six)
G-7 Group of 7
G-8 Group of 8
G-9 Group of 9
G-10 Group of 10
G-11 Group of 11
G-15 Group of 15
G-19 Group of 19
G-24 Group of 24
G-30 Group of 30
G-33 Group of 33
G-77 Group of 77
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GCC Gulf Cooperation Council

H Habitat Commission on Human Settlements

I IADB Inter-American Development Bank
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IBEC International Bank for Economic Cooperation
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
ICC International Chamber of Commerce
ICEM Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration; see
International Organization for Migration (IOM)
ICFTU International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
ICJ International Court of Justice
ICM Intergovernmental Committee for Migration; see
International Organization for Migration (IOM)
ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross
IDA International Development Association
IDB Islamic Development Bank
IEA International Energy Agency
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFC International Finance Corporation
IFCTU International Federation of Christian Trade Unions
IGADD Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development
IIB International Investment Bank
ILO International Labor Organization
IMCO Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; see
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization
IOC International Olympic Committee
IOM International Organization for Migration
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITU International Telecommunication Union

L LAES Latin American Economic System
LAIA Latin American Integration Association
LAS League of Arab States; see Arab League (AL)
LDC less developed country
LLDC least developed country
LORCS League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

M MERCOSUR Mercado Comun del Cono Sur; see Southern Cone Common Market
MINURSO United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara
MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime

N NACC North Atlantic Cooperation Council
NAM Nonaligned Movement
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NC Nordic Council
NEA Nuclear Energy Agency
NIB Nordic Investment Bank
NIC newly industrializing country; see newly industrializing
economy (NIE)
NIE newly industrializing economy
NSG Nuclear Suppliers Group

O OAPEC Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries
OAS Organization of American States
OAU Organization of African Unity
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OECS Organization of Eastern Caribbean States
OIC Organization of the Islamic Conference
ONUSAL United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador
OPANAL Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la
America Latina y el Caribe; see Agency for the
Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and
the Caribbean
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

P PCA Permanent Court of Arbitration

R RG Rio Group

S SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
SACU Southern African Customs Union
SADC Southern African Development Community
SADCC Southern African Development Coordination Conference
SELA Sistema Economico Latinoamericana; see Latin American
Economic System (LAES)
SPARTECA South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation
Agreement
SPC South Pacific Commission
SPF South Pacific Forum

U UDEAC Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale; see
Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)
UN United Nations
UNAVEM II United Nations Angola Verification Mission
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNEP United Nations Environment Program
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization
UNFICYP United Nations Force in Cyprus
UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities; see UN
Population Fund (UNFPA)
UNHCR United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
UNIKOM United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission
UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and
Pakistan
UNOMIG United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia
UNOMOZ United Nations Operation in Mozambique
UNOMUR United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda
UNOSOM United Nations Operation in Somalia
UNPROFOR United Nations Protection Force
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine
Refugees in the Near East
UNTAC United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization
UPU Universal Postal Union
USSR/EE USSR/Eastern Europe

W WADB West African Development Bank
WCL World Confederation of Labor
WEU Western European Union
WFC World Food Council
WFP World Food Program
WFTU World Federation of Trade Unions
WHO World Health Organization
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WP Warsaw Pact (members met 1 July 1991 to dissolve the
alliance)
WTO World Tourism Organization

Z ZC Zangger Committee

Note: Not all international organizations and groups have abbreviations

Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups

-----

Note: The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved,
and ceases to exist. None of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia,
including Serbia and Montenegro, have been permitted to participate solely
on the basis of the membership of the former Yugoslavia in the United
Nations General Assembly and Economic and Social Council and their
subsidiary bodies and in various United Nations Specialized Agencies. The
United Nations, however, permits the seat and nameplate of the SFRY to
remain, permits the SFRY mission to continue to function, and continues to
fly the flag of the former Yugoslavia. For a variety of reasons, a number
of other organizations have not yet taken action with regard to the
membership of the former Yugoslavia. The World Factbook therefore continues
to list Yugoslavia under international organizations where the SFRY seat
remains or where no action has yet been taken.

-----

advanced developing countries

another term for those less developed countries (LDCs) with particularly
rapid industrial development; see newly industrializing economies (NIEs)

-----

African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries (ACP)

established - 1 April 1976

aim - members have a preferential economic and aid relationship with the EU

members - (70) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize,
Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The
Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica,
Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao
Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands,
Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

-----

African Development Bank (AfDB),
also known as Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD)

established - 4 August 1963

aim - to promote economic and social development

regional members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi,
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote
d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The
Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sao Tome
and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland,
Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

nonregional members - (26) Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada,
China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea,
Kuwait, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, Yugoslavia

-----

Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique (ACCT)

see Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT)

-----

Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT)

note - acronym from Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique

established - 21 March 1970

aim - to promote cultural and technical cooperation among French-speaking
countries

members - (34) Belgium, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central
African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominica,
Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Guinea, Haiti, Laos, Lebanon, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Monaco, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles,
Togo, Tunisia, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Zaire

associate members - (5) Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Morocco, Saint
Lucia

participating governments - (2) New Brunswick (Canada), Quebec (Canada)

observers - (3) Bulgaria, Cambodia, Romania

-----

Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the
Caribbean (OPANAL)

note - acronym from Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares
en la America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL)

established - 14 February 1967

aim - to encourage the peaceful uses of atomic energy and prohibit nuclear
weapons

members - (26) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil,
Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama,
Paraguay, Peru, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and
Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela

-----

Andean Group (AG)

established - 26 May 1969

effective - 16 October 1969

aim - to promote harmonious development through economic integration

members - (5) Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela

associate member - (1) Panama

observers - (26) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada,
Costa Rica, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, India, Israel, Italy,
Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Paraguay, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US,
Uruguay, Yugoslavia

-----

Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)

note - also known as Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique
(BADEA)

established - 18 February 1974

effective - 16 September 1974

aim - to promote economic development

members - (17 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain,
Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Palestine Liberation
Organization; note - these are all the members of the Arab League except
Djibouti, Somalia, and Yemen

-----

Arab Cooperation Council (ACC)

established - 16 February 1989

aim - to promote economic cooperation and integration, possibly leading to
an Arab Common Market

members - (4) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Yemen

-----

Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD)

established - 16 May 1968

aim - to promote economic and social development

members - (20 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain,
Djibouti, Egypt (suspended from 1979 to 1988), Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait,
Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia,
Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization

-----

Arab League (AL)

note - also known as League of Arab States (LAS)

established - 22 March 1945

aim - to promote economic, social, political, and military cooperation

members - (20 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain,
Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco,
Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen,
Palestine Liberation Organization

-----

Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)

established - 17 February 1989

aim - to promote cooperation and integration among the Arab states of
northern Africa

members - (5) Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia

-----

Arab Monetary Fund (AMF)

established - 27 April 1976

effective - 2 February 1977

aim - to promote Arab cooperation, development, and integration in monetary
and economic affairs

members - (19 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain,
Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine
Liberation Organization

-----

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

established - 7 November 1989

aim - to promote trade and investment in the Pacific basin

members - (16) all ASEAN members (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines,
Singapore, Thailand) plus Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, South
Korea, NZ, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, US

-----

Asian Development Bank (AsDB)

established - 19 December 1966

aim - to promote regional economic cooperation

regional members - (37) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma,
Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan,
Kiribati, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands,
Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua
New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan,
Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa

nonregional members - (16) Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Turkey, UK, US

-----

Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)

see Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)

-----

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

established - 9 August 1967

aim - to encourage regional economic, social, and cultural cooperation
among the non-Communist countries of Southeast Asia

members - (6) Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand

observers - (3) Laos, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam

-----

Australia Group

established - 1984

aim - to consult on and coordinate export controls related to chemical and
biological weapons

members - (25) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
UK, US

observer - (1) Singapore

-----

Australia--New Zealand--United States Security Treaty (ANZUS)

established - 1 September 1951

effective - 29 April 1952

aim - to implement a trilateral mutual security agreement, although the US
suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986

members - (3) Australia, NZ, US

-----

Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico (BCIE)

see Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)

-----

Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

see Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

-----

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

established - 20 January 1930

effective - 17 March 1930

aim - to promote cooperation among central banks in international financial
settlements

members - (33) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, Yugoslavia

-----

Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD)

see African Development Bank (AfDB)

-----

Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA)

see Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)

-----

Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale (BDEAC)

see Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)

-----

Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD)

see West African Development Bank (WADB)

-----

Benelux Economic Union (Benelux)

note - acronym from Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg

established - 3 February 1958

effective - 1 November 1960

aim - to develop closer economic cooperation and integration

members - (3) Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands

-----

Big Seven

note - membership is the same as the Group of 7

established - NA 1975

aim - to discuss and coordinate major economic policies

members - (7) Big Six (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK) plus the
US

-----

Big Six

note - not to be confused with the Group of 6

established - NA 1967

aim - to foster economic cooperation

members - (6) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK

-----

Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone (BSEC)

established - 25 June 1992

aim - to enhance regional stability through economic cooperation

members - (11) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece,
Moldova, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine

observer - (1) Poland

-----

Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM)

established - 4 July 1973

effective - 1 August 1973

aim - to promote economic integration and development, especially among the
less developed countries

members - (13) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize,
Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago

associate members - (2) British Virgin Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands

observers - (10) Anguilla, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Dominican Republic,
Haiti, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Venezuela

-----

Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)

established - 18 October 1969

effective - 26 January 1970

aim - to promote economic development and cooperation

regional members - (20) Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Colombia,
Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and
Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago,
Turks and Caicos Islands, Venezuela

nonregional members - (5) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, UK

-----

Cartagena Group

see Group of 11

-----

Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)

note - acronym from Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale

established - 8 December 1964

effective - 1 January 1966

aim - to promote the establishment of a Central African Common Market

members - (6) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial
Guinea, Gabon

-----

Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)

note - acronym from Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale

established - 3 December 1975

aim - to provide loans for economic development

members - (9) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial
Guinea, France, Gabon, Germany, Kuwait

-----

Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)

note - acronym from Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico

established - 13 December 1960

aim - to promote economic integration and development

members - (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua

nonregional members - (4) Argentina, Mexico, Taiwan, Venezuela

-----

Central American Common Market (CACM)

established - 13 December 1960

effective - 3 June 1961

aim - to promote establishment of a Central American Common Market

members - (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua

-----

Central European Initiative (CEI)

note - evolved from the Hexagonal Group

established - 27 July 1991

aim - to form an economic and political cooperation group for the region
between the Adriatic and the Baltic Seas

members - (10) Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic,
Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia

participating nonmembers - (6) Baden-Wurtemburg, Bavaria, Belarus,
Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine

-----

centrally planned economies

a term applied mainly to the traditionally Communist states that looked to
the former USSR for leadership; most are now evolving toward more
democratic and market-oriented systems; also known formerly as the Second
World or as the Communist countries; through the 1980s, this group included
Albania, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary,
North Korea, Laos, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yugoslavia

-----

Colombo Plan (CP)

established - 1 July 1951

aim - to promote economic and social development in Asia and the Pacific

members - (24) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia,
Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives,
Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore,
Sri Lanka, Thailand, US

-----

Commission for Social Development

established - 21 June 1946 as the Social Commission, renamed 29 July 1966

aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with social
development programs of UN

members - (32) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

-----

Commission on Human Rights

established - 18 February 1946

aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with human rights
programs of UN

members - (53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

-----

Commission on Human Settlements (Habitat)

established - 12 October 1978

aim - Economic and Social Council organization assisting in solving human
settlement problems of UN

members - (58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

-----

Commission on Narcotic Drugs

established - 16 February 1946

aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with illicit drugs
programs of UN

members - (53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions with emphasis
on producing and processing countries

-----

Commission on the Status of Women

established - 21 June 1946

aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with women's rights
goals of UN

members - (32) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

-----

Commonwealth (C)

established - 31 December 1931

aim - voluntary association that evolved from the British Empire and that
seeks to foster multinational cooperation and assistance

members - (48) Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, The Gambia,
Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi,
Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Namibia, NZ, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua
New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri
Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, UK,
Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zambia, Zimbabwe

special members - (2) Nauru, Tuvalu

-----

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

established - 8 December 1991

effective - 21 December 1991

aim - to coordinate intercommonwealth relations and to provide a mechanism
for the orderly dissolution of the USSR

members - (12) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

-----

Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO)

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