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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 41 out of 46

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-19.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
12.54 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.29 years
male:
73.6 years
female:
77.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.53 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Virgin Islander(s)
adjective:
Virgin Islander
Ethnic divisions:
West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29% born elsewhere in
the West Indies) 74%, US mainland 13%, Puerto Rican 5%, other 8%;
black 80%, white 15%, other 5%; Hispanic origin 14%
Religions:
Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%, other 7%
Languages:
English (official), Spanish, Creole
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
45,500 (1988)
by occupation:
tourism 70%

@Virgin Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Virgin Islands of the United States
conventional short form:
Virgin Islands
Digraph:
VQ
Type:
organized, unincorporated territory of the US administered by the
Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the
Interior
Capital:
Charlotte Amalie
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of the US)
National holiday:
Transfer Day, 31 March (1917) (from Denmark to US)
Constitution:
Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954
Legal system:
based on US
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; note - indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
head of government:
Governor Alexander A. FARRELLY (since 5 January 1987); Lieutenant
Governor Derek M. HODGE (since 5 January 1987); election last held 6
November 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - Governor
Alexander FARRELLY (Democratic Party) 56.5% defeated Juan LUIS
(independent) 38.5%
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Senate:
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 2 November 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total) number of
seats by party NA
US House of Representatives:
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 2 November 1994);
results - Ron DE LUGO reelected as delegate; seats - (1 total); seat
by party NA; note - the Virgin Islands elect one representative to the
US House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
US District Court:
handles civil matters over $50,000, felonies (persons 15 years of age
and over), and federal cases
Territorial Court:
handles civil matters up to $50,000, small claims, juvenile, domestic,
misdemeanors, and traffic cases
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party, Marilyn STAPLETON; Independent Citizens' Movement
(ICM), Virdin C. BROWN; Republican Party, Charlotte-Poole DAVIS
Member of:
ECLAC (associate), IOC
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of the US)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of the US)
Flag:
white with a modified US coat of arms in the center between the large
blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows an eagle holding an
olive branch in one talon and three arrows in the other with a
superimposed shield of vertical red and white stripes below a blue
panel

@Virgin Islands, Economy

Overview:
Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for more than 70%
of GDP and 70% of employment. The manufacturing sector consists of
textile, electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly plants. The
agricultural sector is small, most food being imported. International
business and financial services are a small but growing component of
the economy. One of the world's largest petroleum refineries is at
Saint Croix.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.2 billion (1987)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$11,000 (1987)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
3.7% (1992)
Budget:
revenues:
$364.4 million
expenditures:
$364.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
$2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
refined petroleum products
partners:
US, Puerto Rico
Imports:
$3.3 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials
partners:
US, Puerto Rico
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 12% (year NA); accounts for NA% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
380,000 kW
production:
565 million kWh
consumption per capita:
5,710 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum distilling,
construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics
Agriculture:
truck gardens, food crops (small scale), fruit, sorghum, Senepol
cattle
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $42 million
Currency:
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

@Virgin Islands, Communications

Highways:
total:
856 km
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Saint Croix - Christiansted, Frederiksted; Saint Thomas - Long Bay,
Crown Bay, Red Hook; Saint John - Cruz Bay
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways :
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
note:
international airports on Saint Thomas and Saint Croix
Telecommunications:
modern telephone system using fiber-optic cable, submarine cable,
microwave radio, and satellite facilities; 58,931 telephones; 98,000
radios; 63,000 TV sets in use; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 8 FM, 4 TV
(1988)

@Virgin Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

@Wake Island

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

@Wake Island, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 3,700 km west of
Honolulu, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and the Northern
Mariana Islands
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
6.5 sq km
land area:
6.5 sq km
comparative area:
about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
19.3 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater volcano;
central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim; average
elevation less than 4 meters
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to occasional typhoons
international agreements:
NA
Note:
strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; emergency landing
location for transpacific flights

@Wake Island, People

Population:
302 (July 1994 est.)

@Wake Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Wake Island
Digraph:
WQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Air Force
(under an agreement with the US Department of Interior) since 24 June
1972; presently administered by Base Commander, Major James ANDEL
until August 1994, when Willis ALLEY will take over until July 1995
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC
Independence:
none (territory of the US)
Flag:
the US flag is used

@Wake Island, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military
personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and
manufactured goods must be imported.
Electricity:
supplied by US military

@Wake Island, Communications

Ports:
none; because of the reefs, there are only two offshore anchorages for
large ships
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
satellite communications; 1 Autovon circuit off the Overseas Telephone
System (OTS); Armed Forces Radio/Television Service (AFRTS) radio and
television service provided by satellite; broadcast station - closed
early 1992.
Note:
formerly an important commercial aviation base, now used by US
military, some commercial cargo planes, as well as the US Army Space
and Strategic Defense Command for missile launches

@Wake Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US

@Wallis and Futuna

Header
Affiliation:
(overseas territory of France)

@Wallis and Futuna, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia in the South Pacific Ocean, 4,600 km southwest of
Honolulu, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
274 sq km
land area:
274 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Washington, DC
note:
includes Ile Uvea (Wallis Island), Ile Futuna (Futuna Island), Ile
Alofi, and 20 islets
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
129 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May
to October)
Terrain:
volcanic origin; low hills
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
5%
permanent crops:
20%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
75%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
both island groups have fringing reefs

@Wallis and Futuna, People

Population:
14,338 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.13% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
25.74 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.26 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-9.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
26.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.72 years
male:
71.08 years
female:
72.4 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.23 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna Islanders
adjective:
Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian
Religions:
Roman Catholic
Languages:
French, Wallisian (indigenous Polynesian language)
Literacy:
all ages can read and write (1969)
total population:
50%
male:
50%
female:
51%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture, livestock, and fishing 80%, government 4% (est.)

@Wallis and Futuna, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands
conventional short form:
Wallis and Futuna
local long form:
Territoire des Iles Wallis et Futuna
local short form:
Wallis et Futuna
Digraph:
WF
Type:
overseas territory of France
Capital:
Mata-Utu (on Ile Uvea)
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of France)
Independence:
none (overseas territory of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French legal system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government:
High Administrator Philippe LEGRIX (since NA); President of the
Territorial Assembly Soane Noni UHILA (since NA March 1992)
cabinet:
Council of the Territory consists of 3 kings and 3 members appointed
by the high administrator on advice of the Territorial Assembly
note:
there are three traditional kings with limited powers
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Territorial Assembly (Assemblee Territoriale):
elections last held 15 March 1987 (next to be held NA March 1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (20 total) RPR 7, UPL
5, UDF 4, UNF 4
French Senate:
elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held by NA September
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) RPR 1
French National Assembly:
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1992 (next to be held by NA
September 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1
total) MRG 1
Judicial branch:
none; justice generally administered under French law by the chief
administrator, but the three traditional kings administer customary
law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu
Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR); Union Populaire Locale (UPL); Union Pour
la Democratie Francaise (UDF); Lua kae tahi (Giscardians); Mouvement
des Radicaux de Gauche (MRG)
Member of:
FZ, SPC
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (overseas territory of France)
US diplomatic representation:
none (overseas territory of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

@Wallis and Futuna, Economy

Overview:
The economy is limited to traditional subsistence agriculture, with
about 80% of the labor force earning its livelihood from agriculture
(coconuts and vegetables), livestock (mostly pigs), and fishing. About
4% of the population is employed in government. Revenues come from
French Government subsidies, licensing of fishing rights to Japan and
South Korea, import taxes, and remittances from expatriate workers in
New Caledonia. Wallis and Futuna imports food, fuel, clothing,
machinery, and transport equipment, but its exports are negligible,
consisting of copra and handicrafts.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $25 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$2.7 million
expenditures:
$2.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1983 est.)
Exports:
negligible
commodities:
copra, handicrafts
partners:
NA
Imports:
$13.3 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, transportation equipment, fuel
partners:
France, Australia, New Zealand
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
1,200 kW
production:
1 million kWh
consumption per capita:
70 kWh (1990)
Industries:
copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber
Agriculture:
dominated by coconut production, with subsistence crops of yams, taro,
bananas, and herds of pigs and goats
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $118 million
Currency:
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 107.63
(January 1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.0
(1990), 115.99 (1989); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc
Fiscal year:
NA

@Wallis and Futuna, Communications

Highways:
total:
120 km (Ile Uvea 100 km, Ile Futuna 20km)
paved:
16 km (on Il Uvea)
unpaved:
104 km (Ile Uvea 84 km, Ile Futuna 20 km)
Inland waterways:
none
Ports:
Mata-Utu, Leava
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
225 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

@Wallis and Futuna, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@West Bank

Header
The war between Israel and Egypt, Syria, and Jordan in June 1967 ended
with Israel in control of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Gaza
Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights. Israel withdrew
from the Sinai Peninsula pursuant to a 1979 peace treaty with Egypt.
The Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government
Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13 September 1993,
provides for a transitional period not exceeding five years of
Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the West
Bank. Under the DOP, final status negotiations are to begin no later
than the beginning of the third year of the transitional period.

@West Bank, Geography

Location:
Middle East, between Jordan and Israel
Map references:
Middle East
Area:
total area:
5,860 sq km
land area:
5,640 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Delaware
note:
includes West Bank, East Jerusalem, Latrun Salient, Jerusalem No Man's
Land, and the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt.
Scopus
Land boundaries:
total 404 km, Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with interim status
subject to Israeli/Palestinian negotiations - final status to be
determined
Climate:
temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to
hot summers, cool to mild winters
Terrain:
mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but barren in
east
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
27%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
32%
forest and woodland:
1%
other:
40%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
landlocked; highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal
aquifers; there are 200 Jewish settlements and civilian land use sites
in the West Bank and 25 in East Jerusalem (April 1994)

@West Bank, People

Population:
1,443,790 (July 1994 est.)
note:
in addition, there are 110,500 Jewish settlers in the West Bank and
144,100 in East Jerusalem (1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.68% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
32.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.11 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
33.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.39 years
male:
68.88 years
female:
71.98 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.2 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
NA
adjective:
NA
Ethnic divisions:
Palestinian Arab and other 88%, Jewish 12%
Religions:
Muslim 80% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish 12%, Christian and other 8%
Languages:
Arabic, Hebrew spoken by Israeli settlers, English widely understood
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
construction 28.2%, agriculture 21.8%, industry 14.5%, commerce,
restaurants, and hotels 12.6%, other services 22.9% (1991)
note:
excluding Jewish settlers

@West Bank, Government

Note:
Under the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arragements ("the DOP"), Israel agreed to transfer
certain powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian Authority, and
subsequently to an elected Palestinian Council, as part of interim
self-governing arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A
transfer of powers and responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho
has taken place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement
on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area. The DOP provides that Israel
will retain responsibility during the transitional period for external
security and for internal security and public order of settlements and
Israelis. Final status is to be determined through direct negotiations
within five years.
Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
West Bank
Digraph:
WE

@West Bank, Economy

Overview:
Economic progress in the West Bank has been hampered by Israeli
military administration and the effects of the Palestinian uprising
(intifadah). Industries using advanced technology or requiring sizable
investment have been discouraged by a lack of local capital and
restrictive Israeli policies. Capital investment consists largely of
residential housing, not productive assets that would enable local
Palestinian firms to compete with Israeli industry. A major share of
GNP has traditionally been derived from remittances of workers
employed in Israel and Persian Gulf states. Such transfers from the
Gulf dropped after Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. In the wake of
the Persian Gulf crisis, many Palestinians have returned to the West
Bank, increasing unemployment, and export revenues have dropped
because of the decline of markets in Jordan and the Gulf states.
Israeli measures to curtail the intifadah also have added to
unemployment and lowered living standards. The area's economic
situation has worsened since Israel's partial closure of the
territories in 1993.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $2 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-7% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,050 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$43.4 million
expenditures:
$43.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports:
$175 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
olives, fruit, vegetables
partners:
Jordan, Israel
Imports:
$775 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
food, consumer goods, construction materials
partners:
Jordan, Israel
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -1% (1991); accounts for about 6% of GNP
Electricity:
power supplied by Israel
Industries:
generally small family businesses that produce cement, textiles, soap,
olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have
established some small-scale modern industries in the settlements and
industrial centers
Agriculture:
accounts for about 23% of GNP; olives, citrus and other fruits,
vegetables, beef, and dairy products
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot; 1 Jordanian dinar (JD) =
1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.9760 (February 1994), 2.8301
(1993), 2.4591 (1992), 2.2791 (1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989);
Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.7019 (February 1994), 0.6928
(1993), 0.6797 (1992), 0.6808 (1991), 0.6636 (1990), 0.5704 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

@West Bank, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
note:
small road network, Israelis developing east-west axial highways to
service new settlements
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
open-wire telephone system currently being upgraded; broadcast
stations - no AM, no FM, no TV

@West Bank, Defense Forces

Branches:
NA
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Western Sahara, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, along the Atlantic Ocean, between Morocco and
Mauritania
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
266,000 sq km
land area:
266,000 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Colorado
Land boundaries:
total 2,046 km, Algeria 42 km, Mauritania 1,561 km, Morocco 443 km
Coastline:
1,110 km
Maritime claims:
contingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue
International disputes:
claimed and administered by Morocco, but sovereignty is unresolved and
the UN is attempting to hold a referendum on the issue; the
UN-administered cease-fire has been currently in effect since
September 1991
Climate:
hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog
and heavy dew
Terrain:
mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy surfaces
rising to small mountains in south and northeast
Natural resources:
phosphates, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
19%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
81%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
sparse water and arable land
natural hazards:
hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during winter and
spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time, often severely
restricting visibility
international agreements:
NA

@Western Sahara, People

Population:
211,877 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.5% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
47.22 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
19.04 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
152.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
45.59 years
male:
44.66 years
female:
46.83 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.96 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Sahrawi(s), Sahraoui(s)
adjective:
Sahrawian, Sahraouian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab, Berber
Religions:
Muslim
Languages:
Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
12,000
by occupation:
animal husbandry and subsistence farming 50%

@Western Sahara, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Western Sahara
Digraph:
WI
Type:
legal status of territory and question of sovereignty unresolved;
territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for
the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro), which in
February 1976 formally proclaimed a government in exile of the Sahrawi
Arab Democratic Republic (SADR); territory partitioned between Morocco
and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring northern
two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas,
abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to
occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted
administrative control; the Polisario's government in exile was seated
as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla activities continued sporadically,
until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented 6 September 1991
Capital:
none
Administrative divisions:
none (under de facto control of Morocco)
Executive branch:
none
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none
US diplomatic representation:
none

@Western Sahara, Economy

Overview:
Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural resources and having
little rainfall, has a per capita GDP of roughly $300. Pastoral
nomadism, fishing, and phosphate mining are the principal sources of
income for the population. Most of the food for the urban population
must be imported. All trade and other economic activities are
controlled by the Moroccan Government.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $60 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$300 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$8 million (f.o.b., 1982 est.)
commodities:
phosphates 62%
partners:
Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are
included in overall Moroccan accounts
Imports:
$30 million (c.i.f., 1982 est.)
commodities:
fuel for fishing fleet, foodstuffs
partners:
Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are
included in overall Moroccan accounts
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
60,000 kW
production:
79 million kWh
consumption per capita:
425 kWh (1989)
Industries:
phosphate mining, fishing, handicrafts
Agriculture:
limited largely to subsistence agriculture; some barley is grown in
nondrought years; fruit and vegetables are grown in the few oases;
food imports are essential; camels, sheep, and goats are kept by the
nomadic natives; cash economy exists largely for the garrison forces
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 9.669 (January 1994), 9.299 (1993),
8.538 (1992), 8.707 (1991), 8.242 (1990), 8.488 (1989)
Fiscal year:
NA

@Western Sahara, Communications

Highways:
total:
6,200 km
unpaved:
gravel 1,450 km; improved, unimproved earth, tracks 4,750 km
Ports:
El Aaiun, Ad Dakhla
Airports:
total:
14
usable:
14
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
sparse and limited system; tied into Morocco's system by microwave
radio relay, troposcatter, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations linked to Rabat, Morocco; 2,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, no FM, 2 TV

@Western Sahara, Defense Forces

Branches:
NA
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Western Samoa, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia, 4,300 km southwest of Honolulu in the South
Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,860 sq km
land area:
2,850 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
403 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in
interior
Natural resources:
hardwood forests, fish
Land use:
arable land:
19%
permanent crops:
24%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
47%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
soil erosion
natural hazards:
subject to occasional typhoons; active volcanism
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change,
Law of the Sea

@Western Samoa, People

Population:
204,447 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.38% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
32.41 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.02 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
37 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.97 years
male:
65.59 years
female:
70.48 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.16 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Western Samoan(s)
adjective:
Western Samoan
Ethnic divisions:
Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians 7% (persons of European and Polynesian
blood), Europeans 0.4%
Religions:
Christian 99.7% (about half of population associated with the London
Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic,
Methodist, Latter Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Languages:
Samoan (Polynesian), English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population:
97%
male:
97%
female:
97%
Labor force:
38,000
by occupation:
agriculture 22,000 (1987 est.)

@Western Samoa, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Independent State of Western Samoa
conventional short form:
Western Samoa
Digraph:
WS
Type:
constitutional monarchy under native chief
Capital:
Apia
Administrative divisions:
11 districts; A'ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Fa'asaleleaga, Gaga'emauga,
Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa'itea, Tuamasaga, Va'a-o-Fonoti,
Vaisigano
Independence:
1 January 1962 (from UN trusteeship administered by New Zealand)
National holiday:
National Day, 1 June (1962)
Constitution:
1 January 1962
Legal system:
based on English common law and local customs; judicial review of
legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal, but only matai (head of family) are able
to run for the Legislative Assembly
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Chief Susuga Malietoa TANUMAFILI II (Co-Chief of State from 1 January
1962 until becoming sole Chief of State on 5 April 1963)
head of government:
Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana (since 7 April 1988)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the head of state with the prime minister's
advice
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Fono):
elections last held 5 April 1991 (next to be held by NA 1996); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (47 total) HRPP 28, SNDP 18,
independents 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP), TOFILAU Eti Alesana, chairman;
Samoan National Development Party (SNDP), TAPUA Tamasese Efi, chairman
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, LORCS, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Neroni SLADE
chancery:
820 Second Avenue, Suite 800, New York, NY 10017
telephone:
(212) 599-6196 or 6197
FAX:
(212) 972-3970
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
the ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to Western Samoa
embassy:
5th floor, Beach Road, Apia
mailing address:
P.O. Box 3430, Apia
telephone:
(685) 21-631
FAX:
(685) 22-030
Flag:
red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing
five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross
constellation

@Western Samoa, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture employs more than half of the labor force, contributes 50%
to GDP, and furnishes 90% of exports. The bulk of export earnings
comes from the sale of coconut oil and copra. The economy depends on
emigrant remittances and foreign aid to support a level of imports
much greater than export earnings. Tourism has become the most
important growth industry, and construction of the first international
hotel is under way. The economy continued to falter in 1993, as
remittances and tourist earnings fell off. A fungal plant disease
severely damaged the taro crop, the primary food and export crop.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $400 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-4.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$95.3 million
expenditures:
$95.4 million, including capital expenditures of $41 million (1992
est.)
Exports:
$5.7 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
coconut oil and cream, taro, copra, cocoa
partners:
New Zealand 34%, American Samoa 21%, Germany 18%, Australia 11%
Imports:
$11.5 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
intermediate goods 58%, food 17%, capital goods 12%
partners:
New Zealand 37%, Australia 25%, Japan 11%, Fiji 9%
External debt:
$83 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -0.3% (1992 est.); accounts for 16% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
29,000 kW
production:
45 million kWh
consumption per capita:
240 kWh (1990)
Industries:
timber, tourism, food processing, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for about 50% of GDP; coconuts, fruit (including bananas,
taro, yams)
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $18 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $306
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million
Currency:
1 tala (WS$) = 100 sene
Exchange rates:
tala (WS$) per US$1 - 2.5920 (January 1994), 2.5681 (1993), 2.4655
(1992), 2.3975 (1991), 2.3095 (1990), 2.2686 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Western Samoa, Communications

Highways:
total:
2,042 km
paved:
375 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, earth 1,667 km
Ports:
Apia
Merchant marine:
1 roll on/roll off cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,838
GRT/5,536 DWT
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
7,500 telephones; 70,000 radios; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no
TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT ground station

@Western Samoa, Defense Forces

Branches:
Department of Police and Prisons
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@World, Geography

Map references:
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
510.072 million sq km
land area:
148.94 million sq km
water area:
361.132 million sq km
comparative area:
land area about 16 times the size of the US
note:
70.8% of the world is water, 29.2% is land
Land boundaries:
the land boundaries in the world total 250,883.64 km (not counting
shared boundaries twice)
Coastline:
356,000 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm claimed by most but can vary
continental shelf:
200-m depth claimed by most or to depth of exploitation, others claim
200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm claimed by most but can vary
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm claimed by most but can vary
territorial sea:
12 nm claimed by most but can vary
note:
boundary situations with neighboring states prevent many countries
from extending their fishing or economic zones to a full 200 nm; 42
nations and other areas that are landlocked include Afghanistan,
Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Czech
Republic, Ethiopia, Holy See (Vatican City), Hungary, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malawi, Mali,
Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, San Marino,
Slovakia, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West Bank,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
Climate:
two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow
temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical
climates
Terrain:
highest elevation is Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters and lowest depression
is the Dead Sea at 392 meters below sea level; greatest ocean depth is
the Marianas Trench at 10,924 meters
Natural resources:
the rapid using up of nonrenewable mineral resources, the depletion of
forest areas and wetlands, the extinction of animal and plant species,
and the deterioration in air and water quality (especially in Eastern
Europe and the former USSR) pose serious long-term problems that
governments and peoples are only beginning to address
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
24%
forest and woodland:
31%
other:
34%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
large areas subject to overpopulation, industrial disasters, pollution
(air, water, acid rain, toxic substances), loss of vegetation
(overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, soil
degradation, soil depletion, erosion
natural hazards:
large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones), natural
disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions)
international agreements:
20 selected international environmental agreements included under the
Environment entry for each country and in Appendix E: Selected
International Environmental Agreements

@World, People

Population:
5,643,289,771 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.5% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
25 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
65 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
62 years
male:
61 years
female:
64 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.1 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.);
total population:
82%
male:
68%
female:
75%
Labor force:
2.24 billion (1992)
by occupation:
NA

@World, Government

Digraph:
XX
Administrative divisions:
265 sovereign nations, dependent areas, other, and miscellaneous
entries
Legal system:
varies by individual country; 182 are parties to the United Nations
International Court of Justice (ICJ or World Court)

@World, Economy

Overview:
Real global output - gross world product (GWP) - rose roughly 2% in
1993, with results varying widely among regions and countries. Average
growth of 1% in the GDP of industrialized countries (57% of GWP in
1993) and average growth of 6% in the GDP of less developed countries
(37% of GWP) were partly offset by a further 10% drop in the GDP of
the former USSR/Eastern Europe area (now only 6% of GWP). Within the
industrialized world the US posted a 3% growth rate whereas both Japan
and the 12-member European Union (formerly the European Community) had
zero growth. With the notable exception of Japan at 2.5%, unemployment
was typically 6-11% in the industrial world. The US accounted for 22%
of GWP in 1993; Western Europe accounted for 22.5%; and Japan
accounted for 9%. These are the three "economic superpowers" which are
presumably destined to compete for mastery in international markets on
into the 21st century. As for the less developed countries, China,
India, and the Four Dragons--South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and
Singapore--once again posted good records; however, many other
countries, especially in Africa, continued to suffer from drought,
rapid population growth, inflation, and civil strife. Central Europe,
especially Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, made considerable
progress in moving toward "market-friendly" economies, whereas the 15
ex-Soviet countries typically experienced further declines in output
of 10-15%. Externally, the nation-state, as a bedrock
economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over
international flows of people, goods, funds, and technology.
Internally, the central government in a number of cases is losing
control over resources as separatist regional movements - typically
based on ethnicity - gain momentum, e.g., in the successor states of
the former Soviet Union, in former Yugoslavia, and in India. In
Western Europe, governments face the difficult political problem of
channeling resources away from welfare programs in order to increase
investment and strengthen incentives to seek employment. The addition
of nearly 100 million people each year to an already overcrowded globe
is exacerbating the problems of pollution, desertification,
underemployment, epidemics, and famine. Because of their own internal
problems, the industrialized countries have inadequate resources to
deal effectively with the poorer areas of the world, which, at least
from the economic point of view, are becoming further marginalized.
(For the specific economic problems of each country, see the
individual country entries in this volume.)
National product:
GWP (gross world product) - purchasing power equivalent - $29 trillion
(1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
developed countries:
5% (1993 est.)
developing countries:
50% (1993 est.)
note:
these figures vary widely in individual cases
Unemployment rate:
developed countries typically 6%-11%; developing countries, extensive
unemployment and underemployment (1993)
Exports:
$3.64 trillion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
partners:
in value, about 75% of exports from the developed countries
Imports:
$3.82 trillion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
partners:
in value, about 75% of imports by the developed countries
External debt:
$1 trillion for less developed countries (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
2,864,000,000 kW
production:
11.45 trillion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,150 kWh (1990)
Industries:
industry worldwide is dominated by the onrush of technology,
especially in computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines
and medical equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD
nations; only a small portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in
rapidly adjusting to these technological forces, and the technological
gap between the industrial nations and the less-developed countries
continues to widen; the rapid development of new industrial (and
agricultural) technology is complicating already grim environmental
problems
Agriculture:
the production of major food crops has increased substantially in the
last 20 years; the annual production of cereals, for instance, has
risen by 50%, from about 1.2 billion metric tons to about 1.8 billion
metric tons; production increases have resulted mainly from increased
yields rather than increases in planted areas; while global production
is sufficient for aggregate demand, about one-fifth of the world's
population remains malnourished, primarily because local production
cannot adequately provide for large and rapidly growing populations,
which are too poor to pay for food imports; conditions are especially
bad in Africa where drought in recent years has intensified the
consequences of overpopulation
Economic aid:
$NA

@World, Communications

Railroads:
239,430 km of narrow gauge track; 710,754 km of standard gauge track;
251,153 km of broad gauge track; includes about 190,000 to 195,000 km
of electrified routes of which 147,760 km are in Europe, 24,509 km in
the Far East, 11,050 km in Africa, 4,223 km in South America, and only
4,160 km in North America; fastest speed in daily service is 300 km/hr
attained by France's SNCF TGV-Atlantique line
Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Mina' al Ahmadi (Kuwait), Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe, Marseille,
New Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama
Merchant marine:
23,943 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 397,225,000 GRT/652,025,000
DWT, bulk carrier 5,473, freighter 12,581, passenger-cargo 347, tanker
5,542 (all data as of January 1992)

@World, Defense Forces

Branches:
ground, maritime, and air forces at all levels of technology
Defense expenditures:
somewhat less than $1.0 trillion, 3% of total world output; decline of
5%-10% (1993 est.)

@Yemen, Geography

Location:
Middle East, along the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea, south of Saudi
Arabia
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
527,970 sq km
land area:
527,970 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming
note:
includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North
Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or
South Yemen)
Land boundaries:
total 1,746 km, Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km
Coastline:
1,906 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
18 nm in the North; 24 nm in the South
continental shelf:
200-m depth in the North; 200 nm in the South or to the edge of the
continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
undefined section of boundary with Saudi Arabia; a treaty with Oman
defining the Yemeni-Omani boundary was ratified in December 1992
Climate:
mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western
mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry,
harsh desert in east
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains;
dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert
interior of the Arabian Peninsula
Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble, small deposits of coal, gold,
lead, nickel, and copper, fertile soil in west
Land use:
arable land:
6%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
30%
forest and woodland:
7%
other:
57%
Irrigated land:
3,100 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
scarcity of natural freshwater resources (shortages of potable water);
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards:
subject to sandstorms and dust storms in summer
international agreements:
party to - Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
controls Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of
Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

@Yemen, People

Population:
11,105,202 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.34% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
50.72 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
14.94 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
112.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
51.47 years
male:
50.34 years
female:
52.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.2 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Yemeni(s)
adjective:
Yemeni
Ethnic divisions:
predominantly Arab; Afro-Arab concentrations in coastal locations;
South Asians in southern regions; small European communities in major
metropolitan areas; 60,000 (est.) Somali refugees encamped near Aden
Religions:
Muslim including Sha'fi (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi'a), Jewish, Christian,
Hindu
Languages:
Arabic
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
38%
male:
53%
female:
26%
Labor force:
no reliable estimates exist, most people are employed in agriculture
and herding or as expatriate laborers; services, construction,
industry, and commerce account for less than half of the labor force

@Yemen, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Yemen
conventional short form:
Yemen
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form:
Al Yaman
Digraph:
YM
Type:
republic
Capital:
Sanaa
Administrative divisions:
17 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, Adan, Al
Bayda, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Dhamar, Hadramaut,
Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Marib, Sadah, Sana, Shabwah, Taizz
note:
there may be a new capital district of Sana
Independence:
22 May 1990 Republic of Yemen was established on 22 May 1990 with the
merger of the Yemen Arab Republic {Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen} and
the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen {Yemen
(Aden) or South Yemen}; previously North Yemen had become independent
on NA November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen had
become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Proclamation of the Republic, 22 May (1990)
Constitution:
16 May 1991
Legal system:
based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local
customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president
of North Yemen); note - Sanaa dismissed Vice President Ali Salim
al-BIDH, Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr al-ATTAS (the former
president of South Yemen), and 14 other southern officials following
the outbreak of civil war on 4 May 1994
five-member Presidential Council:
president, vice president, two members from General People's Congress
party, two members from Yemeni Socialist Party, and one member from
Yemeni Grouping for Reform, or Islaah party
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of Representatives:
elections last held 27 April 1993 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (301 total) GPC 124, YSP 55, Islaah 61,
Ba'thist parties 7, Nasserist parties 4, Hizb al-Haqq 2, Independents
47, election nullified 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Ba'thist parties; General People's Congress (GPC), Ali Abdallah SALIH;
Hizb al Haqq, Ibrahim al-WAZIR, Sheikh Ahmad ibn Ali SHAMI (Secretary
General); Nasserist parties; Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP), Ali Salim
al-BIDH; Yemeni Grouping for Reform or Islaah, Shaykh Abdallah bin
Husayn al-AHMAR
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Muhsin Ahmad AL-AYNI
chancery:
Suite 705, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 965-4760 or 4761
FAX:
(202) 337-2017
consulate general(s):
Detroit
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Arthur H. HUGHES
embassy:
Dhahr Himyar Zone, Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa
mailing address:
P. O. Box 22347 Sanaa or Sanaa, Department of State, Washington, DC
20521-6330
telephone:
[967] (1) 238-842 through 238-852
FAX:
[967] (1) 251-563
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; similar
to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and of Iraq which has
three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line
centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt which
has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

@Yemen, Economy

Overview:
Whereas the northern city Sanaa is the political capital of a united
Yemen, the southern city Aden, with its refinery and port facilities,
is the economic and commercial capital. Future economic development
depends heavily on Western-assisted development of its moderate oil
resources. Former South Yemen's willingness to merge stemmed partly
from the steady decline in Soviet economic support. The low level of
domestic industry and agriculture have made northern Yemen dependent
on imports for practically all of its essential needs. Large trade
deficits have been compensated for by remittances from Yemenis working
abroad and by foreign aid. Because of the Gulf crisis, remittances
have dropped substantially. Once self-sufficient in food production,
northern Yemen has become a major importer. Land once used for export
crops - cotton, fruit, and vegetables - has been turned over to
growing a shrub called qat, whose leaves are chewed for their
stimulant effect by Yemenis and which has no significant export
market. Economic growth in former South Yemen has been constrained by
a lack of incentives, partly stemming from centralized control over
production decisions, investment allocation, and import choices.
Nominal growth in 1994-95 is apt to be under 3% annually because of
low oil prices and political deadlock that is causing a lack of
economic cooperation and leadership.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $9 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
55% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% (December 1992)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$695 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables, dried and salted fish
partners:
Italy 55%, US 32%, Jordan 5% (1991)
Imports:
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
textiles and other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum products,
sugar, grain, flour, other foodstuffs, cement, machinery, chemicals
partners:
UAE 6%, Japan 6%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Kuwait 6%, US 6% (1991)
External debt:
$7 billion (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%, accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
714,000 kW
production:
1.224 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
120 kWh (1992)
Industries:
crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of
cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small
aluminum products factory; cement
Agriculture:
accounted for 26% of GDP; products - grain, fruits, vegetables, qat
(mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, cotton, dairy, poultry, meat, fish;
not self-sufficient in grain
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $389 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.2 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $2.4 billion
Currency:
Yemeni rial (new currency); 1 North Yemeni riyal (YR) = 100 fils; 1
South Yemeni dinar (YD) = 1,000 fils
note:
following the establishment of the Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990,
the North Yemeni riyal and the South Yemeni dinar are to be replaced
with a new Yemeni rial
Exchange rates:

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