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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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Administrative divisions:
50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas,
California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*,
Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North
Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South
Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia,
Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Dependent areas:
American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island,
Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern
Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake
Island
note:
since 18 July 1947, the US has administered the Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a new political
relationship with three of the four political units; the Northern
Mariana Islands is a Commonwealth in political union with the US
(effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free
Association with the US that was approved by the US Congress but to
date the Compact process has not been completed in Palau, which
continues to be administered by the US as the Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands; the Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact
of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986); the
Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association
with the US (effective 21 October 1986)
Independence:
4 July 1776 (from England)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Constitution:
17 September 1787, effective 4 March 1789
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993); election last held
3 November 1992 (next to be held 5 November 1996); results - William
Jefferson CLINTON (Democratic Party) 43.2%, George BUSH (Republican
Party) 37.7%, Ross PEROT (Independent) 19.0%, other 0.1%
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president with Senate approval
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress
Senate:
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 8 November 1994);
results - Democratic Party 53%, Republican Party 47%, other NEGL%;
seats - (100 total) Democratic Party 57, Republican Party 43
House of Representatives:
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 8 November 1994);
results - Democratic Party 52%, Republican Party 46%, other 2%; seats
- (435 total) Democratic Party 258, Republican Party 176, Independent
1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Republican Party, Haley BARBOUR, national committee chairman; Jeanie
AUSTIN, co-chairman; Democratic Party, David C. WILHELM, national
committee chairman; several other groups or parties of minor political
significance
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC,
COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, FAO, ESCAP, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8,
G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, PCA, SPC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNRWA, UN Security Council,
UNTAC, UN Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO,
ZC
Flag:
thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating
with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset
horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of
five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes
represent the 13 original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and
colors have been the basis for a number of other flags including
Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

@United States, Economy

Overview:
The US has the most powerful, diverse, and technologically advanced
economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $24,700, the largest
among major industrial nations. The economy is market oriented with
most decisions made by private individuals and business firms and with
government purchases of goods and services made predominantly in the
marketplace. In 1989 the economy enjoyed its seventh successive year
of substantial growth, the longest in peacetime history. The expansion
featured moderation in wage and consumer price increases and a steady
reduction in unemployment to 5.2% of the labor force. In 1990,
however, growth slowed to 1% because of a combination of factors, such
as the worldwide increase in interest rates, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
in August, the subsequent spurt in oil prices, and a general decline
in business and consumer confidence. In 1991 output fell by 1%,
unemployment grew, and signs of recovery proved premature. Growth
picked up to 2.6% in 1992 and to 3.0% in 1993. Unemployment, however,
declined only gradually, the increase in GDP being mainly attributable
to gains in output per worker. Ongoing economic problems for the
remainder of the 1990s include inadequate investment in economic
infrastructure, rapidly rising medical costs, and sizable budget and
trade deficits.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.379 trillion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1993)
National product per capita:
$24,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
6% (May 1994)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.1535 trillion
expenditures:
$1.4082 trillion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$449 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials,
consumer goods, agricultural products
partners:
Western Europe 24.3%, Canada 22.1%, Japan 10.5% (1993 est.)
Imports:
$582 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
crude oil and refined petroleum products, machinery, automobiles,
consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and beverages
partners:
Canada, 19.3%, Western Europe 18.1%, Japan 18.1% (1993 est.)
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.6% (1993); accounts for 23% of GDP (1991)
Electricity:
capacity:
780,000,000 kW
production:
3.23 trillion kWh
consumption per capita:
12,690 kWh (1992)
Industries:
leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified and
technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace,
telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer
goods, lumber, mining
Agriculture:
accounts for 2% of GDP and 2.8% of labor force; favorable climate and
soils support a wide variety of crops and livestock production;
world's second largest producer and number one exporter of grain;
surplus food producer; fish catch of 4.4 million metric tons (1990)
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for domestic consumption with 1987
production estimated at 3,500 metric tons or about 25% of the
available marijuana; ongoing eradication program aimed at small plots
and greenhouses has not reduced production
Economic aid:
donor:
commitments, including ODA and OOF, (FY80-89), $115.7 billion
Currency:
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
British pounds:
(#) per US$ - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6033 (1993), 0.5664 (1992),
0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989)
Canadian dollars:
(Can$) per US$ - 1.3174 (January 1994), 1.2901 (1993), 1.2087 (1992),
1.1457 (1991), 1.1668 (1990), 1.1840 (1989)
French francs:
(F) per US$ - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992),
5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Italian lire:
(Lit) per US$ - 1,700.2 (January 1994), 1,573.7 (1993), 1,232.4
(1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1.372.1 (1989)
Japanese yen:
(Y) per US$ - 111.51 (January 1994), 111.20 (1993), 126.65 (1992),
134.71 (1991), 144.79 (1990), 137.96 (1989)
German deutsche marks:
(DM) per US$ - 1.7431 (January 1994), 1.6533 (1993), 1.5617 (1992),
1.6595 (1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

@United States, Communications

Railroads:
240,000 km of mainline routes, all standard 1.435 meter track, no
government ownership (1989)
Highways:
total:
6,243,163 km
paved:
3,633,520 km (including 84,865 km of expressways)
unpaved:
2,609,643 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive of the Great Lakes
(est.)
Pipelines:
petroleum 276,000 km; natural gas 331,000 km (1991)
Ports:
Anchorage, Baltimore, Beaumont, Boston, Charleston, Chicago,
Cleveland, Duluth, Freeport, Galveston, Hampton Roads, Honolulu,
Houston, Jacksonville, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Mobile, New
Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Richmond
(California), San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Wilmington
Merchant marine:
385 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,567,000 GRT/19,511,000 DWT,
bulk 23, cargo 36, intermodal 128, liquefied gas 13, passenger-cargo
3, tanker 169, tanker tug-barge 13
note:
in addition, there are 219 government-owned vessels
Airports:
total:
14,177
usable:
12,417
with permanent-surface runways:
4,820
with runways over 3,659 m:
63
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
325
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2,524
Telecommunications:
126,000,000 telephone access lines; 7,557,000 cellular phone
subscribers; broadcast stations - 4,987 AM, 4,932 FM, 1,092 TV; about
9,000 TV cable systems; 530,000,000 radio sets and 193,000,000 TV sets
in use; 16 satellites and 24 ocean cable systems in use; satellite
ground stations - 45 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 16 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT (1990)

@United States, Defense Forces

Branches:
Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (including Marine
Corps), Department of the Air Force
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $315.5 billion, 5.3% of GDP (1992)

@Uruguay, Geography

Location:
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between
Argentina and Brazil
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
176,220 sq km
land area:
173,620 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Washington State
Land boundaries:
total 1,564 km, Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km
Coastline:
660 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes:
short section of boundary with Argentina is in dispute; two short
sections of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute - Arroyo de la
Invernada (Arroio Invernada) area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at
the confluence of the Rio Cuareim (Rio Quarai) and the Uruguay River
Climate:
warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Terrain:
mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Natural resources:
soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
78%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
1,100 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to seasonally high winds, droughts, floods
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation

@Uruguay, People

Population:
3,198,910 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.75% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
17.7 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.39 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
17.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.09 years
male:
70.88 years
female:
77.47 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.44 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Uruguayan(s)
adjective:
Uruguayan
Ethnic divisions:
white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 66% (less than half adult population attends church
regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, nonprofessing or other 30%
Languages:
Spanish, Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
96%
male:
97%
female:
96%
Labor force:
1.355 million (1991 est.)
by occupation:
government 25%, manufacturing 19%, agriculture 11%, commerce 12%,
utilities, construction, transport, and communications 12%, other
services 21% (1988 est.)

@Uruguay, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form:
Uruguay
local long form:
Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form:
Uruguay
Digraph:
UY
Type:
republic
Capital:
Montevideo
Administrative divisions:
19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas,
Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja,
Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San
Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Independence:
25 August 1828 (from Brazil)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 August (1828)
Constitution:
27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27 June 1973, new
constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980
Legal system:
based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Luis Alberto LACALLE (since 1 March 1990); Vice President
Gonzalo AGUIRRE Ramirez (since 1 March 1990); election last held 26
November 1989 (next to be held NA November 1994); results - Luis
Alberto LACALLE Herrera (Blanco) 37%, Jorge BATLLE Ibanez (Colorado)
29%, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera (Broad Front) 20%
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral General Assembly (Asamblea General)
Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores):
elections last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held NA November
1994); results - Blanco 40%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 23% New Space
7%; seats - (30 total) Blanco 12, Colorado 9, Broad Front 7, New Space
2
Chamber of Representatives (Camera de Representantes):
elections last held NA November 1989 (next to be held NA November
1994); results - Blanco 39%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 22%, New Space
8%, other 1%; seats - (99 total) number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
National (Blanco) Party; Colorado Party, Jorge BATLLE; Broad Front
Coalition, Gen. Liber SEREGNI Mosquera; New Space Coalition, Hugo
BATALLA
Member of:
AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL,
PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOMOZ, UNTAC,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Eduardo MACGILLYCUDDY
chancery:
1918 F Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone:
telephone (202) 331-1313 through 1316
consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles, Miami, and New York
consulate(s):
New Orleans
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Thomas DODD
embassy:
Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo
mailing address:
APO AA 34035
telephone:
[598] (2) 23-60-61 or 48-77-77
FAX:
[598] (2) 48-86-11
Flag:
nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating
with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with
a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May and 16 rays
alternately triangular and wavy

@Uruguay, Economy

Overview:
Uruguay is a small economy with favorable climate, good soils, and
solid hydropower potential. Economic development has been held back by
excessive government regulation of economic detail and 50% to 130%
inflation. After several years of sluggish growth, real GDP jumped by
about 7.5% in 1992. The rise is attributable mainly to an increase in
Argentine demand for Uruguayan exports, particularly agricultural
products and electricity. In a major step toward greater regional
economic cooperation, Uruguay in 1991 had joined Brazil, Argentina,
and Paraguay in forming the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur). A
referendum in December 1992 overturned key portions of landmark
privatization legislation, dealing a serious blow to President
LACALLE's broad economic reform plan. Hampered by a slowdown in the
agricultural sector, the economy grew at only 2% in 1993 compared with
7.5% in 1992. Although inflation declined for the second consecutive
year, a surge in the money supply, rising food prices, a record trade
deficit, and an increase in the government deficit toward the end of
the year foreshadowed troubles ahead in 1994.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $19 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$6,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
50% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8.8% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$2.9 billion
expenditures:
$3 billion, including capital expenditures of $388 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
wool and textile manufactures, beef and other animal products,
leather, rice
partners:
Brazil, Argentina, US, China, Italy
Imports:
$2 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals, minerals, plastics
partners:
Brazil, Argentina, US, Nigeria
External debt:
$4.2 billion (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.2% (1992 est.), accounts for almost 25% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
2,168,000 kW
production:
5.96 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,900 kWh (1992)
Industries:
meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles, footwear, leather
apparel, tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining, wine
Agriculture:
accounts for 12% of GDP; large areas devoted to livestock grazing;
wheat, rice, corn, sorghum; self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $105 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $420
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $69 million
Currency:
1 Uruguayan peso ($Ur) = 100 centesimos
Exchange rates:
Uruguayan pesos ($Ur) per US$1 - 4.4710 (January 1994), 3.9484 (1993);
new Uruguayan pesos (N$Ur) per US$1 - 3,457.5 (December 1992), 3,026.9
(1992), 2,489 (1991), 1,594 (1990), 805 (1989)
note:
on 1 March 1993 the former New Peso (N$Ur) was replaced as Uruguay's
unit of currency by the Peso which is equal to 1,000 of the New Pesos;
consequently there is a major change in the peso/dollar exchange rate
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Uruguay, Communications

Railroads:
3,000 km, all 1.435-meter (standard) gauge and government owned
Highways:
total:
49,900 km
paved:
6,700 km
unpaved:
gravel 3,000 km; earth 40,200 km
Inland waterways:
1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft
Ports:
Montevideo, Punta del Este, Colonia
Merchant marine:
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 84,797 GRT/132,296 DWT, cargo 1,
container 2, oil tanker 1
Airports:
total:
87
usable:
80
with permanent-surface runways:
16
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
14
Telecommunications:
most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide
microwave network; 337,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 99 AM, no
FM, 26 TV, 9 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Uruguay, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Naval Air Arm, Coast Guard, Marines), Air Force,
Grenadier Guards, Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 765,490; fit for military service 621,629
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $216 million, 2.3% of GDP (1991 est.)

@Uzbekistan, Geography

Location:
Central Asia, bordering the Aral Sea, between Kazakhstan and
Turkmenistan
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
447,400 sq km
land area:
425,400 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total 6,221 km, Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan
1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Coastline:
0 km
note:
Uzbekistan borders the Aral Sea (420 km)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
Russia may dispute current de facto maritime border to midpoint of
Caspian Sea from shore
Climate:
mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid
grassland in east
Terrain:
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely
irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya and Sirdaryo Rivers;
Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and
Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and
zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
47%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
42%
Irrigated land:
41,550 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of
chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown
from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to
desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes is the cause
of many human health disorders; increasing soil salinization; soil
contamination from agricultural chemicals, including DDT
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer
Protection
Note:
landlocked

@Uzbekistan, People

Population:
22,608,866 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.13% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
30.01 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.51 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
53.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.58 years
male:
65.28 years
female:
72.04 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.73 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Uzbek(s)
adjective:
Uzbek
Ethnic divisions:
Uzbek 71.4%, Russian 8.3%, Tajik 4.7%, Kazakh 4.1%, Tatar 2.4%,
Karakalpak 2.1%, other 7%
Religions:
Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Languages:
Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
8.234 million
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 43%, industry and construction 22%, other 35%
(1992)

@Uzbekistan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form:
Uzbekistan
local long form:
Uzbekiston Respublikasi
local short form:
none
former:
Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
UZ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tashkent (Toshkent)
Administrative divisions:
12 wiloyatlar (singular - wiloyat), 1 autonomous republic*
(respublikasi, singular - respublika), and 1 city** (shahri); Andijon
Wiloyati, Bukhoro Wiloyati, Jizzakh Wiloyati, Farghona Wiloyati,
Karakalpakstan* (Nukus), Qashqadaryo Wiloyati (Qarshi), Khorazm
Wiloyati (Urganch), Namangan Wiloyati, Nawoiy Wiloyati, Samarqand
Wiloyati, Sirdaryo Wiloyati (Guliston), Surkhondaryo Wiloyati
(Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Wiloyati
note:
an administrative division has the same name as its administrative
center (exceptions have the administrative center name following in
parentheses)
Independence:
31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Constitution:
new constitution adopted 8 December 1992
Legal system:
evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Islam KARIMOV (since NA March 1990); election last held 29
December 1991 (next to be held NA December 1996); results - Islam
KARIMOV 86%, Mukhammad SOLIKH 12%, other 2%
head of government:
Prime Minister Abdulkhashim MUTALOV (since 13 January 1992), First
Deputy Prime Minister Ismail Hakimovitch DJURABEKOV (since NA)
cabinet:
Cabinet of Ministers; appointed by the president with approval of the
Supreme Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Supreme Soviet:
elections last held 18 February 1990 (next to be held winter 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (500 total) Communist
450, ERK 10, other 40; note - total number of seats will be reduced to
250 in next election
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
People's Democratic Party (PDP; formerly Communist Party), Islam A.
KARIMOV, chairman; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party (EDP), Muhammad
SOLIKH, chairman (in exile); note - ERK was banned 9 December 1992
Other political or pressure groups:
Birlik (Unity) People's Movement (BPM), Abdul Rakhim PULATOV, chairman
(in exile); Islamic Rebirth Party (IRP), Abdullah UTAYEV, chairman
note:
PULATOV (BPM) and SOLIKH (EDP) are both in exile in the West; UTAYEV
(IRP) is either in prison or in exile
Member of:
CCC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IOC, ITU, NACC, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Fatikh TESHABAYEV
chancery:
Suites 619 and 623, 1511 K Street NW, Washington DC, 20005
telephone:
(202) 638-4266/4267
FAX:
(202) 638-4268
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Henry L. CLARKE
embassy:
82 Chelanzanskaya, Tashkent
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[7] (3712) 77-14-07, 77-11-32
FAX:
[7] (3712) 77-69-53
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated
by red fimbriations with a crescent moon and 12 stars in the upper
hoist-side quadrant

@Uzbekistan, Economy

Overview:
Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 20% is intensely
cultivated, irrigated river valleys. It is one of the poorest states
of the former USSR with 60% of its population living in overpopulated
rural communities. Nevertheless, Uzbekistan is the world's third
largest cotton exporter, a major producer of gold and natural gas, and
a regionally significant producer of chemicals and machinery. Since
independence, the government has sought to prop up the Soviet-style
command economy with subsidies and tight controls on prices and
production. Such policies have buffered the economy from the sharp
declines in output and high inflation experienced by many other former
Soviet republics. By late 1993, however, they had become increasingly
unsustainable as inflation soared and Russia forced the Uzbek
Government to introduce its own currency. Faced with mounting economic
problems, the government has increased its cooperation with
international financial institutions, announced an acceleration of
privatization, and stepped up efforts to attract foreign investors.
Nevertheless, the regime is likely to resist full-fledged market
reforms.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $53.7 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Uzbek statistics, which are very
uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-3.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,430 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
18% per month (1993)
Unemployment rate:
0.2% includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of
underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$706.5 million to outside the FSU countries (1993)
commodities:
cotton, gold, natural gas, mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals,
textiles, food products
partners:
Russia, Ukraine, Eastern Europe, US
Imports:
$947.3 million from outside the FSU countries (1993)
commodities:
grain, machinery and parts, consumer durables, other foods
partners:
principally other FSU countries, Czech Republic
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -7% (1993)
Electricity:
capacity:
11,950,000 kW
production:
50.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,300 kWh (1992)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas
Agriculture:
livestock, cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
consumption; limited government eradication programs; used as
transshipment points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
$125 million by yearend 1993; future commitments for about $500
million
Currency:
introduced provisional som-coupons 10 November 1993 which circulated
parallel to the Russian rubles; became the sole legal currency 31
January 1994; will be replaced in July 1994 by the som currency
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Uzbekistan, Communications

Railroads:
3,460 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
total:
78,400 km
paved and gravel:
67,000 km
unpaved:
earth 11,400 km (1990)
Pipelines:
crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810 km (1992)
Ports:
none; landlocked
Airports:
total:
265
usable:
74
with permanent-surface runways:
30
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
20
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
19
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
poorly developed; 1,458,000 telephone circuits with 68.75 circuits per
1,000 persons (1991); linked by landline or microwave with CIS member
states and by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway
switch to other countries; new INTELSAT links to Tokyo and Ankara give
Uzbekistan international access independent of Russian facilities;
satellite earth stations - Orbita and INTELSAT; NMT-450 analog
cellular network established in Tashkent

@Uzbekistan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, National Guard, Republic Security Forces (internal and border
troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 5,388,456; fit for military service 4,403,497; reach
military age (18) annually 222,405 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Vanuatu, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Melanesia, 5,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South
Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and
Australia
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
14,760 sq km
land area:
14,760 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Connecticut
note:
includes more than 80 islands
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
2,528 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds
Terrain:
mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains
Natural resources:
manganese, hardwood forests, fish
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
2%
forest and woodland:
1%
other:
91%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April); volcanism
causes minor earthquakes
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Marine Dumping, Ship
Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

@Vanuatu, People

Population:
169,776 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.29% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
32.21 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.31 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
68.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
59.25 years
male:
57.51 years
female:
61.09 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.31 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural)
adjective:
Ni-Vanuatu
Ethnic divisions:
indigenous Melanesian 94%, French 4%, Vietnamese, Chinese, Pacific
Islanders
Religions:
Presbyterian 36.7%, Anglican 15%, Catholic 15%, indigenous beliefs
7.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.2%, Church of Christ 3.8%, other 15.7%
Languages:
English (official), French (official), pidgin (known as Bislama or
Bichelama)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1979)
total population:
53%
male:
57%
female:
48%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
NA

@Vanuatu, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Vanuatu
conventional short form:
Vanuatu
former:
New Hebrides
Digraph:
NH
Type:
republic
Capital:
Port-Vila
Administrative divisions:
11 island councils; Ambrym, Aoba/Maewo, Banks/Torres, Efate, Epi,
Malakula, Paama, Pentecote, Santo/Malo, Shepherd, Tafea
Independence:
30 July 1980 (from France and UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 30 July (1980)
Constitution:
30 July 1980
Legal system:
unified system being created from former dual French and British
systems
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Jean Marie LEYE (since 2 March 1994)
head of government:
Prime Minister Maxime CARLOT Korman (since 16 December 1991); Deputy
Prime Minister Sethy REGENVANU (since 17 December 1991)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister, responsible to
parliament
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament:
elections last held 2 December 1991 (next to be held by November
1995); note - after election, a coalition was formed by the Union of
Moderate Parties and the National United Party to form a new
government on 16 December 1991, but political party associations are
fluid; seats - (46 total) UMP 19; NUP 10; VP 10; MPP 4; TUP 1;
Nagriamel 1; Friend 1
note:
the National Council of Chiefs advises on matters of custom and land
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Vanuatu Party (VP), Donald KALPOKAS; Union of Moderate Parties (UMP),
Serge VOHOR; Melanesian Progressive Party (MPP), Barak SOPE; National
United Party (NUP), Walter LINI; Tan Union Party (TUP), Vincent
BOULEKONE; Nagriamel Party, Jimmy STEVENS; Friend Melanesian Party,
leader NA
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
Vanuatu does not have a mission in the US
US diplomatic representation:
the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a black
isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a
black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two
points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle);
centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two crossed
namele leaves, all in yellow

@Vanuatu, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based primarily on subsistence farming which provides a
living for about 80% of the population. Fishing and tourism are the
other mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are negligible; the
country has no known petroleum deposits. A small light industry sector
caters to the local market. Tax revenues come mainly from import
duties.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $142 million (1988 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6% (1991)
National product per capita:
$1,050 (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.3% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$90 million
expenditures:
$103 million, including capital expenditures of $45 million (1989
est.)
Exports:
$14.9 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
copra, beef, cocoa, timber, coffee
partners:
Netherlands, Japan, France, New Caledonia, Belgium
Imports:
$74 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
machines and vehicles, food and beverages, basic manufactures, raw
materials and fuels, chemicals
partners:
Australia 36%, Japan 13%, NZ 10%, France 8%, Fiji 8%
External debt:
$38 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 8.1% (1990); accounts for about 10% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
17,000 kW
production:
30 million kWh
consumption per capita:
180 kWh (1990)
Industries:
food and fish freezing, wood processing, meat canning
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; export crops - coconuts, cocoa, coffee, fish;
subsistence crops - taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, vegetables
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $606 million
Currency:
1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
vatu (VT) per US$1 - 123.48 (September 1993), 113.39 (1992), 111.68
(1991), 116.57 (1990), 116.04 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Vanuatu, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
total:
1,027 km
paved:
240 km
unpaved:
787 km
Ports:
Port-Vila, Luganville, Palikoulo
Merchant marine:
131 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,992,201 GRT/2,909,381 DWT,
bulk 57, cargo 23, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 1, container 5,
liquefied gas 3, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 8, passenger 1,
refrigerated cargo 19, vehicle carrier 11
note:
a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
31
usable:
31
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, no TV; 3,000 telephones; 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT ground station

@Vanuatu, Defense Forces

Branches:
Vanuatu Police Force (VPF), paramilitary Vanuatu Mobile Force (VMF)
note:
no military forces
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Venezuela, Geography

Location:
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea between Colombia
and Guyana
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
912,050 sq km
land area:
882,050 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total 4,993 km, Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km
Coastline:
2,800 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
15 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo River; maritime boundary
dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain:
Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains
(llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals,
hydropower, diamonds
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
39%
other:
37%
Irrigated land:
2,640 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago
de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial
pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast
natural hazards:
subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping
Note:
on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

@Venezuela, People

Population:
20,562,405 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.16% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
25.74 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.63 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
27.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73 years
male:
70.12 years
female:
76.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.05 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Venezuelan(s)
adjective:
Venezuelan
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 67%, white 21%, black 10%, Indian 2%
Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%
Languages:
Spanish (official), Indian dialects spoken by about 200,000
Amerindians in the remote interior
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
88%
male:
87%
female:
90%
Labor force:
5.8 million
by occupation:
services 56%, industry 28%, agriculture 16% (1985)

@Venezuela, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Venezuela
conventional short form:
Venezuela
local long form:
Republica de Venezuela
local short form:
Venezuela
Digraph:
VE
Type:
republic
Capital:
Caracas
Administrative divisions:
21 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 territory* (territorio), 1
federal district** (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependence***
(dependencia federal); Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas,
Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales***,
Distrito Federal**, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas,
Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia
note:
the federal dependence consists of 11 federally controlled island
groups with a total of 72 individual islands
Independence:
5 July 1811 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 5 July (1811)
Constitution:
23 January 1961
Legal system:
based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative acts in
Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Rafael CALDERA Rodriquez (since 2 February 1994); election
last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held December 1998); results -
Rafael CALDERA (National Convergence) 30.45%, Claudio FERMIN (AD)
23.59%, Oswaldo ALVAREZ PAZ (COPEI) 22.72%, Andres VELASQUEZ (Causa R)
21.94%, other 1.3%
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica)
Senate (Senado):
elections last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held December 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (52 total) AD 18, COPEI
15, Causa R 9, MAS 5, National Convergence 5; note - 3 former
presidents (2 from AD, 1 from COPEI) hold lifetime senate seats
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados):
elections last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held December 1998);
results - AD 27.9%, COPEI 26.9%, MAS 12.4%, National Convergence
12.9%, Causa R 19.9%; seats - (201 total) AD 55, COPEI 53, MAS 24,
National Convergence 26, Causa R 40, other 3
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia) Gonzalo RODRIGUEZ
Corro, President
Political parties and leaders:
National Convergence (Convergencia), Jose Miguel UZCATEGUI, director;
Social Christian Party (COPEI), Hilarion CARDOZO, president, and Jose
CURIEL, secretary general; Democratic Action (AD), Pedro PARIS
Montesinos, president, and Luis ALFARO Ucero, secretary general;
Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), Argelia LAYA, president, and Freddy
MUNOZ, secretary general; Radical Cause (La Causa R), Pablo MEDINA,
secretary general
Other political or pressure groups:
FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; Venezuelan Confederation
of Workers (CTV, labor organization dominated by the Democratic
Action); VECINOS groups
Member of:
AG, BCIE, CARICOM (observer), CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-15,
G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Pedro Luis ECHEVERRIA
chancery:
1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 342-2214
consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia,
San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jeffrey DAVIDOW
embassy:
Avenida Francisco de Miranda and Avenida Principal de la Floresta,
Caracas
mailing address:
P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO AA 34037
telephone:
[58] (2) 285-2222
FAX:
[58] (2) 285-0336
consulate(s):
Maracaibo (closed March 1994)
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the
coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven
white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

@Venezuela, Economy

Overview:
Petroleum is the backbone of the economy, accounting for 23% of GDP,
61% of central government ordinary revenues, and 77% of export
earnings in 1993. Former President PEREZ introduced an economic
readjustment program when he assumed office in February 1989. Lower
tariffs and the removal of price controls, a free market exchange
rate, and market-linked interest rates threw the economy into
confusion, causing an 8% decline in GDP in 1989. The economy recovered
part way in 1990 and grew by 9.7% in 1991 and 6.8% in 1992; economic
activity fell by 1% in 1993, primarily because of business concerns
over political instability.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $161 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$8,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
46% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8.2% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$9.8 billion
expenditures:
$11.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $103 million (1993
est.)
Exports:
$14.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
petroleum 77%, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals, agricultural
products, basic manufactures
partners:
US and Puerto Rico 42%, Japan, Netherlands, Italy
Imports:
$11 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment,
construction materials
partners:
US 50%, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Canada
External debt:
$28.5 billion (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.1% (1992 est.); accounts for 40% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
21,130,000 kW
production:
58.541 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,830 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials, food processing,
textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly
Agriculture:
accounts for 6% of GDP and 16% of labor force; products - corn,
sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef, pork,
milk, eggs, fish; not self-sufficient in food other than meat
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and coca leaf for the international drug
trade on a small scale; however, large quantities of cocaine transit
the country from Colombia; important money-laundering hub
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-86), $488 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $10 million
Currency:
1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
bolivares (Bs) per US$1 - 107.260 (January 1994), 90.826 (1993), 68.38
(1992), 56.82 (1991), 46.90 (1990), 34.68 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Venezuela, Communications

Railroads:
542 km total; 363 km 1.435-meter standard gauge all single track,
government owned; 179 km 1.435-meter gauge, privately owned
Highways:
total:
81,000 km
paved:
31,200 km
unpaved:
gravel 24,800 km; earth and unimproved earth 25,000 km
Inland waterways:
7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels
Pipelines:
crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum products 480 km; natural gas 4,010 km
Ports:
Amuay Bay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Puerto
Ordaz
Merchant marine:
47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 741,688 GRT/1,204,233 DWT, bulk
4, cargo 16, combination bulk 1, container 1, liquefied gas 2, oil
tanker 17, passenger cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea
passenger 1
Airports:
total:
425
usable:
392
with permanent-surface runways:
139
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
15
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
92
Telecommunications:
modern and expanding; 1,440,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 181
AM, no FM, 59 TV, 26 shortwave; 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite
ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

@Venezuela, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Nacionales, FAN) includes -
Ground Forces or Army (Fuerzas Terrestres or Ejercito), Naval Forces
(Fuerzas Navales or Armada), Air Forces (Fuerzas Aereas or Aviacion),
Armed Forces of Cooperation or National Guard (Fuerzas Armadas de
Cooperation or Guardia Nacional)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 5,341,855; fit for military service 3,875,523; reach
military age (18) annually 224,550 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.95 billion, 4% of GDP (1991)

@Vietnam, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea, between Laos and the
Philippines
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
329,560 sq km
land area:
325,360 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 3,818 km, Cambodia 982 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 1,555 km
Coastline:
3,444 km (excludes islands)
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined; involved in a complex
dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines,
Taiwan, and possibly Brunei; unresolved maritime boundary with
Thailand; maritime boundary dispute with China in the Gulf of Tonkin;
Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan
Climate:
tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May
to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)
Terrain:
low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly,
mountainous in far north and northwest
Natural resources:
phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil deposits,
forests
Land use:
arable land:
22%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
40%
other:
35%
Irrigated land:
18,300 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing
threatening marine life populations
natural hazards:
occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding
international agreements:
party to - Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

@Vietnam, People

Population:
73,103,898 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.78% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
27.13 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.76 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
45.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.41 years
male:
63.37 years
female:
67.58 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.33 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Vietnamese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Vietnamese
Ethnic divisions:
Vietnamese 85-90%, Chinese 3%, Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham
Religions:
Buddhist, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs, Islamic,
Protestant
Languages:
Vietnamese (official), French, Chinese, English, Khmer, tribal
languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
88%
male:
93%
female:
83%
Labor force:
32.7 million
by occupation:
agricultural 65%, industrial and service 35% (1990 est.)

@Vietnam, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form:
Vietnam
local long form:
Cong Hoa Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form:
Viet Nam
Abbreviation:
SRV
Digraph:
VM
Type:
Communist state
Capital:
Hanoi
Administrative divisions:
50 provinces (tinh, singular and plural), 3 municipalities* (thanh
pho, singular and plural); An Giang, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Bac Thai, Ben
Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Thuan, Can Tho, Cao Bang, Dac Lac, Dong Nai, Dong
Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Bac, Ha Giang, Ha Noi*, Ha Tay, Ha Tinh, Hai Hung,
Hai Phong*, Ho Chi Minh*, Hoa Binh, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum,
Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Minh Hai, Nam Ha, Nghe
An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam-Da Nang,
Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Song Be, Tay
Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen
Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phu, Yen Bai
Independence:
2 September 1945 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
Constitution:
15 April 1992
Legal system:
based on Communist legal theory and French civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Le Duc ANH (since 23 September 1992)
head of government:
Prime Minister Vo Van KIET (since 9 August 1991); First Deputy Prime
Minister Phan Van KHAI (since 10 August 1991); Deputy Prime Minister
Nguyen KHANH (since NA February 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Tran Duc
LUONG (since NA February 1987)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president on proposal of the prime minister
and ratification of the Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Quoc-Hoi):
elections last held 19 July 1992 (next to be held NA July 1997);
results - VCP is the only party; seats - (395 total) VCP or
VCP-approved 395
Judicial branch:
Supreme People's Court
Political parties and leaders:
only party - Vietnam Communist Party (VCP), DO MUOI, general secretary
Member of:
ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none; Ambassador Le Van BANG is the Permanent Representative to the UN
US diplomatic representation:
none
Flag:
red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

@Vietnam, Economy

Overview:
Vietnam has made significant progress in recent years moving away from
the planned economic model toward a more effective market-based
economic system. Most prices are now fully decontrolled, and the
Vietnamese currency has been effectively devalued and floated at world
market rates. In addition, the scope for private sector activity has
been expanded, primarily through decollectivization of the
agricultural sector and introduction of laws giving legal recognition
to private business. Nearly three-quarters of export earnings are
generated by only two commodities, rice and crude oil. Led by industry
and construction, the economy did well in 1993 with output rising
perhaps 7%. However, the industrial sector remains burdened by
uncompetitive state-owned enterprises the government is unwilling or
unable to privatize. Unemployment looms as a serious problem with
roughly 25% of the workforce without jobs and with population growth
swelling the ranks of the unemployed yearly.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $72 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
7% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.9 billion
expenditures:
$2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, rice, agricultural products, marine products, coffee
partners:
Japan, Hong Kong, Thailand, Germany, Indonesia
Imports:
$3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
petroleum products, steel products, railroad equipment, chemicals,
medicines, raw cotton, fertilizer, grain
partners:
Hong Kong, Japan, Indonesia, South Korea, Taiwan
External debt:
$3.4 billion Western countries; $4.5 billion CEMA debts primarily to
Russia; $700 million commercial debts (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 15% (1992); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
3,300,000 kW
production:
9 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
130 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food processing, textiles, machine building, mining, cement, chemical
fertilizer, glass, tires, oil
Agriculture:
accounts for almost 40% of GDP; paddy rice, corn, potatoes make up 50%
of farm output; commercial crops (rubber, soybeans, coffee, tea,
bananas) and animal products 50%; since 1989 self-sufficient in food
staple rice; fish catch of 943,100 metric tons (1989 est.)
Illicit drugs:
minor opium producer and secondary transit point for Southeast Asian
heroin destined for the US and Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
$1.9 billion in credits and grants pledged by international donors for
1994, Japan largest contributor with $550 million
Currency:
1 new dong (D) = 100 xu
Exchange rates:
new dong (D) per US$1 - 10,800 (November 1993), 8,100 (July 1991),
7,280 (December 1990), 3,996 (March 1990); note - 1985-89 figures are
end of year
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Vietnam, Communications

Railroads:
3,059 km total; 2,454 1.000-meter gauge, 151 km 1.435-meter (standard)
gauge, 230 km dual gauge (three rails), and 224 km not restored to
service after war damage
Highways:
total:
85,000 km
paved:
9,400 km
unpaved:
gravel, improved earth 48,700 km; unimproved earth 26,900 km
Inland waterways:
17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable at all times by
vessels up to 1.8 meter draft
Pipelines:
petroleum products 150 km
Ports:
Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City
Merchant marine:
101 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 460,225 GRT/741,231 DWT, bulk
3, cargo 86, oil tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 1
Airports:
total:
100
usable:
100
with permanent-surface runways:
50
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
20
Telecommunications:
the inadequacies of the obsolete switching equipment and cable system
is a serious constraint on the business sector and on economic growth,
and restricts access to the international links that Vietnam has
established with most major countries; the telephone system is not
generally available for private use (25 telephones for each 10,000
persons); 3 satellite earth stations; broadcast stations - NA AM, 288
FM; 36 (77 repeaters) TV; about 2,500,000 TV receivers and 7,000,000
radio receivers in use (1991)

@Vietnam, Defense Forces

Branches:
People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) including:
Ground, Navy (including Naval Infantry), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 18,281,483; fit for military service 11,602,318; reach
military age (17) annually 762,943 (1994 est.)

Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GNP

@Virgin Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

@Virgin Islands, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 110 km east and
southeast of Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
352 sq km
land area:
349 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
188 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical, tempered by easterly tradewinds, relatively low humidity,
little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November
Terrain:
mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land
Natural resources:
sun, sand, sea, surf
Land use:
arable land:
15%
permanent crops:
6%
meadows and pastures:
26%
forest and woodland:
6%
other:
47%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
lack of natural freshwater resources
natural hazards:
rarely affected by hurricanes; subject to frequent severe droughts,
floods, earthquakes
international agreements:
NA
Note:
important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for
the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural, deepwater
harbors in the Caribbean

@Virgin Islands, People

Population:
97,564 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.52% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
19.41 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:

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