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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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calendar year

@Azerbaijan, Communications

Railroads:
2,090 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
total:
36,700 km
paved or graveled:
31,800 km
unpaved:
earth 4,900 km (1990)
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 1,240 km
Ports:
inland - Baku (Baky)
Airports:
total:
65
usable:
33
with permanent-surface runways:
26
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
8
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
23
Telecommunications:
domestic telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate; 710,000
domestic telephone lines [density - 9 lines per 100 persons (1991)],
202,000 persons waiting for telephone installations (January 1991);
connections to other former USSR republics by cable and microwave and
to other countries via the Moscow international gateway switch;
INTELSAT earth station installed in late 1992 in Baku with Turkish
financial assistance with access to 200 countries through Turkey;
since August 1993 an earth station near Baku has provided direct
communications with New York through Russia's Stationar-11 satellite;
a joint venture to establish a cellular telephone system (Bakcel) in
the Baku area is supposed to become operational in 1994; domestic and
Russian TV programs are received locally and Turkish and Iranian TV is
received from an INTELSAT satellite through a receive-only earth
station

@Azerbaijan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Navy, Maritime Border Guard, National Guard, Security
Forces (internal and border troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,884,458; fit for military service 1,525,123; reach
military age (18) annually 68,192 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
2,848 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

@The Bahamas, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the western North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Florida
and northwest of Cuba
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
13,940 sq km
land area:
10,070 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
3,542 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
Terrain:
long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills
Natural resources:
salt, aragonite, timber
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
32%
other:
67%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause extensive
flood and wind damage
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
Note:
strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain

@The Bahamas, People

Population:
273,055 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.57% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
18.86 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
33.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.52 years
male:
67.66 years
female:
75.49 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.88 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bahamian(s)
adjective:
Bahamian
Ethnic divisions:
black 85%, white 15%
Religions:
Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church of
God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%
Languages:
English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
Literacy:
age 15 and over but definition of literacy not available (1963 est.)
total population:
90%
male:
90%
female:
89%
Labor force:
127,400
by occupation:
government 30%, hotels and restaurants 25%, business services 10%,
agriculture 5% (1989)

@The Bahamas, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Commonwealth of The Bahamas
conventional short form:
The Bahamas
Digraph:
BF
Type:
commonwealth
Capital:
Nassau
Administrative divisions:
21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma,
Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay, Harbour
Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh Harbour,
Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands, Ragged
Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay
Independence:
10 July 1973 (from UK)
National holiday:
National Day, 10 July (1973)
Constitution:
10 July 1973
Legal system:
based on English common law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Sir Clifford DARLING (since 2 January 1992)
head of government:
Prime Minister Hubert A. INGRAHAM (since 19 August 1992); Deputy Prime
Minister Orville A. TURNQUEST (since 19 August 1992)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the governor on the prime minister's
recommendation
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
Senate:
a 16-member body appointed by the governor general
House of Assembly:
elections last held 19 August 1992 (next to be held by August 1997);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (49 total) FNM 32, PLP
17
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Progressive Liberal Party (PLP), Sir Lynden O. PINDLING; Free National
Movement (FNM), Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM;
Member of:
ACP, C, CCC, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Timothy Baswell DONALDSON
chancery:
2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 319-2660
FAX:
(202) 319-2668
consulate(s) general:
Miami and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lino GUTIERREZ
embassy:
Mosmar Building, Queen Street, Nassau
mailing address:
P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau
telephone:
(809) 322-1181 or 328-2206
FAX:
(809) 328-7838
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine
with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

@The Bahamas, Economy

Overview:
The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation whose economy is based
primarily on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone provides
about 40% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs about 50,000
people or 40% of the local work force. The economy has slackened in
recent years, as the annual increase in the number of tourists slowed.
Nonetheless, per capita GDP is one of the highest in the region.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2% (1991)
National product per capita:
$16,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
5.7% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$628.5 million
expenditures:
$574 million, including capital expenditures of $100 million (1992
est.)
Exports:
$310 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish
partners:
US 51%, UK 7%, Norway 7%, France 6%, Italy 5%
Imports:
$1.2 billion (f.o.b,,1992)
commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, mineral fuels, crude oil
partners:
US 32%, Japan 17%, Nigeria 12%, Denmark 7%, Norway 6%
External debt:
$1.2 billion (December 1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3% (1990); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
424,000 kW
production:
929 million kWh
consumption per capita:
3,599 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt
production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral welded steel pipe
Agriculture:
accounts for 5% of GDP; dominated by small-scale producers; principal
products - citrus fruit, vegetables, poultry; large net importer of
food
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and Europe;
also money-laundering center
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $1 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $345
million
Currency:
1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1 - 1.00 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@The Bahamas, Communications

Highways:
total:
2,400 km
paved:
1,350 km
unpaved:
gravel 1,050 km
Ports:
Freeport, Nassau
Merchant marine:
879 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,424,439 GRT/33,330,160 DWT,
bulk 167, cargo 148, chemical tanker 43, combination bulk 8,
combination ore/oil 20, container 48, liquefied gas 18, oil tanker
177, passenger 54, refrigerated cargo 132, roll-on/roll-off cargo 41,
short-sea passenger 16, vehicle carrier 7
note:
a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
60
usable:
55
with permanent-surface runways:
31
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
26
Telecommunications:
highly developed; 99,000 telephones in totally automatic system;
tropospheric scatter and submarine cable links to Florida; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@The Bahamas, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas Police
Force
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $65 million, 2.7% of GDP (1990)

@Bahrain, Geography

Location:
Middle East, in the central Persian Gulf, between Saudi Arabia and
Qatar
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
620 sq km
land area:
620 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
161 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands; maritime
boundary with Qatar
Climate:
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain:
mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Natural resources:
oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
90%
Irrigated land:
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land,
periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to
coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills
and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and
distribution stations; no surface water resources; groundwater and sea
water are the only sources for all water needs
natural hazards:
periods of drought, dust storms
international agreements:
party to - Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location
in Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's petroleum must
transit to reach open ocean

@Bahrain, People

Population:
585,683 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.96% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
26.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
3.83 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
6.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
19 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.51 years
male:
71.1 years
female:
76.05 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.96 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bahraini(s)
adjective:
Bahraini
Ethnic divisions:
Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%, other 6%
Religions:
Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%
Languages:
Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
77%
male:
82%
female:
69%
Labor force:
140,000
by occupation:
industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 3%
(1982)
note:
42% of labor force is Bahraini

@Bahrain, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
State of Bahrain
conventional short form:
Bahrain
local long form:
Dawlat al Bahrayn
local short form:
Al Bahrayn
Digraph:
BA
Type:
traditional monarchy
Capital:
Manama
Administrative divisions:
12 districts (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al
Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash
Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa'wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd
Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
Independence:
15 August 1971 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 December (1961)
Constitution:
26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and English common law
Suffrage:
none
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November 1961); Heir Apparent
HAMAD bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (son of the Amir, born 28 January
1950)
head of government:
Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 19 January 1970)
cabinet:
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and
legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet; appointed Advisory
Council established 16 December 1992
Judicial branch:
High Civil Appeals Court
Political parties and leaders:
political parties prohibited; several small, clandestine leftist and
Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDB,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mohammad ABD al-GHAFFAR
chancery:
3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 342-0741 or 342-0742
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires David S. ROBINS
embassy:
Road No. 3119 (next to Alahli Sports Club), Zinj District, Manama
mailing address:
FPO AE 09834-5100; P.O. Box 26431, Manama
telephone:
[973] 273-300
FAX:
(973) 272-594
Flag:
red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side

@Bahrain, Economy

Overview:
Petroleum production and processing account for about 80% of export
receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. Economic
conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since
1985, for example, during and following the Gulf crisis of 1990-91.
Bahrain with its highly developed communication and transport
facilities is home to numerous multinational firms with business in
the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made
from imported crude. Prospects for 1994 are good, with private
enterprise the main driving force, e.g., in banking and construction.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$12,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8%-10% (1989)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.2 billion
expenditures:
$1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7%
partners:
Japan 13%, UAE 12%, India 10%, Pakistan 8%, Singapore 6% (1991)
Imports:
$3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%
partners:
Saudi Arabia 42%, US 14%, UK 7%, Japan 5%, Germany 4% (1991)
External debt:
$2.6 billion (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.8% (1988); accounts for 44% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
1,600,000 kW
production:
4.7 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
8,500 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore
banking, ship repairing
Agriculture:
including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not
self-sufficient in food production; heavily subsidized sector produces
fruit, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, fish
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $24 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $45
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.8 billion
Currency:
1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Bahrain, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
bituminous 200 km
unpaved:
NA
Pipelines:
crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km
Ports:
Mina' Salman, Manama, Sitrah
Merchant marine:
6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 101,844 GRT/143,997 DWT, bulk 1,
cargo 4, container 1
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
modern system; good domestic services; 98,000 telephones (1 for every
6 persons); excellent international connections; tropospheric scatter
to Qatar, UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable
to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT; broadcast stations
- 2 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV

@Bahrain, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 198,414; fit for military service 109,431; reach
military age (15) annually 5,093 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $245 million, 6% of GDP (1993)

@Baker Island

Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

@Baker Island, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, just north of the
Equator, 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii
and Australia
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
1.4 sq km
land area:
1.4 sq km
comparative area:
about 2.3 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
4.8 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
mate:
equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
rain:
low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
ural resources:
guano (deposits worked until 1891)
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
lacks fresh water
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses,
prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting,
roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
wildlife

@Baker Island, People

Population:
uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942 after
Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US
military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public
entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to
scientists and educators; a cemetery and cemetery ruins are located
near the middle of the west coast

@Baker Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Baker Island
Digraph:
FQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge system
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

@Baker Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Baker Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle
of the west coast
Airports:
1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m
Note:
there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

@Baker Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US
Coast Guard

@Bangladesh, Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, at the head of the Bay of Bengal, almost completely
surrounded by India
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
144,000 sq km
land area:
133,910 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
total 4,246 km, Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Coastline:
580 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
18 nm
continental shelf:
up to outer limits of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
a portion of the boundary with India is in dispute; water-sharing
problems with upstream riparian India over the Ganges
Climate:
tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer
(March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain:
mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Natural resources:
natural gas, arable land, timber
Land use:
arable land:
67%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
16%
other:
11%
Irrigated land:
27,380 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate
flood-prone land; limited access to potable water; water-borne
diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of fishing areas
results from the use of commercial pesticides; intermittent water
shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central
parts of the country; soil degradation; deforestation; severe
overpopulation
natural hazards:
vulnerable to droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely
flooded during the summer monsoon season
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

@Bangladesh, People

Population:
125,149,469 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.33% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
35.02 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
11.68 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
106.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
55.08 years
male:
55.35 years
female:
54.8 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.47 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bangladeshi(s)
adjective:
Bangladesh
Ethnic divisions:
Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1 million
Religions:
Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, other
Languages:
Bangla (official), English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
35%
male:
47%
female:
22%
Labor force:
50.1 million
by occupation:
agriculture 65%, services 21%, industry and mining 14% (1989)
note:
extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman (1991)

@Bangladesh, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form:
Bangladesh
former:
East Pakistan
Digraph:
BG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Dhaka
Administrative divisions:
64 districts (zillagulo, singular - zilla); Bagerhat, Bandarban,
Barguna, Barisal, Bhola, Bogra, Brahmanbaria, Chandpur, Chapai
Nawabganj, Chattagram, Chuadanga, Comilla, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka,
Dinajpur, Faridpur, Feni, Gaibandha, Gazipur, Gopalganj, Habiganj,
Jaipurhat, Jamalpur, Jessore, Jhalakati, Jhenaidah, Khagrachari,
Khulna, Kishorganj, Kurigram, Kushtia, Laksmipur, Lalmonirhat,
Madaripur, Magura, Manikganj, Meherpur, Moulavibazar, Munshiganj,
Mymensingh, Naogaon, Narail, Narayanganj, Narsingdi, Nator, Netrakona,
Nilphamari, Noakhali, Pabna, Panchagar, Parbattya Chattagram,
Patuakhali, Pirojpur, Rajbari, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Satkhira,
Shariyatpur, Sherpur, Sirajganj, Sunamganj, Sylhet, Tangail,
Thakurgaon
Independence:
16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 March (1971)
Constitution:
4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup
of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times
Legal system:
based on English common law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991); election last
held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October 1996); results -
Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary vote
head of government:
Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN (since 20 March 1991)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad):
elections last held 27 February 1991 (next to be held NA February
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (330 total, 300
elected and 30 seats reserved for women) BNP 168, AL 93, JP 35, JI 20,
BCP 5, National Awami Party (Muzaffar) 1, Workers Party 1, JSD 1,
Ganotantri Party 1, Islami Oikya Jote 1, NDP 1, independents 3
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN; Awami League
(AL), Sheikh Hasina WAJED; Jatiyo Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD
(in jail); Jamaat-E-Islami (JI), Ali KHAN; Bangladesh Communist Party
(BCP), Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK; National Awami Party (Muzaffar); Workers
Party, leader NA; Jatiyo Samajtantik Dal (JSD), Serajul ALAM KHAN;
Ganotantri Party, leader NA; Islami Oikya Jote, leader NA; National
Democratic Party (NDP), leader NA; Muslim League, Khan A. SABUR;
Democratic League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; Democratic League,
Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; United People's Party, Kazi ZAFAR Ahmed
Member of:
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Abul AHSAN
chancery:
2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 342-8372 through 8376
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador David MERRILL
embassy:
Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka
mailing address:
G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1212
telephone:
[880] (2) 884700-22
FAX:
[880] (2) 883-744
Flag:
green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center;
green is the traditional color of Islam

@Bangladesh, Economy

Overview:
Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and
least developed nations. Its economy is overwhelmingly agricultural,
with the cultivation of rice the single most important activity in the
economy. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and
floods, government interference with the economy, a rapidly growing
labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, a low level of
industrialization, failure to fully exploit energy resources (natural
gas), and inefficient and inadequate power supplies. Excellent rice
crops and expansion of the export garment industry helped growth in
FY92 and FY93. Policy reforms intended to reduce government regulation
of private industry and promote public-sector efficiency have been
announced but are being implemented only slowly.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $122 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.3% (FY93)
National product per capita:
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.4% (FY93)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$2.5 billion
expenditures:
$3.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92)
Exports:
$2.1 billion (FY93)
commodities:
garments, jute and jute goods, leather, shrimp
partners:
US 33%, Western Europe 39% (Germany 8.4%, Italy 6%) (FY92 est.)
Imports:
$3.5 billion (FY93)
commodities:
capital goods, petroleum, food, textiles
partners:
Hong Kong 7.5%, Singapore 7.4%, China 7.4%, Japan 7.1% (FY92 est.)
External debt:
$13.5 billion (June 1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.9% (FY93 est.); accounts for 9.4% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
2,400,000 kW
production:
9 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
75 kWh (1992)
Industries:
jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing, steel,
fertilizer
Agriculture:
accounts for 33% of GDP, 65% of employment, and one-fifth of exports;
world's largest exporter of jute; commercial products - jute, rice,
wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef, milk, poultry; shortages
include wheat, vegetable oils, cotton
Illicit drugs:
transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89),
$11.65 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6.52 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $1.5 billion
Currency:
1 taka (Tk) = 100 poiska
Exchange rates:
taka (Tk) per US$1 - 40.064 (January 1994), 39.567 (1993), 38.951
(1992), 36.596 (1991), 34.569 (1990), 32.270 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Bangladesh, Communications

Railroads:
2,892 km total (1986); 1,914 km 1.000 meter gauge, 978 km 1.676 meter
broad gauge
Highways:
total:
7,240 km
paved:
3,840 km
unpaved:
3,400 km (1985)
Inland waterways:
5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km main cargo
routes)
Pipelines:
natural gas 1,220 km
Ports:
Chittagong, Chalna
Merchant marine:
41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 312,172 GRT/458,131 DWT, bulk 3,
cargo 33, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 3
Airports:
total:
16
usable:
12
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
6
Telecommunications:
adequate international radio communications and landline service; poor
domestic telephone service; 241.250 telephones - only one telephone
for each 522 persons; fair broadcast service; broadcast stations - 9
AM, 6 FM, 11 TV; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth stations

@Bangladesh, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
paramilitary forces:
Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Defense
Parties, National Cadet Corps
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 31,955,948; fit for military service 18,967,602
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $355 million, 1.5% of GDP (FY92/93)

@Barbados, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the extreme eastern Caribbean Sea, about 375 km
northeast of Venezuela
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
430 sq km
land area:
430 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
97 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (June to October)
Terrain:
relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Natural resources:
petroleum, fishing, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
77%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
9%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
14%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil
erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of
aquifers
natural hazards:
subject to hurricanes (especially June to October); periodic
landslides
international agreements:
party to - Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity
Note:
easternmost Caribbean island

@Barbados, People

Population:
255,827 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.21% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
15.63 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.4 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-5.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.83 years
male:
71.11 years
female:
76.76 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.78 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Barbadian(s)
adjective:
Barbadian
Ethnic divisions:
African 80%, European 4%, other 16%
Religions:
Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other
12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9% (1980)
Languages:
English
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
99%
male:
99%
female:
99%
Labor force:
120,900 (1991)
by occupation:
services and government 37%, commerce 22%, manufacturing and
construction 22%, transportation, storage, communications, and
financial institutions 9%, agriculture 8%, utilities 2% (1985 est.)

@Barbados, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Barbados
Digraph:
BB
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Bridgetown
Administrative divisions:
11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James,
Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter,
Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
note:
the new city of Bridgetown may be given parish status
Independence:
30 November 1966 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 30 November (1966)
Constitution:
30 November 1966
Legal system:
English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Dame Nita BARROW (since 6 June 1990)
head of government:
Prime Minister Lloyd Erskine SANDIFORD (since 2 June 1987); Deputy
Prime Minister Philip Marlowe GREAVES (since 2 June 1987)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the prime
minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
Senate:
consists of a 21-member body appointed by the governor general
House of Assembly:
election last held 22 January 1991 (next to be held by January 1996);
results - DLP 49.8%; seats - (28 total) DLP 18, BLP 10
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Judicature
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Erskine SANDIFORD; Barbados Labor Party
(BLP), Owen ARTHUR; National Democratic Party (NDP), Richie HAYNES
Other political or pressure groups:
Barbados Workers Union, Leroy TROTMAN; People's Progressive Movement,
Eric SEALY; Workers' Party of Barbados, Dr. George BELLE; Clement
Payne Labor Union, David COMMISSIONG
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dr. Rudi Valentine WEBSTER
chancery:
2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-9200 through 9202
consulate(s) general:
New York
consulate(s):
Los Angeles
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jeanette W. HYDE
embassy:
Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown
mailing address:
P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055
telephone:
(809) 436-4950
FAX:
(809) 429-5246
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and blue with
the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident
head represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial
coat of arms contained a complete trident)

@Barbados, Economy

Overview:
A per capita income of $8,700 gives Barbados one of the highest
standards of living of all the small island states of the eastern
Caribbean. Historically, the economy was based on the cultivation of
sugar cane and related activities. In recent years, however, the
economy has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. The tourist
industry is now a major employer of the labor force and a primary
source of foreign exchange. The economy slowed in 1990-92 as
Bridgetown's difficulty in financing its deficits caused it to exert
control over domestic demands
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-3% (1992)
National product per capita:
$8,700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.1% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
23% (1992)
Budget:
revenues:
$547 million
expenditures:
$620 million, including capital expenditures of $60 million (FY92-93)
Exports:
$158 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals,
electrical components, clothing
partners:
US 13%, UK 13%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, Windward Islands 7.8%
Imports:
$465 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials, chemicals, fuel,
electrical components
partners:
US 33%, UK 11%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, Japan 5%
External debt:
$652 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.3% (1991); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
152,100 kW
production:
540 million kWh
consumption per capita:
2,118 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export,
petroleum
Agriculture:
accounts for 6% of GDP; major cash crop is sugarcane; other crops -
vegetables, cotton; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $171
million
Currency:
1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1 - 2.0113 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Barbados, Communications

Highways:
total:
1,570 km
paved:
1,475 km
unpaved:
gravel, earth 95 km
Ports:
Bridgetown
Merchant marine:
2 oil tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,466 GRT/76,219 DWT
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
island wide automatic telephone system with 89,000 telephones;
tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad and Saint Lucia; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 2 (1 is pay) TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

@Barbados, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Barbados Defense Force, including the Ground Forces and Coast
Guard, Royal Barbados Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 70,751; fit for military service 49,330
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $10 million, 0.7% of GDP (1989)

@Bassas da India

Header
Affiliation:
(possession of France)

@Bassas da India, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the southern Mozambique Channel about halfway
between Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total area:
NA km2
land area:
NA km2
comparative area:
NA
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
35.2 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
a volcanic rock 2.4 meters high
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (all rock)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones
international agreements:
NA
Note:
navigational hazard since it is usually under water during high tide

@Bassas da India, People

Population:
uninhabited

@Bassas da India, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Bassas da India
Digraph:
BS
Type:
French possession administered by a Commissioner of the Republic,
resident in Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
none (possession of France)

@Bassas da India, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Bassas da India, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

@Bassas da India, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@Belarus, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, between Poland and Russia
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Europe,
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
207,600 sq km
land area:
207,600 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries:
total 3,098 km, Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km, Russia
959 km, Ukraine 891 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental
and maritime
Terrain:
generally flat and contains much marshland
Natural resources:
forest land, peat deposits
Land use:
arable land:
29%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
15%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
55%
Irrigated land:
1,490 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of Belarus
contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at
Chornobyl'
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Biodiversity, Environmental Modification, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Climate
Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
landlocked

@Belarus, People

Population:
10,404,862 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.32% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.12 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
11.16 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
18.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.88 years
male:
66.2 years
female:
75.79 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.88 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Belarusian(s)
adjective:
Belarusian
Ethnic divisions:
Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.9%, other
1.9%
Religions:
Eastern Orthodox, other
Languages:
Byelorussian, Russian, other
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1979)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
4.887 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 40%, agriculture and forestry 21%, other 39%
(1992)

@Belarus, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Belarus
conventional short form:
Belarus
local long form:
Respublika Byelarus'
local short form:
none
former:
Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
BO
Type:
republic
Capital:
Minsk
Administrative divisions:
6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one municipality* (harady,
singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest), Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad
Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya,
Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk)
note:
the administrative centers of the voblastsi are included in
parentheses
Independence:
25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 July (1990)
Constitution:
adopted 15 March 1994; replaces constitution of April 1978
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President-elect Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (elected 10 July 1994, but not
yet inaugurated) election held June 24 and 10 July 1994 (next to be
held NA); Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 80%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 14%
head of government:
Prime Minister Vyacheslav F. KEBICH (since NA April 1990; offered his
resignation on the election of LUCHASHENKO), First Deputy Prime
Minister Mikhail MYASNIKOVICH (since NA 1991)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
note:
first presidential elections took place in June-July 1994
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Supreme Soviet:
elections last held 4 April 1990 (next to be held NA); results -
Communists 87%; seats - (360 total) number of seats by party NA; note
- 50 seats are for public bodies; the Communist Party obtained an
overwhelming majority
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Belarusian Popular Front (BPF), Zenon PAZNYAK, chairman; United
Democratic Party of Belarus (UDPB), Aleksandr DOBROVOLSKIY, chairman;
Social Democratic Party of Belarus (SDBP), Mikhail TKACHEV, chairman;
Belarus Workers Union, Mikhail SOBOL, Chairman; Belarus Peasants
Party; Party of People's Unity, Gennadiy KARPENKO; Movement for
Democracy, Social Progress, and Justice (DSPS; includes the Communist
Party), Viktor CHIKIN, chairman
Member of:
CBSS (observer), CE (guest), CEI (participating), CIS, CSCE, ECE,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), IOC, ITU, NACC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Sergey Nikolayevich MARTYNOV
chancery:
1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 986-1604
FAX:
(202) 986-1805)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires George KROL
embassy:
Starovilenskaya #46, Minsk
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
7-0172-34-65-37
Flag:
three horizontal bands of white (top), red, and white

@Belarus, Economy
Overview:
Belarus ranks among the most developed of the former Soviet states,
with a relatively modern - by Soviet standards - and diverse machine
building sector and a robust agriculture sector. It also serves as a
transport link for Russian oil exports to the Baltic states and
Eastern and Western Europe. The breakup of the Soviet Union and its
command economy has resulted in a sharp economic contraction as
traditional trade ties have collapsed. At the same time, the
Belarusian Government has lagged behind most other former Soviet
states in economic reform; privatization has barely begun; the
agriculture sector remains highly subsidized; the state retains
control over many prices; and the system of state orders and
distribution persists. Meanwhile, the national bank continues to pour
credits into inefficient enterprises, fueling inflation and weakening
incentives to improve performance. The government is pinning its hopes
on reintegration with the Russian economy, but such a path would only
partially restore traditional trade ties. Until economic reform is
embraced, Belarus will continue in its economic morass.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $61 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Belarusian statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-9% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,890 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
30% per month (1993)
Unemployment rate:
1.4% officially registered unemployed (December 1993); large numbers
of underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$710 million to outside of the FSU countries (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners:
Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Bulgaria
Imports:
$743 million from outside the FSU countries (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
fuel, industrial raw materials, textiles, sugar
partners:
Russia, Ukraine, Poland
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -11% (1993); accounts for about 40% of GDP (1992)
Electricity:
capacity:
8,025,000 kW
production:
37.6 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
3,626 kWh (1992)
Industries:
employ about 40% of labor force and produce a wide variety of products
including (in percent share of total output of former Soviet Union):
tractors (12%); metal-cutting machine tools (11%); off-highway dump
trucks up to 110-metric-ton load capacity (100%); wheel-type
earthmovers for construction and mining (100%); eight-wheel-drive,
high-flotation trucks with cargo capacity of 25 metric tons for use in
tundra and roadless areas (100%); equipment for animal husbandry and
livestock feeding (25%); motorcycles (21.3%); television sets (11%);
chemical fibers (28%); fertilizer (18%); linen fabric (11%); wool
fabric (7%); radios; refrigerators; and other consumer goods
Agriculture:
accounts for almost 25% of GDP and 5.7% of total agricultural output
of former Soviet Union; employs 21% of the labor force; in 1988
produced the following (in percent of total Soviet production): grain
(3.6%), potatoes (12.2%), vegetables (3.0%), meat (6.0%), milk (7.0%);
net exporter of meat, milk, eggs, flour, potatoes
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis; mostly for the
domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western
Europe
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
Belarusian rubel
note:
the government signed a framework agreement with Russia for a monetary
union in January 1994, but a schedule and mechanism for merging the
two monetary systems and replacing Belarusian rubels with Russian
rubles have not been worked out
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Belarus, Communications

Railroads:
5,570 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
total:
98,200 km
paved:
66,100 km
unpaved:
earth 32,100 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural gas 1,980 km
(1992)
Ports:
none; landlocked
Merchant marine:
claims 5% of former Soviet fleet
Airports:
total:
124
usable:
55
with permanent-surface runways:
31
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
28
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
20
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
telephone service in Belarus is inadequate for the purposes of either
business or the population; total number of telephones 1,849,000 (31
December 1991); telephone density - 18 for each 100 persons; about 70%
of the telephones are in homes; over 750,000 applications from
households for telephones remain unsatisfied (1992); new investment
centers on international connections and business needs; the new
BelCel NMT 450 cellular system (a joint venture) is now operating in
Minsk but progress has been slower in establishing an INTELSAT earth
station; international traffic still relies on the Moscow
international gateway switch; broadcast receivers - television
3,538,000, radio 3,140,000, radio receivers with multiple speaker
systems for program diffusion 5,615,000

@Belarus, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Security Forces (internal and
border troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,520,487; fit for military service 1,981,749; reach
military age (18) annually 71,922 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
56.5 billion rubles, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

@Belgium, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, bordering on the North Sea, between France and the
Netherlands
Map references:
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
30,510 sq km
land area:
30,230 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 1,385 km, France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
Netherlands 450 km
Coastline:
64 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
equidistant line with neighbors
exclusive fishing zone:
equidistant line with neighbors (extends about 68 km from coast)
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Terrain:
flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged
mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast
Natural resources:
coal, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
24%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
21%
other:
34%
Irrigated land:
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
Meuse River, a major source of drinking water, polluted from steel
production wastes; other rivers polluted by animal wastes and
fertilizers; industrial air pollution contributes to acid rain in
neighboring countries
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed,
but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals
within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of the EC

@Belgium, People

Population:
10,062,836 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.2% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
11.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.26 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.96 years
male:
73.67 years
female:
80.44 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:

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