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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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12% (1992)
Budget:
revenues:
$20.3 million
expenditures:
$44 million, including capital expenditures of $23.9 million (1989
est.)
Exports:
$6.8 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells
partners:
US, UK
Imports:
$42.8 million (1992)
commodities:
food and beverages, tobacco, clothing, manufactures, construction
materials
partners:
US, UK
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
9,050 kW
production:
11.1 million kWh
consumption per capita:
860 kWh (1992)
Industries:
fishing, tourism, offshore financial services
Agriculture:
subsistence farming prevails, based on corn and beans; fishing more
important than farming; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $110 million
Currency:
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Turks and Caicos Islands, Communications

Highways:
total:
121 km (including 24 km tarmac)
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Grand Turk, Salt Cay, Providenciales, Cockburn Harbour
Airports:
total:
7
usable:
7
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
fair cable and radio services; 1,446 telephones; broadcast stations -
3 AM, no FM, several TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

@Turks and Caicos Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Tuvalu, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia, 3,000 km east of Papua New Guinea in the South
Pacific Ocean
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
26 sq km
land area:
26 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
24 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November);
westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)
Terrain:
very low-lying and narrow coral atolls
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
since there are no streams or rivers and groundwater is not potable,
all water needs must be met by catchment systems with storage
facilities
natural hazards:
severe tropical storms are rare
international agreements:
party to - Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

@Tuvalu, People

Population:
9,831 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.66% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
25.73 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.15 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
27.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
63.03 years
male:
61.57 years
female:
64.08 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.11 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Tuvaluans(s)
adjective:
Tuvaluan
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian 96%
Religions:
Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%,
Baha'i 1%, other 0.6%
Languages:
Tuvaluan, English
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
NA

@Tuvalu, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Tuvalu
former:
Ellice Islands
Digraph:
TV
Type:
democracy; began debating republic status in 1992; referendum expected
in 1993
Capital:
Funafuti
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
1 October 1978 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 October (1978)
Constitution:
1 October 1978
Legal system:
NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Tomu Malaefono SIONE (since NA 1993)
head of government:
Prime Minister Kamuta LATASI (since 10 December 1993); Deputy Prime
Minister Otinielu TAUSI (since 10 December 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on recommendation of the
prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament (Palamene):
elections last held 25 November 1993 (next to be held by NA 1997);
results - percent of vote NA; seats - (12 total)
Judicial branch:
High Court
Political parties and leaders:
none
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C (special), ESCAP, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), ITU,
SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
Tuvalu has no mission in the US
US diplomatic representation:
none
Flag:
light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant;
the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine
yellow five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

@Tuvalu, Economy

Overview:
Tuvalu consists of a scattered group of nine coral atolls with poor
soil. The country has no known mineral resources and few exports.
Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic activities.
The islands are too small and too remote for development of a tourist
industry. Government revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and
coins and worker remittances. Substantial income is received annually
from an international trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, NZ,
and the UK and supported also by Japan and South Korea.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $6.4 million (1990)
National product real growth rate:
4% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$700 (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.9% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$4.3 million
expenditures:
$4.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)
Exports:
$165,000 (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
copra
partners:
Fiji, Australia, NZ
Imports:
$4.4 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goods
partners:
Fiji, Australia, NZ
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
2,600 kW
production:
3 million kWh
consumption per capita:
330 kWh (1990)
Industries:
fishing, tourism, copra
Agriculture:
coconuts and fish
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $101
million
Currency:
1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364
(January 1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799
(1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year:
NA

@Tuvalu, Communications

Highways:
total:
8 km
unpaved:
gravel 8 km
Ports:
Funafuti, Nukufetau
Merchant marine:
7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 57,067 GRT/102,037 DWT, chemical
tanker 4, oil tanker 2, passenger-cargo 1
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 300 radiotelephones; 4,000
radios; 108 telephones

@Tuvalu, Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GNP

@Uganda, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, between Kenya and Zaire
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
236,040 sq km
land area:
199,710 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total 2,698 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania
396 km, Zaire 765 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February,
June to August); semiarid in northeast
Terrain:
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Natural resources:
copper, cobalt, limestone, salt
Land use:
arable land:
23%
permanent crops:
9%
meadows and pastures:
25%
forest and woodland:
30%
other:
13%
Irrigated land:
90 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing;
soil erosion
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Environmental
Modification
Note:
landlocked

@Uganda, People

Population:
19,121,934 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.42% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
48.8 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
23.68 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
112.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
37.46 years
male:
37.15 years
female:
37.79 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.77 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ugandan(s)
adjective:
Ugandan
Ethnic divisions:
Baganda 17%, Karamojong 12%, Basogo 8%, Iteso 8%, Langi 6%, Rwanda 6%,
Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Bunyoro 3%, Batobo 3%, European,
Asian, Arab 1%, other 23%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 18%
Languages:
English (official), Luganda, Swahili, Bantu languages, Nilotic
languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
48%
male:
62%
female:
35%
Labor force:
4.5 million (est.)
by occupation:
agriculture over 80%
note:
50% of population of working age (1983)

@Uganda, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Uganda
conventional short form:
Uganda
Digraph:
UG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Kampala
Administrative divisions:
39 districts; Apac, Arua, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga,
Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kalangala, Kampala, Kamuli, Kapchorwa,
Kasese, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum, Kotido, Kumi, Lira, Luwero,
Masaka, Masindi, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono,
Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sototi, Tororo
Independence:
9 October 1962 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Constitution:
8 September 1967, in process of constitutional revision
Legal system:
government plans to restore system based on English common law and
customary law and reinstitute a normal judicial system; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 29 January 1986);
Vice President Samson Babi Mululu KISEKKA (since NA January 1991)
head of government:
Prime Minister George Cosmas ADYEBO (since NA January 1991)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Resistance Council:
elections last held 11-28 February 1989 (next to be held by January
1995); results - NRM was the only party; seats - (278 total, 210
indirectly elected) 210 members elected without party affiliation
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, High Court
Political parties and leaders:
only party - National Resistance Movement (NRM), Yoweri MUSEVENI
note:
Ugandan People's Congress (UPC), Milton OBOTE; Democratic Party (DP),
Paul SSEMOGEERE; and Conservative Party (CP), Joshua S. MAYANJA-NKANGI
continue to exist but are all proscribed from conducting public
political activities
Other political or pressure groups:
Uganda People's Front (UPF); Lord's Resistance Army (LRA); Ruwenzori
Movement
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina KATENTA-APULI
chancery:
5909 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone:
(202) 726-7100 through 7102 and 726-0416
FAX:
(202) 726-1727
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Johnnie CARSON
embassy:
Parliament Avenue, Kampala
mailing address:
P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone:
[256] (41) 259792, 259793, 259795
Flag:
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow,
and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a
red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the staff side

@Uganda, Economy

Overview:
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils,
regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt.
The economy has been devastated by widespread political instability,
mismanagement, and civil war since independence in 1962. (GDP remains
below the levels of the early 1970s, as does industrial production.)
Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing
over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and
accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986 the government
has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking
currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing
prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The
policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation, which was
running at over 300% in 1987, and boosting production and export
earnings. In 1990-93, the economy has turned in a solid performance
based on continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure,
improved incentives for production and exports, and gradually
improving domestic security.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $24.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
41.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$365 million
expenditures:
$545 million, including capital expenditures of $165 million (1989
est.)
Exports:
$150 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
coffee 97%, cotton, tea
partners:
US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%
Imports:
$513 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
petroleum products, machinery, cotton piece goods, metals,
transportation equipment, food
partners:
Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%
External debt:
$1.9 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 8% (1992 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
200,000 kW
production:
610 million kWh
consumption per capita:
30 kWh (1991)
Industries:
sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement
Agriculture:
mainly subsistence; accounts for 57% of GDP and over 80% of labor
force; cash crops - coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops -
cassava, potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; livestock products - beef,
goat meat, milk, poultry; self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $145 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.4
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $169 million
Currency:
1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1 - 1,165.0 (November 1993), 1.133.8
(1992), 734.0 (1991), 428.85 (1990), 223.1 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Uganda, Communications

Railroads:
1,300 km, 1.000-meter-gauge single track
Highways:
total:
26,200 km
paved:
1,970 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 5,849 km; earth, tracks 18,381 km
Inland waterways:
Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake Edward;
Victoria Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water ports are at Jinja
and Port Bell, both on Lake Victoria
Merchant marine:
3 roll-on/roll-off cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,091
GRT/NA DWT
Airports:
total:
31
usable:
23
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
11
Telecommunications:
fair system with microwave and radio communications stations;
broadcast stations - 10 AM, no FM, 9 TV; satellite communications
ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

@Uganda, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Resistance Army (NRA); includes Air Force and Navy, Local
Defense Units (LDU)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,138,087; fit for military service 2,248,232
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, 15% of budget (FY89/90)

@Ukraine, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland and Russia
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Europe,
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
603,700 sq km
land area:
603,700 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 4,558 km, Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland
428 km, Romania (southwest) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia
1,576 km, Slovakia 90 km
Coastline:
2,782 km
Maritime claims:
NA
International disputes:
potential future border disputes with Moldova and Romania in Northern
Bukovina and southern Odes'ka Oblast'; potential dispute with Moldova
over former southern Bessarabian area; potential dispute with Russia
over Crimea; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has
reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any
other nation
Climate:
temperate continental; subtropical only on the southern Crimean coast;
precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and
north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the
Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater
part of the country, hot in the south
Terrain:
most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaux,
mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the
Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south
Natural resources:
iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulphur, graphite,
titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber
Land use:
arable land:
56%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
12%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
30%
Irrigated land:
26,000 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
unsafe drinking water; air and water pollution; deforestation;
radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at
Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Environmental Modification,
Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but
not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second
largest country in Europe

@Ukraine, People

Population:
51,846,958 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.05% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
12.34 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
20.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.99 years
male:
65.45 years
female:
74.76 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.82 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ukrainian(s)
adjective:
Ukrainian
Ethnic divisions:
Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish 1%, other 4%
Religions:
Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian Orthodox - Kiev
Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic
(Uniate), Protestant, Jewish
Languages:
Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1979)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
23.985 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 33%, agriculture and forestry 21%, health,
education, and culture 16%, trade and distribution 7%, transport and
communication 7%, other 16% (1992)

@Ukraine, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Ukraine
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ukrayina
former:
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
UP
Type:
republic
Capital:
Kiev (Kyyiv)
Administrative divisions:
24 oblasti (singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtomnaya
respublika), and 2 municipalites (mista, singular - misto) with oblast
status**; Cherkas'ka (Cherkasy), Chernihivs'ka (Chernihiv),
Chernivets'ka (Chernitsi), Dnipropetrovs'ka (Dnipropetrovs'k),
Donets'ka (Donets'k), Ivano-Frankivs'ka (Ivano-Frankivs'k),
Kharkivs'ka (Kharkiv), Khersons'ka (Kherson), Khmel'nyts'ka
(Khmel'nyts'kyy), Kirovohrads'ka (Kirovohrad), Kyyiv**, Kyyivs'ka
(Kiev), Luhans'ka (Luhans'k), L'vivs'ka (L'viv), Mykolayivs'ka
(Mykolayiv), Odes'ka (Odesa), Poltavs'ka (Poltava), Respublika Krym*
(Simferopol'), Rivnens'ka (Rivne), Sevastopol'**,Sums'ka
(Sevastopol'), Ternopil's'ka (Ternopil'), Vinnyts'ka (Vinnytsya),
Volyns'ka (Luts'k), Zakarpats'ka (Uzhhorod), Zaporiz'ka
(Zaporizhzhya), Zhytomyrs'ka (Zhytomyr)
note:
names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from
oblast' name
Independence:
1 December 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 August (1991)
Constitution:
using 1978 pre-independence constitution; new constitution currently
being drafted
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President-elect Leonid D. KUCHMA; election last held 26 June and 10
July 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - Leonid KUCHMA 52.15%,
Leonid KRAVCHUK 45.06%
head of government:
Prime Minister (vacant); Acting First Deputy Prime Minister (and
Acting Prime Minister since September 1993) Yukhym Leonidovych
ZVYAHIL'SKYY (since 11 June 1993) and five deputy prime ministers
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and approved by the
Supreme Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Supreme Council:
elections last held 27 March 1994 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (450 total) number of seats by
party NA; note - 338 deputies were elected; the remaining 112 seats to
be filled on 24 July 1994
Judicial branch:
being organized
Political parties and leaders:
Green Party of Ukraine, Vitaliy KONONOV, leader; Liberal Party of
Ukraine, Ihor MERKULOV, chairman; Liberal Democratic Party of Ukraine,
Volodymyr KLYMCHUK, chairman; Democratic Party of Ukraine, Volodymyr
Oleksandrovych YAVORIVSKIY, chairman; People's Party of Ukraine,
Leopol'd TABURYANSKYY, chairman; Peasants' Party of Ukraine, Serhiy
DOVGRAN', chairman; Party of Democratic Rebirth of Ukraine, Volodymyr
FILENKO, chairman; Social Democratic Party of Ukraine, Yuriy ZBITNEV,
chairman; Socialist Party of Ukraine, Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman;
Ukrainian Christian Democratic Party, Vitaliy ZHURAVSKYY, chairman;
Ukrainian Conservative Republican Party, Stepan KHMARA, chairman;
Ukrainian Labor Party, Valentyn LANDYK, chairman; Ukrainian Party of
Justice, Mykhaylo HRECHKO, chairman; Ukrainian Peasants' Democratic
Party, Serhiy PLACHINDA, chairman; Ukrainian Republican Party,
Mykhaylo HORYN', chairman; Ukrainian National Conservative Party,
Viktor RADIONOV, chairman; Ukrainian People's Movement for
Restructuring (Rukh), Vyacheslav CHORNOUL, chairman; Ukrainian
Communist Party, Petr SYMONENKO
Other political or pressure groups:
New Ukraine (Nova Ukrayina); Congress of National Democratic Forces
Member of:
BSEC, CBSS (observer), CCC, CE (guest), CEI (participating), CIS,
CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NACC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Oleh Hryhorovych BILORUS
chancery:
3350 M Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 333-0606
FAX:
(202) 333-0817
consulate(s) general:
Chicago and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William MILLER
embassy:
10 Yuria Kotsyubinskovo, 252053 Kiev 53
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[7] (044) 244-7349 or 244-7344
FAX:
[7] (044) 244-7350
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent
grainfields under a blue sky

@Ukraine, Economy

Overview:
After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and away the most
important economic component of the former Soviet Union producing more
than three times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile
black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural
output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk,
grain and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified
heavy industry supplied equipment and raw materials to industrial and
mining sites in other regions of the former USSR. In 1992 the
Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal
framework for privatizing state enterprises while retaining many
central economic controls and continuing subsidies to state production
enterprises. In November 1992 the new Prime Minister KUCHMA launched a
new economic reform program promising more freedom to the agricultural
sector, faster privatization of small and medium enterprises, and
stricter control over state subsidies. In 1993, however, severe
internal political disputes over the scope and pace of economic reform
and payment arrears on energy imports have led to further declines in
output, and inflation of 50% or more per month by the last quarter. In
first quarter 1994, national income and industrial output were less
than two-thirds the first quarter 1993 figures, according to official
statistics. At the same time an increasing number of people are
developing small private businesses and exploiting opportunities in
non-official markets. Even so, the magnitude of the problems and the
slow pace in building new market-oriented institutions preclude a
near-term recovery of output to the 1990 level. A vital economic
concern in 1994 will continue to be Russia's decisions on the prices
and quantities of oil and gas to be shipped to the Ukraine.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $205.4 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Ukrainian statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-16% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,960 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
45% per month (1993)
Unemployment rate:
0.4% officially registered; large number of unregistered or
underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$3 billion to countries outside of the FSU (1993)
commodities:
coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals,
machinery and transport equipment, grain, meat
partners:
FSU countries, Germany, China, Austria
Imports:
$2.2 billion from outside of the FSU countries (1993)
commodities:
machinery and parts, transportation equipment, chemicals, textiles
partners:
FSU countries, Germany, China, Austria
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -14% (1993); accounts for 50% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
55,882,000 kW
production:
281 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
5,410 kWh (1992)
Industries:
coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and
transport equipment, chemicals, food-processing (especially sugar)
Agriculture:
accounts for about 25% of GDP; grain, vegetables, meat, milk, sugar
beets
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
consumption; limited government eradication program; used as
transshipment points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
$350 million economic aid and $350 million to help disassemble the
atomic weapons from the US in 1994
Currency:
Ukraine withdrew the Russian ruble from circulation on 12 November
1992 and declared the karbovanets (plural karbovantsi) sole legal
tender in Ukrainian markets; Ukrainian officials claim this is an
interim move toward introducing a new currency - the hryvnya -
possibly in mid-1994
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Ukraine, Communications

Railroads:
23,350 km (1,524-mm gauge); 8,600 km electrified
Highways:
total:
273,700 km
paved and gravel:
236,400 km
unpaved:
earth 37,300 km
Inland waterways:
1,672 km perennially navigable (Pryp''yat' and Dnipro Rivers)
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,010 km; petroleum products 1,920 km; natural gas 7,800 km
(1992)
Ports:
coastal - Berdyans'k, Illichivs'k, Kerch, Kherson, Mariupol',
Mykolayiv, Odesa, Sevastopol', Pivdenne; inland - Kiev (Kyyiv)
Merchant marine:
390 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,932,009 GRT/5,236,134 DWT,
barge carriers 7, bulk cargo 55, cargo 231, chemical tanker 2,
container 18, liquefied gas 1, multi-function-large-load-carrier 1,
oil tanker 10, passenger 12, passenger cargo 5, railcar carrier 2,
refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 33, short-sea passenger 8
Airports:
total:
694
usable:
199
with permanent-surface runways:
111
with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
81
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
78
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
the telephone system is inadequate both for business and for personal
use; about 7,886,000 telephone circuits serve 52,056,000 people
(1991); telephone density is 151.4 telephone circuits per 1,000
persons (1991); 3.56 million applications for telephones had not been
satisfied as of January 1991; calls to other CIS countries are carried
by land line or microwave; other international calls to 167 countries
are carried by satellite or by the 150 leased lines through the Moscow
gateway switch; an NMT-450 analog cellular telephone network operates
in Kiev (Kyyiv) and allows direct dialing of international calls
through Kiev's EWSD digital exchange; electronic mail services have
been established in Kiev, Odessa, and Lugansk by Sprint; satellite
earth stations employ INTELSAT, INMARSAT, and Intersputnik

@Ukraine, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republic Security Forces
(internal and border troops), National Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 12,191,984; fit for military service 9,591,276; reach
military age (18) annually 364,676 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
544,256 million karbovantsi, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993); note -
conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

@United Arab Emirates, Geography

Location:
Middle East, along the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Map references:
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
75,581 sq km
land area:
75,581 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
total 867 km, Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 457 km
Coastline:
1,318 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
defined by bilateral boundaries or equidistant line
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm assumed for most of country; 12 nm for Ash Shariqah (Sharjah)
International disputes:
location and status of boundary with Saudi Arabia is not final; no
defined boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line in far
north; claims two islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran
(Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e
Kuchek or Lesser Tunb); claims island in the Persian Gulf jointly
administered with Iran (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu Musa); in 1992, the
dispute over Abu Musa and the Tunb islands became more acute when Iran
unilaterally tried to control the entry of third country nationals
into the UAE portion of Abu Musa island, Tehran subsequently backed
off in the face of significant diplomatic support for the UAE in the
region
Climate:
desert; cooler in eastern mountains
Terrain:
flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast
desert wasteland; mountains in east
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
2%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
98%
Irrigated land:
50 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
lack of natural freshwater resources being overcome by desalination
plants; desertification; beach pollution from oil spills
natural hazards:
frequent dust and sand storms
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone
Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the
Sea
Note:
strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a
vital transit point for world crude oil

@United Arab Emirates, People

Population:
2,791,141 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
4.79% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
27.68 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
3.05 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
23.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
21.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.26 years
male:
70.16 years
female:
74.46 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.6 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Emirian(s)
adjective:
Emirian
Ethnic divisions:
Emirian 19%, other Arab 23%, South Asian 50%, other expatriates
(includes Westerners and East Asians) 8% (1982)
note:
less than 20% are UAE citizens (1982)
Religions:
Muslim 96% (Shi'a 16%), Christian, Hindu, and other 4%
Languages:
Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
Literacy:
age 10 and over but definition of literacy not available (1980)
total population:
68%
male:
70%
female:
63%
Labor force:
580,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation:
industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 5%
note:
80% of labor force is foreign (est.)

@United Arab Emirates, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
United Arab Emirates
conventional short form:
none
local long form:
Al Imarata al Arabiyah al Muttahidah
local short form:
none
former:
Trucial States
Abbreviation:
UAE
Digraph:
TC
Type:
federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE central
government and other powers reserved to member emirates
Capital:
Abu Dhabi
Administrative divisions:
7 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi), 'Ajman,
Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah (Sharjah), Dubayy, Ra's al Khaymah, Umm al
Qaywayn
Independence:
2 December 1971 (from UK)
National holiday:
National Day, 2 December (1971)
Constitution:
2 December 1971 (provisional)
Legal system:
secular codes are being introduced by the UAE Government and in
several member emirates; Islamic law remains influential
Suffrage:
none
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan, (since 2 December 1971), ruler
of Abu Dhabi; Vice President Shaykh Maktum bin Rashid al-MAKTUM (since
8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy
head of government:
Prime Minister Shaykh MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum (since 8 October
1990), ruler of Dubayy; Deputy Prime Minister Sultan bin Zayid Al
NUHAYYAN (since 20 November 1990)
Supreme Council of Rulers:
composed of the seven emirate rulers, the council is the highest
constitutional authority in the UAE; establishes general policies and
sanctions federal legislation, Abu Dhabi and Dubayy rulers have veto
power; council meets four times a year
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral Federal National Council (Majlis Watani Itihad); no
elections
Judicial branch:
Union Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
none
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Muhammad bin Husayn al-SHAALI
chancery:
Suite 600, 3000 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 338-6500
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William A. RUGH
embassy:
Al-Sudan Street, Abu Dhabi
mailing address:
P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi
telephone:
[971] (2) 336691
FAX:
[971] (2) 318441
consulate(s) general:
Dubayy (Dubai)
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a
thicker vertical red band on the hoist side

@United Arab Emirates, Economy

Overview:
The UAE has an open economy with one of the world's highest incomes
per capita and with a sizable annual trade surplus. Its wealth is
based on oil and gas output (about 40% of GDP), and the fortunes of
the economy fluctuate with the prices of those commodities. Since
1973, the UAE has undergone a profound transformation from an
impoverished region of small desert principalities to a modern state
with a high standard of living. At present levels of production, crude
oil reserves should last for over 100 years. Although much stronger
economically than most Gulf states, the UAE faces similar problems
with weak international oil prices and the pressures for cuts in OPEC
oil production quotas. The UAE government is encouraging increased
privatization within the economy.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $63.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$24,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NEGL% (1988)
Budget:
revenues:
$4.3 billion
expenditures:
$4.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est)
Exports:
$22.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
crude oil 66%, natural gas, re-exports, dried fish, dates
partners:
Japan 39%, Singapore 5%, Korea 4%, Iran 4%, India 4% (1991)
Imports:
$18 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, food
partners:
Japan 14%, UK 9%, US 8%, Germany 6% (1992)
External debt:
$11 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.7% (1992 est.); accounts for 50% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
6,090,000 kW
production:
17.85 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
6,718 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction materials, some boat
building, handicrafts, pearling
Agriculture:
accounts for 2% of GDP and 5% of labor force; cash crop - dates; food
products - vegetables, watermelons, poultry, eggs, dairy, fish; only
25% self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
growing role as heroin transshipment and money-laundering center
Economic aid:
donor:
pledged in bilateral aid to less developed countries (1979-89) $9.1
billion
Currency:
1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils
Exchange rates:
Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1 - 3.6710 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@United Arab Emirates, Communications

Highways:
total:
2,000 km
paved:
1,800 km
unpaved:
gravel, graded earth 200 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 830 km; natural gas, including natural gas liquids, 870 km
Ports:
Al Fujayrah, Khawr Fakkan, Mina' Jabal 'Ali, Mina' Khalid, Mina'
Rashid, Mina' Saqr, Mina' Zayid
Merchant marine:
57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 909,041 GRT/1,512,741 DWT, bulk
1, cargo 18, chemical tanker 2, container 9, liquified gas 1, oil
tanker 22, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3
Airports:
total:
39
usable:
36
with permanent-surface runways:
22
with runways over 3,659 m:
6
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
6
Telecommunications:
modern system consisting of microwave and coaxial cable; key centers
are Abu Dhabi and Dubayy; 386,600 telephones; satellite ground
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1
ARABSAT; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain, India, and Pakistan;
tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi
Arabia; broadcast stations - 8 AM, 3 FM, 12 TV

@United Arab Emirates, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Federal Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,040,828; fit for military service 567,766; reach
military age (18) annually 17,303 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.47 billion, 5.3% of GDP (1989 est.)

@United Kingdom, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, bordering on the North Atlantic Ocean and the North
Sea, between Ireland and France
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
244,820 sq km
land area:
241,590 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oregon
note:
includes Rockall and Shetland Islands
Land boundaries:
total 360 km, Ireland 360 km
Coastline:
12,429 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
as defined in continental shelf orders or in accordance with agreed
upon boundaries
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Northern Ireland question with Ireland; Gibraltar question with Spain;
Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius claims island
of Diego Garcia in British Indian Ocean Territory; Rockall continental
shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the
UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area); territorial
claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory)
Climate:
temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North
Atlantic Current; more than half of the days are overcast
Terrain:
mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east
and southeast
Natural resources:
coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay,
chalk, gypsum, lead, silica
Land use:
arable land:
29%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
48%
forest and woodland:
9%
other:
14%
Irrigated land:
1,570 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants contribute to air
pollution; some rivers polluted by agricultural wastes and coastal
waters polluted because of large-scale disposal of sewage at sea
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic
Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity
Note:
lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and
now linked by tunnel under the English Channel; because of heavily
indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters

@United Kingdom, People

Population:
58,135,110 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.28% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.39 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.76 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.75 years
male:
73.94 years
female:
79.69 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Briton(s), British (collective pl.)
adjective:
British
Ethnic divisions:
English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%, Ulster 1.8%,
West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%
Religions:
Anglican 27 million, Roman Catholic 9 million, Muslim 1 million,
Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 400,000, Hindu 350,000,
Jewish 300,000 (1991 est.)
note:
the UK does not include a question on religion in its census
Languages:
English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales), Scottish form
of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1978 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
28.048 million
by occupation:
services 62.8%, manufacturing and construction 25.0%, government 9.1%,
energy 1.9%, agriculture 1.2% (June 1992)

@United Kingdom, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
conventional short form:
United Kingdom
Abbreviation:
UK
Digraph:
UK
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
London
Administrative divisions:
47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties, 26 districts, 9 regions, and 3
islands areas
England:
39 counties, 7 metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford, Berkshire,
Buckingham, Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derby,
Devon, Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater
London*, Greater Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and Worcester,
Hertford, Humberside, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester,
Lincoln, Merseyside*, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland, North
Yorkshire, Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, South Yorkshire*,
Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and Wear*, Warwick, West Midlands*,
West Sussex, West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire
Northern Ireland:
26 districts; Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge,
Belfast, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon,
Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Londonderry,
Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh,
Strabane
Scotland:
9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central, Dumfries and Galloway,
Fife, Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*, Shetland*, Strathclyde,
Tayside, Western Isles*
Wales:
8 counties; Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys, South
Glamorgan, West Glamorgan
Dependent areas:
Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin
Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong
Kong (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China on
1 July 1997), Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint
Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos
Islands
Independence:
1 January 1801 (United Kingdom established)
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday in June)
Constitution:
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system:
common law tradition with early Roman and modern continental
influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince
CHARLES (son of the Queen, born 14 November 1948)
head of government:
Prime Minister John MAJOR (since 28 November 1990)
cabinet:
Cabinet of Ministers
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
House of Lords:
consists of a 1,200-member body, four-fifths are hereditary peers, 2
archbishops, 24 other senior bishops, serving and retired Lords of
Appeal in Ordinary, other life peers, Scottish peers
House of Commons:
elections last held 9 April 1992 (next to be held by NA April 1997);
results - Conservative 41.9%, Labor 34.5%, Liberal Democratic 17.9%,
other 5.7%; seats - (651 total) Conservative 336, Labor 271, Liberal
Democratic 20, other 24
Judicial branch:
House of Lords
Political parties and leaders:
Conservative and Unionist Party, John MAJOR; Labor Party; Liberal
Democrats (LD), Jeremy (Paddy) ASHDOWN; Scottish National Party, Alex
SALMOND; Welsh National Party (Plaid Cymru), Dafydd Iwan WIGLEY;
Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), James MOLYNEAUX; Democratic
Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), Rev. Ian PAISLEY; Ulster Popular
Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), Sir James KILFEDDER; Social
Democratic and Labor Party (SDLP, Northern Ireland), John HUME; Sinn
Fein (Northern Ireland), Gerry ADAMS
Other political or pressure groups:
Trades Union Congress; Confederation of British Industry; National
Farmers' Union; Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB
(non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE,
ECLAC, EIB, ESCAP, ESA, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO,
MTRC, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UNTAC, UN
Trusteeship Council, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Sir Robin RENWICK
chancery:
3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 462-1340
FAX:
(202) 898-4255
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles, New York,
and San Francisco,
consulate(s):
Dallas, Miami, Nuku'alofa, and Seattle
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate Adm. William CROWE
embassy:
24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W.1A1AE
mailing address:
PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040
telephone:
[44] (71) 499-9000
FAX:
[44] (71) 409-1637
consulate(s) general:
Belfast and Edinburgh
Flag:
blue with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England)
edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick
(patron saint of Ireland) which is superimposed on the diagonal white
cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); known as the Union
Flag or Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign)
have been the basis for a number of other flags including
dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and others

@United Kingdom, Economy

Overview:
The UK is one of the world's great trading powers and financial
centers, and its economy ranks among the four largest in Western
Europe. The economy is essentially capitalistic; over the past
thirteen years the ruling Tories have greatly reduced public ownership
and contained the growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is
intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards,
producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor force. The
UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves, and primary energy
production accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any
industrial nation. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and
business services, account by far for the largest proportion of GDP
while industry continues to decline in importance, now employing only
25% of the work force and generating only 21% of GDP. The economy is
emerging out of its 3-year recession with only weak recovery in 1993;
even so, the economy fared better in 1993 than the economies of most
other European countries. Unemployment is hovering around 10% of the
labor force. The government in 1992 adopted a pro-growth strategy,
cutting interest rates sharply and removing the pound from the
European exchange rate mechanism. Excess industrial capacity probably
will moderate inflation which for the first time in a decade is below
the EC average. The major economic policy question for Britain in the
1990s is the terms on which it participates in the financial and
economic integration of Europe.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $980.2 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
2.1% (1993)
National product per capita:
$16,900 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.6% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
10.3% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$325.5 billion
expenditures:
$400.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $33 billion (1993
est.)
Exports:
$190.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods,
transport equipment
partners:
EC countries 56.7% (Germany 14.0%, France 11.1%, Netherlands 7.9%), US
10.9%
Imports:
$221.6 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery, semifinished goods, foodstuffs,
consumer goods
partners:
EC countries 51.7% (Germany 14.9%, France 9.3%, Netherlands 8.4%), US
11.6%
External debt:
$16.2 billion (June 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.2% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
99,000,000 kW
production:
317 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
5,480 kWh (1992)
Industries:
production machinery including machine tools, electric power
equipment, equipment for the automation of production, railroad
equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts,
electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal,
petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles,
clothing, and other consumer goods
Agriculture:
accounts for only 1.5% of GDP and 1% of labor force; highly mechanized
and efficient farms; wide variety of crops and livestock products
produced; about 60% self-sufficient in food and feed needs
Illicit drugs:
gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the European
market; producer of synthetic drugs; money-laundering center
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1992-93), $3.2 billion
Currency:
1 British pound (#) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
British pounds (#) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6033 (1993),
0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April-31 March

@United Kingdom, Communications

Railroads:
UK, 16,914 km total; Great Britain's British Railways (BR) operates
16,584 km 1,435-mm (standard) gauge (including 4,545 km electrified
and 12,591 km double or multiple track), several additional small
standard-gauge and narrow-gauge lines are privately owned and
operated; Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) operates 330 km 1,600-mm
gauge (including 190 km double track)
Highways:
total:
362,982 km (Great Britian 339,483 km; Northern Ireland 23,499 km)
paved:
362,390 km (Great Britian 339,483 km, including 2,573 km limited
access divided highway; Northern Ireland 22,907 km)
unpaved:
gravel 592 km (in Northern Ireland)
Inland waterways:
2,291 total; British Waterways Board, 606 km; Port Authorities, 706
km; other, 979 km
Pipelines:
crude oil (almost all insignificant) 933 km; petroleum products 2,993
km; natural gas 12,800 km
Ports:
London, Liverpool, Felixstowe, Tees and Hartlepool, Dover, Sullom Voe,
Southampton
Merchant marine:
180 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,428,571 GRT/4,297,489 DWT,
bulk 17, cargo 35, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 1, container
24, liquefied gas 5, oil tanker 59, passenger 7, passenger cargo 1,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea passenger
14, specialized tanker 1
Airports:
total:
497
usable:
388
with permanent-surface runways:
251
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
37
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
133
Telecommunications:
technologically advanced domestic and international system; 30,200,000
telephones; equal mix of buried cables, microwave and optical-fiber
systems; excellent countrywide broadcast systems; broadcast stations -
225 AM, 525 (mostly repeaters) FM, 207 (3,210 repeaters) TV; 40
coaxial submarine cables; 5 satellite ground stations operating in
INTELSAT (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), INMARSAT, and EUTELSAT
systems; at least 8 large international switching centers

@United Kingdom, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Royal Navy (including Royal Marines), Royal Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 14,432,081; fit for military service 12,056,828
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $34.8 billion, 3.7% of GDP (FY93/94)

@United States, Geography

Location:
North America, between Canada and Mexico
Map references:
North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
9,372,610 sq km
land area:
9,166,600 sq km
comparative area:
about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa;
about one-half the size of South America (or slightly larger than
Brazil); slightly smaller than China; about two and one-half times the
size of Western Europe
note:
includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia
Land boundaries:
total 12,248 km, Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska),
Cuba 29 km (US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay), Mexico 3,326 km
Coastline:
19,924 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm depth
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary disputes with Canada (Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea,
Strait of Juan de Fuca); US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased
from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can
terminate the lease; Haiti claims Navassa Island; US has made no
territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so)
and does not recognize the claims of any other nation; Republic of
Marshall Islands claims Wake Island
Climate:
mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida and arctic in
Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River and
arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in
the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by
warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
Terrain:
vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in
east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged,
volcanic topography in Hawaii
Natural resources:
coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold,
iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum,
natural gas, timber
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
26%
forest and woodland:
29%
other:
25%
Irrigated land:
181,020 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US
is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of
fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and
fertilizers; sparse water resources in much of the western part of the
country requires careful management; desertification
natural hazards:
tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin;
hurricanes along the Atlantic coast; tornadoes in the midwest;
mudslides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding;
permafrost in northern Alaska is a major impediment to development
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic
Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber,
Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity,
Hazardous Wastes
Note:
world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada, and China)

@United States, People

Population:
260,713,585 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.99% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
15.2 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.68 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.11 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.9 years
male:
72.58 years
female:
79.39 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.06 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
American(s)
adjective:
American
Ethnic divisions:
white 83.4%, black 12.4%, Asian 3.3%, Native American 0.8% (1992)
Religions:
Protestant 56%, Roman Catholic 28%, Jewish 2%, other 4%, none 10%
(1989)
Languages:
English, Spanish (spoken by a sizable minority)
Literacy:
age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years of schooling (1991)
total population:
97%
male:
97%
female:
97%
Labor force:
129.525 million (includes armed forces and unemployed); civilian labor
force 128.040 million) (1993)
by occupation:
managerial and professional 27.1%; technical, sales and administrative
support 30.9%; services 13.8%; manufacturing, mining, transportation,
and crafts 25.5%; farming, forestry, and fishing 2.8%

@United States, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
United States of America
conventional short form:
United States
Abbreviation:
US or USA
Digraph:
US
Type:
federal republic; strong democratic tradition
Capital:
Washington, DC

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