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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 38 out of 46

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Fiscal year:
1 April-31 March

@Tokelau, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western Samoa
Telecommunications:
radiotelephone service between islands and to Western Samoa

@Tokelau, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

@Tonga, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia, 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about
two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
748 sq km
land area:
718 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
419 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool
season (May to December)
Terrain:
most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation;
others have limestone overlying volcanic base
Natural resources:
fish, fertile soil
Land use:
arable land:
25%
permanent crops:
55%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
12%
other:
2%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation
natural hazards:
subject to cyclones (October to April)
international agreements:
party to - Marine Life Conservation
Note:
archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited)

@Tonga, People

Population:
104,778 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.79% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
24.76 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.75 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-10.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
20.79 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.97 years
male:
65.64 years
female:
70.43 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.62 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Tongan(s)
adjective:
Tongan
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian, Europeans about 300
Religions:
Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)
Languages:
Tongan, English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write simple message in Tongan or English
(1976)
total population:
57%
male:
60%
female:
60%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture 70%, mining (600 engaged in mining)

@Tonga, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Tonga
conventional short form:
Tonga
former:
Friendly Islands
Digraph:
TN
Type:
hereditary constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Nuku'alofa
Administrative divisions:
three island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu, Vava'u
Independence:
4 June 1970 (from UK)
National holiday:
Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)
Constitution:
4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967
Legal system:
based on English law
Suffrage:
all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females over 21
Executive branch:
chief of state:
King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965)
head of government:
Prime Minister Baron VAEA (since 22 August 1991); Deputy Prime
Minister S. Langi KAVALIKU (since 22 August 1991)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the king
Privy Council:
consists of the king and the cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Fale Alea):
elections last held 14-15 February 1990 (next to be held NA February
1993); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (29 total, 9 elected) 6
proreform, 3 traditionalist
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Reform Movement, 'Akilisi POHIVA; Christian Democratic
Party, leader NA
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
Ambassador Sione KITE, resides in London
consulate(s) general:
San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
the US has no offices in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited
to Tonga and makes periodic visits
Flag:
red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner

@Tonga, Economy

Overview:
The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about 70% of the
labor force and contributes 40% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and vanilla
beans are the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The
country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New
Zealand. The manufacturing sector accounts for only 11% of GDP.
Tourism is the primary source of hard currency earnings, but the
island remains dependent on sizable external aid and remittances to
offset its trade deficit. The economy continued to grow in 1993
largely because of a rise in squash exports, increased aid flows, and
several large construction projects. The government is now turning its
attention to further development of the private sector and the
reduction of the budget deficit.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $200 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (FY92)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$36.4 million
expenditures:
$68.1 million, including capital expenditures of $33.2 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$18.8 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities:
vanilla, fish, root crops, coconut oil, squash
partners:
Japan 34%, US 17%, Australia 13%, NZ 13% (FY91)
Imports:
$68.3 million (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
commodities:
food products, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, fuels,
chemicals
partners:
NZ 33%, Australia 22%, US 8%, Japan 8% (FY91)
External debt:
$47.5 million (FY91)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.5% (FY92); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
6,000 kW
production:
8 million kWh
consumption per capita:
80 kWh (1990)
Industries:
tourism, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; dominated by coconut, copra, and banana
production; vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $16 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $258
million
Currency:
1 pa'anga (T$) = 100 seniti
Exchange rates:
pa'anga (T$) per US$1 - 1.3934 (November 1993), 1.3471 (1992), 1.2961
(1991), 1.2809 (1990), 1.2637 (1989),
Fiscal year:
1 July-30 June

@Tonga, Communications

Highways:
total:
366 km
paved:
272 km (198 km on Tongatapu; 74 km on Vava'u)
unpaved:
94 km (usable only in dry weather)
Ports:
Nuku'alofa, Neiafu, Pangai
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,761 GRT/10,597 DWT, cargo 1,
liquefied gas 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
Airports:
total:
6
usable:
6
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
3,529 telephones; 66,000 radios; no TV sets; broadcast stations - 1
AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Tonga, Defense Forces

Branches:
Tonga Defense Services, Maritime Division, Royal Tongan Marines,
Tongan Royal Guards, Police
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Trinidad and Tobago, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the extreme southeastern Caribbean Sea, 11 km off the
coast of Venezuela
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
5,130 sq km
land area:
5,130 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
362 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the outer edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Terrain:
mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Land use:
arable land:
14%
permanent crops:
17%
meadows and pastures:
2%
forest and woodland:
44%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
220 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and
untreated sewage; oil pollution of beaches; land degradation
natural hazards:
outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change

@Trinidad and Tobago, People

Population:
1,328,282 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.1% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
19.6 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.28 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
16.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.73 years
male:
68.09 years
female:
73.43 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.32 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective:
Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Ethnic divisions:
black 43%, East Indian 40%, mixed 14%, white 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 32.2%, Hindu 24.3%, Anglican 14.4%, other Protestant
14%, Muslim 6%, none or unknown 9.1%
Languages:
English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
95%
male:
97%
female:
93%
Labor force:
463,900
by occupation:
construction and utilities 18.1%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying
14.8%, agriculture 10.9%, other 56.2% (1985 est.)

@Trinidad and Tobago, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form:
Trinidad and Tobago
Digraph:
TD
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Port-of-Spain
Administrative divisions:
8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro,
Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint
Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria
Independence:
31 August 1962 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Constitution:
1 August 1976
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in
the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Noor Mohammed HASSANALI (since 18 March 1987)
head of government:
Prime Minister Patrick Augustus Mervyn MANNING (since 17 December
1991)
cabinet:
Cabinet; responsible to parliament
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
Senate:
consists of a 31-member body appointed by the president
House of Representatives:
elections last held 16 December 1991 (next to be held by December
1996); results - PNM 32%, UNC 13%, NAR 2%; seats - (36 total) PNM 21,
UNC 13, NAR 2
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
People's National Movement (PNM), Patrick MANNING; United National
Congress (UNC), Basdeo PANDAY; National Alliance for Reconstruction
(NAR), Selby WILSON; Movement for Social Transformation (MOTION),
David ABDULLAH; National Joint Action Committee (NJAC), Makandal
DAAGA; Republic Party, Nello MITCHELL; National Development Party
(NDP), Carson CHARLES
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Corinne Averille McKNIGHT
chancery:
1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 467-6490
FAX:
(202) 785-3130
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Sally G. COWAL
embassy:
15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain
mailing address:
P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain
telephone:
(809) 622-6372 through 6376, 6176
FAX:
(809) 628-5462
Flag:
red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side

@Trinidad and Tobago, Economy

Overview:
Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum-based economy still enjoys a high per
capita income by Latin American standards, even though output and
living standards are substantially below the boom years of 1973-82.
The country suffers from widespread unemployment, large foreign-debt
payments, and periods of low international oil prices. Seven
successive years of economic contraction were followed by small gains
in output in 1990-91 of 1.2% and 0.9%, in turn followed by small
declines in 1992-93 of roughly 1.0%. The government has begun to make
progress in its efforts to diversify exports.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $10.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-1% (1993)
National product per capita:
$8,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.5% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
18.5% (1991)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.6 billion
expenditures:
$1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $158 million (1993
est.)
Exports:
$1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel products,
fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers
partners:
US 47%, CARICOM 13%, Latin America 9%, EC 5% (1992)
Imports:
$900 million (f.o.b. , 1993)
commodities:
machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, live
animals (1992)
partners:
US 41%, Venezuela 10%, UK 8%, other EC 8%
External debt:
$2 billion (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.3% (1991); accounts for 37% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
1,176,000 kW
production:
3.48 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,680 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage,
cotton textiles
Agriculture:
accounts for 3% of GDP; highly subsidized sector; major crops - cocoa,
sugarcane; sugarcane acreage is being shifted into rice, citrus,
coffee, vegetables; poultry sector most important source of animal
protein; must import large share of food needs
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and
Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $373 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $518
million
Currency:
1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1 - 5.8111 (January 1994),
5.3511 (1993), 4.2500 (fixed rate 1989-1992); note - effective 13
April 1993, the exchange rate of the TT dollar is market-determined as
opposed to the prior fixed relationship to the US dollar
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Trinidad and Tobago, Communications

Railroads:
minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando
Highways:
total:
8,000 km
paved:
4,000 km
unpaved:
improved earth 1,000 km; unimproved earth 3,000 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,032 km; petroleum products 19 km; natural gas 904 km
Ports:
Port-of-Spain, Pointe-a-Pierre, Scarborough
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,507 GRT/21,923 DWT
Airports:
total:
6
usable:
5
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
excellent international service via tropospheric scatter links to
Barbados and Guyana; good local service; 109,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Trinidad and Tobago, Defense Forces

Branches:
Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (including Ground Forces, Coast
Guard, and Air Wing), Trinidad and Tobago Police Service
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 357,904; fit for military service 257,667
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $59 million, 1%-2% of GDP (1989 est.)

@Tromelin Island

Header
Affiliation:
(possession of France)

@Tromelin Island, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the western Indian Ocean, 350 km east of
Madagascar and 600 km north of Reunion
Map references:
World
Area:
total area:
1 sq km
land area:
1 sq km
comparative area:
about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
3.7 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
sandy
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (scattered bushes)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones; wildlife
sanctuary

@Tromelin Island, People

Population:
uninhabited

@Tromelin Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Tromelin Island
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ile Tromelin
Digraph:
TE
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic,
resident in Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
none (possession of France)

@Tromelin Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Tromelin Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
important meteorological station

@Tromelin Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@Tunisia, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, 144 km from Italy across the Strait of Sicily,
between Algeria and Libya
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
163,610 sq km
land area:
155,360 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Georgia
Land boundaries:
total 1,424 km, Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km
Coastline:
1,148 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Libya; land boundary dispute with
Algeria settled in 1993
Climate:
temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers;
desert in south
Terrain:
mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into
the Sahara
Natural resources:
petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
10%
meadows and pastures:
19%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
47%
Irrigated land:
2,750 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and presents human
health risks; water pollution from untreated sewage; water scarcity;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed,
but not ratified - Marine Life Conservation
Note:
strategic location in central Mediterranean

@Tunisia, People

Population:
8,726,562 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.76% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
23.4 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.95 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
34.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.89 years
male:
70.85 years
female:
75.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.88 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Tunisian(s)
adjective:
Tunisian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, Jewish less than 1%
Religions:
Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish 1%
Languages:
Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French
(commerce)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
65%
male:
74%
female:
56%
Labor force:
2.25 million
by occupation:
agriculture 32%
note:
shortage of skilled labor

@Tunisia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Tunisia
conventional short form:
Tunisia
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
local short form:
Tunis
Digraph:
TS
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tunis
Administrative divisions:
23 governorates; Beja, Ben Arous, Bizerte, Gabes, Gafsa, Jendouba,
Kairouan, Kasserine, Kebili, L'Ariana, Le Kef, Mahdia, Medenine,
Monastir, Nabeul, Sfax, Sidi Bou Zid, Siliana, Sousse, Tataouine,
Tozeur, Tunis, Zaghouan
Independence:
20 March 1956 (from France)
National holiday:
National Day, 20 March (1956)
Constitution:
1 June 1959; amended 12 July 1988
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review
of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Gen. Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987);
election last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA); results - Gen.
Zine el Abidine BEN ALI was reelected without opposition
head of government:
Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September 1989)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab):
elections last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held NA March 1994);
results - RCD 80.7%, independents/Islamists 13.7%, MDS 3.2%, other
2.4%; seats - (141 total) RCD 141
Judicial branch:
Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)
Political parties and leaders:
Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (RCD), President BEN ALI
(official ruling party); Movement of Democratic Socialists (MDS),
Mohammed MOUAADA; five other political parties are legal, including
the Communist Party
Other political or pressure groups:
the Islamic fundamentalist party, An Nahda (Rebirth), is outlawed
Member of:
ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM,
OAPEC (withdrew from active membership in 1986), OAS (observer), OAU,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ismail KHALIL
chancery:
1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone:
(202) 862-1850
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John T. McCARTHY
embassy:
144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[216] (1) 782-566
FAX:
[216] (1) 789-719
Flag:
red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly
encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are
traditional symbols of Islam

@Tunisia, Economy

Overview:
Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural, mining,
energy, tourism and manufacturing sectors. The economy grew rapidly in
the mid-1980s, GDP growth averaging 5.4% in 1983-85. Following a
foreign exchange crisis caused by a sharp drop in agricultural output
and tourism, combined with the oil price collapse in 1986, Tunisia
inaugurated an IMF-sponsored economic rehabilitation scheme.
Subsequent government structural reforms have helped liberalize and
open the economy, and GDP growth has been positive since the start of
the program. A sharp rebound in tourism from the downturn caused by
the Gulf war and strong agricultural performance boosted real GDP
growth to more than 8% in 1992; growth fell back to 2.6% in 1993.
Further privatization and further improvements in government
administrative efficiency are among the challenges for the future.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $34.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
16.2% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$4.3 billion
expenditures:
$5.5 billion, including capital expenditures to $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and chemicals
partners:
EC countries 75%, Middle East 10%, Algeria 2%, India 2%, US 1%
Imports:
$6.4 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%, food 12%,
consumer goods
partners:
EC countries 70%, US 5%, Middle East 2%, Japan 2%, Switzerland 1%,
Algeria 1%
External debt:
$7.7 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5% (1989); accounts for about 25% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
1,545,000 kW
production:
5,096 kWh
consumption per capita:
600 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism,
textiles, footwear, food, beverages
Agriculture:
accounts for 16% of GDP and one-third of labor force; output subject
to severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts; export crops -
olives, dates, oranges, almonds; other products - grain, sugar beets,
wine grapes, poultry, beef, dairy; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $730 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89) $52
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $684 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $410 million
Currency:
1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes
Exchange rates:
Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1 - 1.0514 (January 1994), 1.0037 (1993),
0.8844 (1992), 0.9246 (1991), 0.8783 (1990), 0.9493 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Tunisia, Communications

Railroads:
2,115 km total; 465 km 1.435-meter (standard) gauge; 1,650 km
1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
total:
17,700 km
paved:
bituminous 9,100 km
unpaved:
improved, unimproved earth 8,600 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 797 km; petroleum products 86 km; natural gas 742 km
Ports:
Bizerte, Gabes, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, La Goulette, Zarzis
Merchant marine:
23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 152,683 GRT/199,273 DWT, bulk 6,
cargo 6, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 1
Airports:
total:
31
usable:
27
with permanent-surface runways:
14
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
9
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
note:
a new airport opened 6 May 1993, length and type of surface NA
Telecommunications:
the system is above the African average; facilities consist of
open-wire lines, coaxial cable, and microwave radio relay; key centers
are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; 233,000 telephones (28
telephones per 1,000 persons); broadcast stations - 7 AM, 8 FM, 19 TV;
5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT with back-up control station; coaxial cable and
microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya

@Tunisia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces, National Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,229,362; fit for military service 1,281,015; reach
military age (20) annually 91,941 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $618 million, 3.7% of GDP (1993 est.)

@Turkey, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Asia (that part west of the Bosporus is sometimes
included with Europe), bordering the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea,
between Bulgaria and Iran
Map references:
Africa, Europe, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
780,580 sq km
land area:
770,760 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 2,627 km, Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km,
Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km
Coastline:
7,200 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
in Black Sea only - to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the
former USSR
territorial sea:
6 nm in the Aegean Sea,
12 nm in the Black Sea and in the Mediterranean Sea
International disputes:
complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with Greece in
Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with Syria; ongoing
dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water
development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Climate:
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in
interior
Terrain:
mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau
(Anatolia)
Natural resources:
antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulphur, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
30%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
12%
forest and woodland:
26%
other:
28%
Irrigated land:
22,200 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air
pollution; deforestation
natural hazards:
subject to very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey,
along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Note:
strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of
Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas

@Turkey, People

Population:
62,153,898 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.02% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
25.98 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.8 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
48.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.94 years
male:
68.61 years
female:
73.38 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.21 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Turk(s)
adjective:
Turkish
Ethnic divisions:
Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%
Religions:
Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (Christian and Jews)
Languages:
Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
81%
male:
90%
female:
71%
Labor force:
20.8 million
by occupation:
agriculture 48%, services 32%, industry 20%
note:
about 1,800,000 Turks work abroad (1993)

@Turkey, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Turkey
conventional short form:
Turkey
local long form:
Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form:
Turkiye
Digraph:
TU
Type:
republican parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Ankara
Administrative divisions:
73 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri,
Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Batman,
Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale,
Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan,
Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gazi Antep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay,
Icel, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Karaman, Kars,
Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya,
Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu,
Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanli Urfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas,
Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Independence:
29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29 October (1923)
Constitution:
7 November 1982
Legal system:
derived from various continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Suleyman DEMIREL (since 16 May 1993)
head of government:
Prime Minister Tansu CILLER (since 5 July 1993)
National Security Council:
advisory body to the President and the Cabinet
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on nomination of the
prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Turkish Grand National Assembly:
(Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi) elections last held 20 October 1991
(next to be held NA October 1996); results - DYP 27.03%, ANAP 24.01%,
SHP 20.75%, RP 16.88%, DSP 10.75%, SBP 0.44%, independent 0.14%; seats
- (450 total) DYP 178, ANAP 115, SHP 86, RP 40, MCP 19, DSP 7, other 5
note:
seats held by various parties are subject to change due to defections,
creation of new parties, and ouster or death of sitting deputies;
present seats by party are as follows: DYP 178, ANAP 101, SHP 55, RP
39, CHP 18, MHP 13, DEP 13, BBP 7, DSP 3, YP 3, MP 2, independents 10,
vacant 8
Judicial branch:
Court of Cassation
Political parties and leaders:
Correct Way Party (DYP), Tansu CILLER; Motherland Party (ANAP), Mesut
YILMAZ; Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP), Murat KARAYALCIN;
Welfare Party (RP), Necmettin ERBAKAN; Democratic Left Party (DSP),
Bulent ECEVIT; Nationalist Action Party (MHP), Alparslan TURKES;
Democracy Party (DEP), Hatip DICLE; Socialist Unity Party (SBP), Sadun
AREN; New Party (YP), Yusuf Bozkurt OZAL; Republican People's Party
(CHP), Deniz BAYKAL; Labor Party (IP), Dogu PERINCEK; National Party
(MP), Aykut EDIBALI; Democrat Party (DP), Aydin MENDERES; Grand Unity
Party (BBP), Muhsin YAZICIOGLU; Rebirth Party (YDP), Hasan Celal
GUZEL; People's Democracy Party (HADEP), Murat BOZLAK; Main Path Party
(ANAYOL), Gurcan BASER; Democratic Target Party, Abdul Kadir Yasar
TURK
Other political or pressure groups:
Turkish Confederation of Labor (TURK-IS), Bayram MERAL
Member of:
AsDB, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, ECE,
ECO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NATO, NEA, OECD, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNRWA, UPU, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR
chancery:
1714 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 659-8200
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard C. BARKLEY
embassy:
110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara
mailing address:
PSC 93, Box 5000, Ankara, or APO AE 09823
telephone:
[90] (312) 468-6110 through 6128
FAX:
[90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general:
Istanbul
consulate(s):
Adana
Flag:
red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the
hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the
crescent opening

@Turkey, Economy

Overview:
In early 1994, after an impressive economic performance through most
of the 1980s, Turkey faces its most damaging economic crisis in the
last 15 years. Sparked by the downgrading in mid-January of Turkey's
international credit rating by two US credit rating agencies, the
crisis stems from two years of loose fiscal and monetary policies that
have exacerbated inflation and allowed the public debt, money supply,
and current account deficit to explode. Under Prime Minister CILLER,
Ankara has followed seriously flawed policies that have destroyed
public confidence in the government's ability to manage the economy.
Inflation is now running at an annual rate of 107% and the public
sector deficit is equivalent to 16% of GDP. Turkish firms have been
hurt by high interest rates and a dramatic drop in consumer demand.
Three Turkish banks have folded and the stock market has fallen 48%
since the beginning of the year. Economic growth may drop to between
0% and 2% in 1994, compared to 7.3% in 1993. Moreover, the government
is facing a severe cash crunch. In March 1994, the treasury came close
to defaulting on a loan, and official foreign currency reserves are
equal to less than two months' worth of imports. The unprecedented
effort by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) to raise the economic
costs of its insurgency against the Turkish state is adding to
Turkey's economic problems. Attacks against the tourism industry have
cut tourist revenues, which account for about 3% of GDP, while
economic activity in southeastern Turkey, where most of the violence
occurs, has dropped considerably. To cope with the economic crisis and
instill domestic and international investor confidence in the fragile
coalition government, CILLER has asked the IMF to endorse a
stabilization package she introduced in early April 1994. Negotiations
are underway for a standby agreement, which would give Turkey access
to $450 million this year and enable her cash-starved government to
return to the foreign capital markets.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $312.4 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
7.3% (1993)
National product per capita:
$5,100 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
65% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
12.2% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$36.5 billion
expenditures:
$47.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $5 billion (1994)
Exports:
$14.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
manufactured products 72%, foodstuffs 23%, mining products 4%
partners:
EC countries 53%, US 6%, Russia 4%, Saudi Arabia 3%
Imports:
$22.9 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
manufactured products 68%, fuels 17%, foodstuffs 4%
partners:
EC countries 44%, US 11%, Saudi Arabia 7%, Russia 5%
External debt:
$59.4 billion (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.3% (1992); accounts for 28% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
14,400,000 kW
production:
44 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
750 kWh (1991)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron
minerals), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Agriculture:
accounts for 16% of GDP and employs about half of working force;
products - tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus
fruit, variety of animal products; self-sufficient in food most years
Illicit drugs:
major transit route for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish to Western
Europe and the US via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish,
Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out
of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into
heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as well as near Istanbul;
government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy
cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.3 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.1
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $4.5 billion
note:
aid for Persian Gulf war efforts from coalition allies (1991), $4.1
billion; aid pledged for Turkish Defense Fund, $2.5 billion
Currency:
1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus
Exchange rates:
Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 15,196.1 (January 1994), 10,983.3
(1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Turkey, Communications

Railroads:
8,429 km 1.435-meter gauge (including 795 km electrified)
Highways:
total:
320,611 km
paved:
27,000 km (including 138 km of expressways)
unpaved:
gravel 18,500 km; earth 275,111 km (1988)
Inland waterways:
about 1,200 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,738 km; petroleum products 2,321 km; natural gas 708 km
Ports:
Iskenderun, Istanbul, Mersin, Izmir
Merchant marine:
390 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,664,205 GRT/8,163,379 DWT,
bulk 103, cargo 195, chemical tanker 10, combination bulk 5,
combination ore/oil 12, container 2, liquefied gas 4, livestock
carrier 1, oil tanker 41, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 2
Airports:
total:
113
usable:
105
with permanent-surface runways:
69
with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
32
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
27
Telecommunications:
fair domestic and international systems; trunk radio relay microwave
network; limited open wire network; 3,400,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 15 AM; 94 FM; 357 TV; 1 satellite ground station operating
in the INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean antennas) and EUTELSAT systems; 1
submarine cable

@Turkey, Defense Forces

Branches:
Land Forces, Navy (including Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force,
Coast Guard, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 16,112,783; fit for military service 9,828,853; reach
military age (20) annually 614,252 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $14 billion, 5.6% of GDP (1994 est.)

@Turkmenistan, Geography

Location:
Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Uzbekistan
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
488,100 sq km
land area:
488,100 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total 3,736 km, Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km,
Uzbekistan 1,621 km
Coastline:
0 km
note:
Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Maritime claims:
landlocked, but boundaries in the Caspian Sea with Azerbaijan,
Kazakhstan, and Iran are under negotiations
International disputes:
Russia may dispute current de facto maritime border to midpoint of
Caspian Sea from shore
Climate:
subtropical desert
Terrain:
flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the
south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in
west
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulphur, salt
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
69%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
28%
Irrigated land:
12,450 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals,
pesticides; salinization, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation
methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow
of the Amu Darya river into irrigation contributes to that river's
inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Ozone Layer Protection
Note:
landlocked

@Turkmenistan, People

Population:
3,995,122 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.01% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
30.42 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.44 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
69.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.14 years
male:
61.63 years
female:
68.82 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.77 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Turkmen(s)
adjective:
Turkmen
Ethnic divisions:
Turkmen 73.3%, Russian 9.8%, Uzbek 9%, Kazakh 2%, other 5.9%
Religions:
Muslim 87%, Eastern Orthodox 11%, unknown 2%
Languages:
Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
1.573 million
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 44%, industry and construction 20%, other 36%
(1992)

@Turkmenistan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Turkmenistan
local long form:
Tiurkmenostan Respublikasy
local short form:
Turkmenistan
former:
Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
TX
Type:
republic
Capital:
Ashgabat
Administrative divisions:
5 welayatlar (singular - welayat): Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan
Welayaty (Nebitdag), Dashhowuz Welayaty (formerly Tashauz), Lebap
Welayaty (Charjew), Mary Welayaty
note:
names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from
welayat name
Independence:
27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 October (1991)
Constitution:
adopted 18 May 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Saparmurad NIYAZOV (since NA October 1990); election last
held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA 2002); results - Saparmurad
NIYAZOV 99.5% (ran unopposed); note - a 15 January 1994 referendum
extended NIYAZOV's term an additional five years until 2002 (99.99%
approval)
head of government:
Prime Minister (vacant); Deputy Prime Ministers Batyr SARDJAEV, Valery
G. OCHERTSOV, Orazgeldi AIDOGDIEV, Djourakuli BABAKULIYEV, Rejep
SAPAROV, Boris SHIKHMURADOV, Abad RIZAEVA, Yagmur OVEZOV (since NA)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
under 1992 constitution there are two parliamentary bodies, a
unicameral People's Council (Halk Maslahaty - having more than 100
members and meeting infrequently) and a 50-member unicameral Assembly
(Majlis)
Assembly (Majlis):
elections last held 7 January 1990 (next to be held late 1994 or early
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (175 total)
elections not officially by party, but Communist Party members won
nearly 90% of seats; note - seats to be reduced to 50 at next election
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party:
Democratic Party (formerly Communist), chairman vacant
opposition:
Party for Democratic Development, Durdymurat HOJA-MUKHAMMED, chairman;
Agzybirlik, Nurberdy NURMAMEDOV, cochairman, Hubayberdi HALLIYEV,
cochairman
note:
formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition
movements exist
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Khalil UGUR
chancery:
1511 K Street NW, Suite 412, Washington, DC, 20005
telephone:
NA
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Joseph S. HULINGS III
embassy:
Yubilenaya Hotel, Ashgabat
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[7] 36320 24-49-25 or 24-49-26
Flag:
green field, including a vertical stripe on the hoist side, with a
claret vertical stripe in between containing five white, black, and
orange carpet guls (an assymetrical design used in producing rugs)
associated with five different tribes; a white crescent and five white
stars in the upper left corner to the right of the carpet guls

@Turkmenistan, Economy

Overview:
Turkmenistan is a largely desert country with nomadic cattle raising,
intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and huge gas and oil
resources. Half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton; it is the
world's tenth largest producer. It also is the world's fourth largest
producer of natural gas and has the fifth largest reserves.
Furthermore, Turkmenistan has substantial oil resources; its two oil
refineries make it an exporter of refined products. Profiting from the
move toward market prices for its oil and gas resources, Turkmenistan
has suffered the least economic decline of the 15 states of the former
USSR. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a
tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious
approach to questions of economic reform, using the profits from its
gas and cotton exports to sustain a generally inefficient economy.
Economic restructuring and privatization have just begun, and price
liberalization and price increases have been accompanied by generous
wage hikes and subsidies. At the same time, Turkmenistan faces serious
constraints on its gas and oil earnings because of the inability of
its traditional regional customers to pay for the current level of
purchases and the lack of pipeline access to hard currency markets.
Faced with financial shortfalls, rampant inflation, and the desire to
ensure a stable currency, the regime has become more receptive to
market reforms yet still seeks to offer widespread social benefits to
its population and to retain state domination over the economy.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $13 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Turkmen statistics, which are very
uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
7.8% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,330 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
45% per month (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.9% (1992 est.); includes only officially registered unemployed; also
large number of underemployed
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$1.2 billion to states outside the FSU (1993)
commodities:
natural gas, cotton, petroleum products, textiles, carpets
partners:
Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Georgia, Eastern Europe,
Turkey, Argentina
Imports:
$490 million from states outside the FSU (1993)
commodities:
machinery and parts, grain and food, plastics and rubber, consumer
durables, textiles
partners:
Russia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkey
External debt:
NEGL
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.3% (1993)
Electricity:
capacity:
2,920,000 kW
production:
13.1 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
3,079 kWh (1992)
Industries:
natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Agriculture:
cotton, grain, animal husbandry
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for CIS consumption;
limited government eradication program; used as transshipment points
for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Western Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
Turkmenistan has received about $200 million in bilateral aid credits
Currency:
Turkmenistan introduced its national currency, the manat, on 1
November 1993
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Turkmenistan, Communications

Railroads:
2,120 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
total:
23,000 km
paved and gravel:
18,300 km
unpaved:
earth 4,700 km (1990)
Pipelines:
crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,400 km
Ports:
inland - Krasnowodsk (Caspian Sea)
Airports:
total:
7
usable:
7
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
poorly developed; only 7.5 telephone circuits per 100 persons (1991);
linked by cable and microwave to other CIS republics and to other
countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway
switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been
established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic
through Turkey via INTELSAT; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1
INTELSAT

@Turkmenistan, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Guard, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops),
Joint Command Turkmenistan/Russia (Ground, Navy or Caspian Sea
Flotilla, Air, and Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 962,987; fit for military service 787,991; reach
military age (18) annually 40,079 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Turks and Caicos Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

@Turks and Caicos Islands, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the western North Atlantic Ocean, 190 km north of the
Dominican Republic and southeast of The Bahamas
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
430 sq km
land area:
430 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
389 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry
Terrain:
low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps
Natural resources:
spiny lobster, conch
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
98%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
freshwater scarcity, private cisterns collect rainwater
natural hazards:
subject to frequent hurricanes
international agreements:
NA
Note:
30 islands (eight inhabited)

@Turks and Caicos Islands, People

Population:
13,552 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.69% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
14.14 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.17 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
17.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
12.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.34 years
male:
73.41 years
female:
77.02 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.05 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
none
adjective:
none
Ethnic divisions:
African
Religions:
Baptist 41.2%, Methodist 18.9%, Anglican 18.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist
1.7%, other 19.9% (1980)
Languages:
English (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over who have ever attended school (1970)
total population:
98%
male:
99%
female:
98%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
majority engaged in fishing and tourist industries; some subsistence
agriculture

@Turks and Caicos Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Turks and Caicos Islands
Digraph:
TK
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Grand Turk
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)
Constitution:
introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, restored and revised 5
March 1988
Legal system:
based on laws of England and Wales with a small number adopted from
Jamaica and The Bahamas
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953), represented by Governor
Martin BOURKE (since NA February 1993)
head of government:
Chief Minister Washington MISSICK (since NA March 1991)
cabinet:
Executive Council; consists of three ex-officio members and five
appointed by the governor from the Legislative Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Council:
elections last held on 3 April 1991 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (20 total, 13 elected) PNP 8, PDM
5
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Progressive National Party (PNP), Washington MISSICK; People's
Democratic Movement (PDM), Oswald SKIPPINGS; National Democratic
Alliance (NDA), Ariel MISSICK
Member of:
CARICOM (associate), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield is
yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus

@Turks and Caicos Islands, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and offshore banking. Only
subsistence farming - corn, cassava, citrus, and beans - exists on the
Caicos Islands, so that most foods, as well as nonfood products, must
be imported.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $80.8 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-1.5% (1992)
National product per capita:
$6,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:

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