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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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petroleum products 615 km; natural gas 97 km
Ports:
Kao-hsiung, Chi-lung (Keelung), Hua-lien, Su-ao, T'ai-tung
Merchant marine:
212 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,910,453 GRT/9,098,315 DWT,
bulk 54, cargo 38, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 2, combination
ore/oil 2, container 85, oil tanker 17, passenger-cargo 1,
refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
Airports:
total:
40
usable:
38
with permanent-surface runways:
36
with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
16
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
7
Telecommunications:
best developed system in Asia outside of Japan; 7,800,000 telephones;
extensive microwave radio relay links on east and west coasts;
broadcast stations - 91 AM, 23 FM, 15 TV (13 repeaters); 8,620,000
radios; 6,386,000 TVs (5,680,000 color, 706,000 monochrome); satellite
earth stations - 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT;
submarine cable links to Japan (Okinawa), Philippines, Guam,
Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Australia, Middle East, and Western
Europe

@Taiwan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Coastal Patrol and Defense
Command, Armed Forces Reserve Command, Military Police Command
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,205,707; fit for military service 4,806,456; reach
military age (19) annually 192,083 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $12.1 billion, 5% of GNP (FY93/94 est.)

@Tajikistan, Geography

Location:
Central Asia, between Uzbekistan and China
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
143,100 sq km
land area:
142,700 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
total 3,651 km, Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km,
Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
boundary with China in dispute; territorial dispute with Kyrgyzstan on
northern boundary in Isfara Valley area; Afghanistan's and other
foreign support to Tajik rebels based in northern Afghanistan
Climate:
midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar
in Pamir Mountains
Terrain:
Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in
north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Natural resources:
significant hydropower potential, some petroleum, uranium, mercury,
brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten
Land use:
arable land:
6%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
23%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
71%
Irrigated land:
6,940 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity;
industrial pollution; excessive pesticides; Tajikistan is part of the
basin of the shrinking Aral Sea which suffers from severe
overutilization of available water for irrigation and associated
pollution
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
landlocked

@Tajikistan, People

Population:
5,995,469 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.67% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
34.79 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.71 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
62 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.76 years
male:
65.88 years
female:
71.79 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.62 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Tajik(s)
adjective:
Tajik
Ethnic divisions:
Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because of
emigration), other 6.6%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 5%
Languages:
Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
99%
Labor force:
1.95 million (1992)
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 43%, government and services 24%, industry
14%, trade and communications 11%, construction 8% (1990)

@Tajikistan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form:
Tajikistan
local long form:
Respublika i Tojikiston
local short form:
none
former:
Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
TI
Type:
republic
Capital:
Dushanbe
Administrative divisions:
2 oblasts (viloyotho, singular - viloyat) and one autonomous oblast*
(viloyati avtonomii); Viloyati Avtonomii Badakhshoni Kuni* (Khorugh -
formerly Khorog), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa - formerly
Kurgan-Tyube), Viloyati Leninobad (Khujand - formerly Leninabad)
note:
the administrative center names are in parentheses
Independence:
9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
National Day, 9 September (1991)
Constitution:
a referendum on new constitution planned for June 1994
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Head of State and Assembly Chairman Emomili RAKHMONOV (since NA
November 1992); election last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held NA
September 1994); results - Rakhman NABIYEV, Communist Party 60%;
Davlat KHUDONAZAROV, Democratic Party, Islamic Rebirth Party and
Rastokhoz Party 30%
head of government:
Prime Minister Abdujalil SAMADOV (since 27 December 993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
note:
the presidency was abolished in November 1992, when RAKHMANOV became
head of state; a referendum on presidential or parliamentary system is
planned for June 1994
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Supreme Soviet:
elections last held 25 February 1990 (next to be held NA September
1994); results - Communist Party 99%, other 1%; seats - (230 total)
Communist Party 227, other 3
Judicial branch:
Prosecutor General
Political parties and leaders:
Communist Party (Tajik Socialist Party - TSP), Shodi SHABDOLOV,
chairman; Tajik Democratic Party (TDP), Shodmon YUSUF; Islamic Revival
Party (IRP), Mohammed Sharif HIMOTZODA, Davat OUSMAN; Rastokhez
Movement, Tohir ABDUJABBAR; Lali Badakhshan Society, Atobek AMIRBEK
note:
all the above-listed parties but the Communist Party were banned in
June 1993
Other political or pressure groups:
Tajikistan Opposition Movement based in northern Afghanistan
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, IDA, IDB, IMF, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), IOC, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, WHO,
WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
NA
chancery:
NA
telephone:
NA
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Stanley T. ESCUDERO
embassy:
Hotel October, 105A Rudaki Prospect, Dushanbe
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[7] (3772) 21-03-56 and 21-03-60
Flag:
three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and
green; a crown surmounted by seven five-pointed stars is located in
the center of the white stripe

@Tajikistan, Economy

Overview:
Tajikistan had the lowest per capita GDP in the former USSR, the
highest rate of population growth, and the lowest standard of living.
Its economy at the start of 1994 is producing at roughly the 1989
level and faces urgent reconstruction tasks from the 1992 civil war.
Tajikistan's economy was severely disrupted by the breakup of the
Soviet economy, which provided guaranteed trade relations and heavy
subsidies and in which specialized tasks were assigned to each
republic. Its economy is highly agricultural (43% of the work force);
it has specialized in growing cotton for export and must import a
large share of its food. Its industry (14% of the work force) produces
aluminum, hydropower, machinery, and household appliances. Nearly all
petroleum products must be imported. Constant political turmoil and
continued dominance of former Communist officials have slowed the
process of economic reform and brought near economic collapse while
limiting foreign assistance. Tajikistan is in the midst of a prolonged
monetary crisis in which it is attempting to continue to use the
Russian ruble as its currency while its neighbors have switched to new
independent currencies; Russia is unwilling to advance sufficient
rubles without attaching stringent reform conditions.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.9 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Tajik statistics, which are very
uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-21% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,180 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
38% per month (1993 average)
Unemployment rate:
1.1% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large
numbers of underemployed workers and unregistered unemployed people
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$263 million to outside the FSU countries (1993)
commodities:
cotton, aluminum, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
partners:
Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan
Imports:
$371 million from outside the FSU countries (1993)
commodities:
fuel, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, textiles,
foodstuffs
partners:
Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -20% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
4,585,000 kW
production:
16.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,879 kWh (1992)
Industries:
aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable
oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Agriculture:
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep and goats
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
consumption; limited government eradication programs; used as
transshipment points for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Western
Europe and North America
Economic aid:
recipient:
Russia reportedly provided substantial general assistance throughout
1993 and continues to provide assistance in 1994; Western aid and
credits promised through the end of 1993 were $700 million but
disbursements were only $104 million; large scale development loans
await IMF approval of a reform and stabilization plan
Currency:
1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks; acquiring new Russian rubles as currency
under December 1993 agreement
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Tajikistan, Communications

Railroads:
480 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
total:
29,900 km
paved:
21,400 km
unpaved:
earth 8,500 km (1990)
Pipelines:
natural gas 400 km (1992)
Ports:
none; landlocked
Airports:
total:
58
usable:
30
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
13
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached
by the national network; 303,000 telephone circuits (December 1991);
telephone density about 55 per 1000 persons(1951); linked by cable and
microwave to other CIS republics, and by leased connections to the
Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by INTELSAT to
international gateway switch in Ankara; satellite earth stations - 1
Orbita and 2 INTELSAT (one INTELSAT earth station provides TV
receive-only service from Turkey)

@Tajikistan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (being formed), National Guard, Security Forces (internal and
border troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,361,143; fit for military service 1,116,246; reach
military age (18) annually 57,681 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Tanzania, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean between Kenya and
Mozambique
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
945,090 sq km
land area:
886,040 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than twice the size of California
note:
includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
Land boundaries:
total 3,402 km, Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km,
Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
Coastline:
1,424 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
boundary dispute with Malawi in Lake Nyasa; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia
tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is
reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has
been settled
Climate:
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrain:
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Natural resources:
hydropower potential, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds,
gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use:
arable land:
5%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
40%
forest and woodland:
47%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
1,530 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral
reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal
agriculture
natural hazards:
the tsetse fly and lack of water limit agriculture; flooding on the
central plateau during the rainy season
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
Mount Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

@Tanzania, People

Population:
27,985,660 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.5% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
45.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
19.42 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
109.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
43.25 years
male:
41.52 years
female:
45.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.2 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Tanzanian(s)
adjective:
Tanzanian
Ethnic divisions:
mainland:
native African 99% (consisting of well over 100 tribes)
Asian, European, and Arab 1%
Zanzibar:
NA
Religions:
mainland:
Christian 45%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 20%
Zanzibar:
Muslim 99% plus
Languages:
Swahili (official; widely understood and generally used for
communication between ethnic groups and is used in primary education),
English (official; primary language of commerce, administration, and
higher education)
note:
first language of most people is one of the local languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1978)
total population:
46%
male:
62%
female:
31%
Labor force:
732,200 wage earners
by occupation:
agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 10% (1986 est.)

@Tanzania, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form:
Tanzania
former:
United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Digraph:
TZ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Dar es Salaam
note:
some government offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is
planned as the new national capital by the end of the 1990s
Administrative divisions:
25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kigoma,
Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba
North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora,
Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West,
Ziwa Magharibi
Independence:
26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UN
trusteeship under British administration); Zanzibar became independent
19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April
1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed
United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964
National holiday:
Union Day, 26 April (1964)
Constitution:
25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts
limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Ali Hassan MWINYI (since 5 November 1985); First Vice
President John MALECELA (since 9 November 1990); Second Vice President
and President of Zanzibar Salmin AMOUR (since 9 November 1990)
election last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held NA October 1995);
results - Ali Hassan MWINYI was elected without opposition
head of government:
Prime Minister John MALECELA (since 9 November 1990)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president from the National Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Bunge):
elections last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held NA October 1995);
results - CCM was the only party; seats - (241 total, 168 elected) CCM
168
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, High Court
Political parties and leaders:
Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM or Revolutionary Party), Ali Hassan MWINYI;
Civic United Front (CUF), James MAPALALA; National Committee for
Constitutional Reform (NCCK), Mabere MARANDO; Union for Multiparty
Democracy (UMD), Abdullah FUNDIKIRA; Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo
(CHADEMA), Edwin I. M. MTEI, chairman
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-6, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Charles Musama NYIRABU
chancery:
2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-6125
FAX:
(202) 797-7408
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Peter Jon DE VOS
embassy:
36 Laibon Road (off Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam
mailing address:
P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone:
[255] (51) 66010 through 13
FAX:
[255] (51) 66701
Flag:
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower
hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the
lower triangle is blue

@Tanzania, Economy

Overview:
Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is
heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about 58% of GDP,
provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work force. Industry
accounts for 8% of GDP and is mainly limited to processing
agricultural products and light consumer goods. The economic recovery
program announced in mid-1986 has generated notable increases in
agricultural production and financial support for the program by
bilateral donors. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and
bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's
deteriorated economic infrastructure. Growth in 1991-93 featured a
pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output
of minerals led by gold.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $16.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
21% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$495 million
expenditures:
$631 million, including capital expenditures of $118 million (1990
est.)
Exports:
$418 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
coffee, cotton, tobacco, tea, cashew nuts, sisal
partners:
FRG, UK, Japan, Netherlands, Kenya, Hong Kong, US
Imports:
$1.51 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and transportation equipment, cotton
piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs
partners:
FRG, UK, US, Japan, Italy, Denmark
External debt:
$6.44 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 9.3% (1990); accounts for 8% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
405,000 kW
production:
600 million kWh
consumption per capita:
20 kWh (1991)
Industries:
primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal
twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refinery, shoes, cement,
textiles, wood products, fertilizer
Agriculture:
accounts for over 58% of GDP; topography and climatic conditions limit
cultivated crops to only 5% of land area; cash crops - coffee, sisal,
tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums),
cashews, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar); food crops - corn, wheat,
cassava, bananas, fruits, vegetables; small numbers of cattle, sheep,
and goats; not self-sufficient in food grain production
Illicit drugs:
growing role in transshipment of Southwest Asian heroin destined for
US and European markets
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $400 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $9.8
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $44 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $614 million
Currency:
1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1 - 486.75 (January 1994), 405.27
(1993), 297.71 (1992), 219.16 (1991), 195.06 (1990), 143.38 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July-30 June

@Tanzania, Communications

Railroads:
969 km total; all of 1.067-meter gauge; connects with Zambia railroad
at Tazara
Highways:
total:
81,900 km
paved:
3,600 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 5,600 km; improved, unimproved earth 72,700 km
Inland waterways:
Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa
Pipelines:
crude oil 982 km
Ports:
Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga, and Zanzibar are ocean ports; Mwanza on
Lake Victoria and Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika are inland ports
Merchant marine:
7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,145 GRT/39,186 DWT, cargo 3,
oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
Airports:
total:
109
usable:
100
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
40
Telecommunications:
fair system operating below capacity; open wire, radio relay, and
troposcatter; 103,800 telephones; broadcast stations - 12 AM, 4 FM, 2
TV; 1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Tanzania, Defense Forces

Branches:
Tanzanian People's Defense Force (TPDF; including Army, Navy, and Air
Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit, Militia
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,011,564; fit for military service 3,480,179
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Thailand, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Burma and
Cambodia
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
514,000 sq km
land area:
511,770 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming
Land boundaries:
total 4,863 km, Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km,
Malaysia 506 km
Coastline:
3,219 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
boundary dispute with Laos; unresolved maritime boundary with Vietnam;
parts of border with Thailand in dispute; maritime boundary with
Thailand not clearly defined
Climate:
tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to
September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March);
southern isthmus always hot and humid
Terrain:
central plain; Khorat plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere
Natural resources:
tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish,
gypsum, lignite, fluorite
Land use:
arable land:
34%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
30%
other:
31%
Irrigated land:
42,300 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution increasing from vehicle emissions; water pollution from
organic and factory wastes; deforestation; wildlife populations
threatened by illegal hunting
natural hazards:
land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the
water table
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservaiton, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified
- Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea
Note:
controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

@Thailand, People

Population:
59,510,471 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.3% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
19.43 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.41 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
37.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.35 years
male:
64.99 years
female:
71.87 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.1 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Thai (singular and plural)
adjective:
Thai
Ethnic divisions:
Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%
Religions:
Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism 0.1%, other
0.6% (1991)
Languages:
Thai, English the secondary language of the elite, ethnic and regional
dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
93%
male:
96%
female:
90%
Labor force:
30.87 million
by occupation:
agriculture 62%, industry 13%, commerce 11%, services (including
government) 14% (1989 est.)

@Thailand, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form:
Thailand
Digraph:
TH
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Bangkok
Administrative divisions:
73 provinces (changwat, singular and plural); Ang Thong, Buriram,
Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang
Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon
Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri,
Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom,
Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat,
Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani,
Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit,
Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri,
Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sakon Nakhon,
Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing
Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin,
Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani,
Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon
Independence:
1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)
National holiday:
Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)
Constitution:
new constitution approved 7 December 1991; amended 10 June 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; martial law in effect since 23
February 1991 military coup
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (since 9 June 1946); Heir Apparent Crown
Prince WACHIRALONGKON (born 28 July 1952)
head of government:
Prime Minister CHUAN Likphai (since 23 September 1992)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Privy Council:
NA
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Rathasatha)
Senate (Vuthisatha):
consists of a 270-member appointed body
House of Representatives(Saphaphoothan-Rajsadhorn):
elections last held 13 September 1992 (next to be held by NA); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (360 total) DP 79, TNP 77, NDP
60, NAP 51, Phalang Tham 47, SAP 22, LDP 8, SP 8, Mass Party 4, Thai
Citizen's Party 3, People's Party 1, People's Force Party 0
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Sarndika)
Political parties and leaders:
Democrat Party (DP), Chuan LIKPHAI; Thai Nation Pary (TNP or Chat Thai
Party), Banhan SINLAPA-ACHA; National Development Party (NDP or Chat
Phattana), Chatchai CHUNHAWAN; New Aspiration Party (NAP), Gen.
Chawalit YONGCHAIYUT; Phalang Tham (Palang Dharma), Bunchu
ROTCHANASATIEN; Social Action Party (SAP), Montri PHONGPHANIT; Liberal
Democratic Party (LDP or Seri Tham), Athit URAIRAT; Solidarity Party
(SP), Uthai PHIMCHAICHON; Mass Party (Muanchon), Pol. Cpt. Choem
YUBAMRUNG; Thai Citizen's Party (Prachakon Thai), Samak SUNTHONWET;
People's Party (Ratsadon), Chaiphak SIRIWAT; People's Force Party
(Phalang Prachachon), Col. Sophon HANCHAREON
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador PHIRAPHONG Kasemsi
chancery:
2300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-7200
FAX:
(202) 234-4498
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador David F. LAMBERTSON
embassy:
95 Wireless Road, Bangkok
mailing address:
APO AP 96546
telephone:
[66] (2) 252-5040
FAX:
[66] (2) 254-2990
consulate(s) general:
Chiang Mai
consulate(s):
Udorn (Udon Thani)
Flag:
five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white,
and red

@Thailand, Economy

Overview:
Thailand's economy recovered rapidly from the political unrest in May
1992 to post an impressive 7.5% growth rate for the year and 7.8% in
1993. One of the more advanced developing countries in Asia, Thailand
depends on exports of manufactures and the development of the service
sector to fuel the country's rapid growth. The trade and current
account deficits fell in 1992; much of Thailand's recent imports have
been for capital equipment suggesting that the export sector is poised
for further growth. With foreign investment slowing, Bangkok is
working to increase the generation of domestic capital. Prime Minister
CHUAN's government - Thailand's fifth government in less than two
years - is pledged to continue Bangkok's probusiness policies, and the
return of a democratically elected government has improved business
confidence. Nevertheless, CHUAN must overcome divisions within his
ruling coalition to complete much needed infrastructure development
programs if Thailand is to remain an attractive place for business
investment. Over the longer-term, Bangkok must produce more college
graduates with technical training and upgrade workers' skills to
continue its rapid economic development.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $323 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
7.8% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.1% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3.1% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$21.36 billion
expenditures:
$22.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.24 billion (1993
est.)
Exports:
$28.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery and manufactures 76.9%, agricultural products 14.9%,
fisheries products 5.9% (1992)
partners:
US 22%, Japan 18%, Singapore 8%, Hong Kong 5%, Germany 4%, Netherlands
4%, UK 4%, Malaysia, France, China (1992)
Imports:
$37.6 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
capital goods 41.4%, intermediate goods and raw materials 32.8%,
consumer goods 10.4%, oil 8.2%
partners:
Japan 29.3%, US 11.4%, Singapore 7.6%, Taiwan 5.5%, Germany 5.4%,
South Korea 4.6%, Malaysia 4.2%, China 3.3%, Hong Kong 3.3%, UK (1992)
External debt:
$33.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 9% (1992); accounts for about 26% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
10,000,000 kW
production:
43.75 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
760 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange; textiles and
garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light
manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components,
integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest
tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer
Agriculture:
accounts for 12% of GDP and 60% of labor force; leading producer and
exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca); other crops - rubber, corn,
sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in
food
Illicit drugs:
a minor producer of opium and marijuana; major illicit trafficker of
heroin, particularly from Burma and Laos, for the international drug
market; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis
cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries;
opium poppy cultivation has been affected by eradication efforts; also
a major drug money laundering center
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $870 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $8.6
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million
Currency:
1 baht (B) = 100 satang
Exchange rates:
baht (B) per US$1 - 25.446 (December 1993), 25.400 (1992), 25.517
(1991), 25.585 (1990), 25.702 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 October-30 September

@Thailand, Communications

Railroads:
3,940 km 1.000-meter gauge, 99 km double track
Highways:
total:
77,697 km
paved:
35,855 km (including 88 km of expressways)
unpaved:
gravel, other stabilization 14,092 km; earth 27,750 km (1988)
Inland waterways:
3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable depths of 0.9 m
or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable by
shallow-draft native craft
Pipelines:
petroleum products 67 km; natural gas 350 km
Ports:
Bangkok, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha
Merchant marine:
198 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 998,372 GRT/1,561,824 DWT, bulk
14, cargo 105, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 2, container 13,
liquefied gas 9, oil tanker 43, passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 6,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1
Airports:
total:
105
usable:
96
with permanent-surface runways:
51
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
14
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
28
Telecommunications:
service to general public inadequate; bulk of service to government
activities provided by multichannel cable and microwave radio relay
network; 739,500 telephones (1987); broadcast stations - over 200 AM,
100 FM, and 11 TV in government-controlled networks; satellite earth
stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT;
domestic satellite system being developed

@Thailand, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (including Royal Thai Marine Corps),
Royal Thai Air Force, Paramilitary Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 16,982,226; fit for military service 10,312,744; reach
military age (18) annually 599,240 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $3.8 billion, 2.9% of GNP (FY93/94 est.)

@The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Geography

Location:
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, between Serbia and Montenegro and
Greece
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
25,333 sq km
land area:
24,856 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries:
total 748 km, Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Serbia
and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
Greece claims republic's name implies territorial claims against
Aegean Macedonia
Climate:
hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy
snowfall
Terrain:
mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; there are
three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line
Natural resources:
chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore,
asbestos, sulphur, timber
Land use:
arable land:
5%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
30%
other:
40%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution from metallurgical plants
natural hazards:
high seismic risks
international agreements:
party to - Ozone Layer Protection
Note:
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central
Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

@The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, People

Population:
2,213,785 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.89% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
15.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.72 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
27.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.59 years
male:
71.51 years
female:
75.85 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.98 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Macedonian(s)
adjective:
Macedonian
Ethnic divisions:
Macedonian 65%, Albanian 22%, Turkish 4%, Serb 2%, Gypsies 3%, other
4%
Religions:
Eastern Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%
Languages:
Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
507,324
by occupation:
agriculture 8%, manufacturing and mining 40% (1990)

@The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form:
none
local long form:
Republika Makedonija
local short form:
Makedonija
Abbreviation:
F.Y.R.O.M.
Digraph:
MK
Type:
emerging democracy
Capital:
Skopje
Administrative divisions:
34 counties (opstinas, singular - opstina) Berovo, Bitola, Brod,
Debar, Delcevo, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani,
Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Murgasevo, Negotino, Ohrid,
Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Resen, Skopje-Centar, Skopje-Cair,
Skopje-Karpos, Skopje-Kisela Voda, Skopje-Gazi Baba, Stip, Struga,
Strumica, Sveti Nikole, Tetovo, Titov Veles, Valandovo, Vinica
Independence:
17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
NA
Constitution:
adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Kiro GLIGOROV (since 27 January 1991); election last held 27
January 1991 (next to be held NA); results - Kiro GLIGOROV was elected
by the Assembly
head of government:
Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 4 September 1992), Deputy
Prime Ministers Jovan ANDONOV (since NA March 1991), Risto IVANOV
(since NA), and Becir ZUTA (since NA March 1991)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; elected by the majority vote of all the deputies
in the Sobranje
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Assembly (Sobranje):
elections last held 11 and 25 November and 9 December 1990 (next to be
held November 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(120 total) VMRO-DPMNE 32, SDSM 29, PDPM 23, SRSM 19, SPM 4, DP 4, SJM
2, others 7
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court, Judicial Court of the Republic
Political parties and leaders:
Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia (SDSM; former Communist
Party), Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president; Party for Democratic Prosperity
(PDPM); National Democratic Party (PDP), Ilijas HALINI, president;
Alliance of Reform Forces of Macedonia - Liberal Party (SRSM-LP),
Stojan ANDOV, president; Socialist Party of Macedonia (SPM), Kiro
POPOVSKI, president; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization -
Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE), Ljupco
GEORGIEVSKI, president; Party of Yugoslavs in Macedonia (SJM), Milan
DURCINOV, president; Democratic Party (DP), Petal GOSEV, president
Other political or pressure groups:
Movement for All Macedonian Action (MAAK); Democratic Party of Serbs;
Democratic Party of Turks; Party for Democratic Action (Slavic Muslim)
Member of:
CE (guest), CSCE (observer), EBRD, ECE, ICAO, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), ITU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
the US recognized The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia on 9
February 1994
US diplomatic representation:
the US recognized The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia on 9
February 1994
Flag:
16-point gold sun (Vergina, Sun) centered on a red field

@The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Economy

Overview:
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, although the poorest
republic in the former Yugoslav federation, can meet basic food and
energy needs through its own agricultural and coal resources. Its
economic decline will continue unless ties are reforged or enlarged
with its neighbors Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, Greece, and
Bulgaria. The economy depends on outside sources for all of its oil
and gas and its modern machinery and parts. Continued political
turmoil, both internally and in the region as a whole, prevents any
swift readjustments of trade patterns and economic programs. The
country's industrial output and GDP are expected to decline further in
1994. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's geographical
isolation, technological backwardness, and potential political
instability place it far down the list of countries of interest to
Western investors. Resolution of the dispute with Greece and an
internal commitment to economic reform would help to encourage foreign
investment over the long run. In the immediate future, the worst
scenario for the economy would be the spread of fighting across its
borders.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-14.7% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
13% monthly average (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
27% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$889 million (1993)
commodities:
manufactured goods 40%, machinery and transport equipment 14%,
miscellaneous manufactured articles 23%, raw materials 7.6%, food
(rice) and live animals 5.7%, beverages and tobacco 4.5%, chemicals
4.7% (1990)
partners:
principally Serbia and Montenegro and the other former Yugoslav
republics, Germany, Greece, Albania
Imports:
$963 million (1993)
commodities:
fuels and lubricants 19%, manufactured goods 18%, machinery and
transport equipment 15%, food and live animals 14%, chemicals 11.4%,
raw materials 10%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 8.0%, beverages
and tobacco 3.5% (1990)
partners:
other former Yugoslav republics, Greece, Albania, Germany, Bulgaria
External debt:
$840 million (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate -14% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
1,600,000 kW
production:
6.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,900 kWh (1992)
Industries:
low levels of technology predominate, such as, oil refining by
distillation only; produces basic liquid fuels, coal, metallic
chromium, lead, zinc, and ferronickel; light industry produces basic
textiles, wood products, and tobacco
Agriculture:
provides 12% of GDP and meets the basic needs for food; principal
crops are rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, and millet; also grown are
cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus fruit, and vegetables; The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is one of the seven legal
cultivators of the opium poppy for the world pharmaceutical industry,
including some exports to the US; agricultural production is highly
labor intensive
Illicit drugs:
limited illicit opium cultivation; transshipment point for Asian
heroin
Economic aid:
recipient:
US $10 million (for humanitarian and technical assistance)
EC promised a 100 ECU million economic aid package (1993)
Currency:
the denar, which was adopted by the Macedonian legislature 26 April
1992, was initially issued in the form of a coupon pegged to the
German mark; subsequently repegged to a basket of seven currencies
Exchange rates:
denar per US$1 - 865 (October 1992)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Communications

Railroads:
NA
Highways:
total:
10,591 km
paved:
5,091 km
unpaved:
gravel 1,404 km; earth 4,096 km (1991)
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
none
Ports:
none; landlocked
Airports:
total:
16
usable:
16
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
125,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 2 FM, 5 (2 relays) TV;
370,000 radios, 325,000 TV; satellite communications ground stations -
none

@The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 604,257; fit for military service 489,746; reach
military age (19) annually 19,539 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
7 billion denars, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the prevailing exchange rate
could produce misleading results

@Togo, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean beween Benin and
Ghana
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
56,790 sq km
land area:
54,390 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total 1,647 km, Benin 644 km, Burkina 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline:
56 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
30 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low
coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Natural resources:
phosphates, limestone, marble
Land use:
arable land:
25%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
28%
other:
42%
Irrigated land:
70 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use
of wood for fuel; recent droughts affecting agriculture
natural hazards:
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Togo, People

Population:
4,255,090 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.59% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
47.3 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
11.39 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
88.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
56.93 years
male:
54.87 years
female:
59.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.9 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Togolese
Ethnic divisions:
37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabye,
European and Syrian-Lebanese under 1%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 70%, Christian 20%, Muslim 10%
Languages:
French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe (one of the two
major African languages in the south), Mina (one of the two major
African languages in the south), Dagomba (one of the two major African
languages in the north), Kabye (one of the two major African languages
in the north)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
43%
male:
56%
female:
31%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture 78%, industry 22%
note:
about 88,600 wage earners, evenly divided between public and private
sectors; 50% of population of working age (1985)

@Togo, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Togo
conventional short form:
Togo
local long form:
Republique Togolaise
local short form:
none
former:
French Togo
Digraph:
TO
Type:
republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Lome
Administrative divisions:
23 circumscriptions (circonscriptions, singular - circonscription);
Amlame (Amou), Aneho (Lacs), Atakpame (Ogou), Badou (Wawa), Bafilo
(Assoli), Bassar (Bassari), Dapango (Tone), Kande (Keran), Klouto
(Kloto), Pagouda (Binah), Lama-Kara (Kozah), Lome (Golfe), Mango
(Oti), Niamtougou (Doufelgou), Notse (Haho), Pagouda, Sotouboua,
Tabligbo (Yoto), Tchamba, Nyala, Tchaoudjo, Tsevie (Zio), Vogan (Vo)
note:
the 23 units may now be called prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture) and reported name changes for individual units are
included in parentheses
Independence:
27 April 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Constitution:
multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic
1 July 1992; adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system:
French-based court system
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April 1967); election last
held 25 August 1993 (next election to be held NA 1998); all major
opposition parties boycotted the election; Gen. EYADEMA won 96.5% of
the vote
head of government:
Prime Minister Edem KODJO (since April 1994)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and the prime
minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly:
elections last held on 6 and 20 February 1994 (next to be held NA);
results - percent of vote by party NA; SEATS - (81 total) RPT and
allies (pro government) 38, CAR, UTD (the opposition) 40, still
contested as of 3 May 1994
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel), Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
pro-government:
Rally of the Togolese People (RPT), President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA;
Coordination des Forces Nouvelles (CFN), Joseph KOFFIGOH
moderate:
The Togolese Union for Democracy (UTD), Edem KODJO; The Action
Committee for Renewal (CAR), Yao AGBOYIBOR
radical:
The Union for Democracy and Solidarity (UDS), Antoine FOLLY; The
Pan-African Sociodemocrats Group (GSP), an alliance of three radical
parties: The Democratic Convention of African Peoples (CDPA), Leopold
GNININVI; The Party for Democracy and Renewal (PDR), Zarifou AYEVA;
The Pan-African Social Party (PSP), Francis AGBAGLI; The Union of
Forces for Change (UFC), Gilchrist OLYMPIO (in exile)
note:
Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) led by President EYADEMA was the
only party until the formation of multiple parties was legalized 12
April 1991
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ,
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Charge d'Affaires Edem Frederic HEGBE
chancery:
2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 234-4212
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Harmon E. KIRBY (Ambassador Johnny YOUNG to replace
Ambassador KIRBY during the summer of 1994)
embassy:
Rue Pelletier Caventou and Rue Vauban, Lome
mailing address:
B. P. 852, Lome
telephone:
[228] 21-29-91
FAX:
[228] 21-79-52
Flag:
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with
yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the
upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of
Ethiopia

@Togo, Economy

Overview:
The economy is heavily dependent on subsistence agriculture, which
accounts for about 33% of GDP and provides employment for 78% of the
labor force. Primary agricultural exports are cocoa, coffee, and
cotton, which together generate about 30% of total export earnings.
Togo is self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs when harvests are normal.
In the industrial sector phosphate mining is by far the most important
activity, although it has suffered from the collapse of World
phosphate prices and increased foreign competition. Togo serves as a
regional commercial and trade center. The government's decade-long IMF
and World Bank supported effort to implement economic reform measures
to encourage foreign investment and bring revenues in line with
expenditures has stalled. Political unrest, including private and
public sector strikes throughout 1992 and 1993, has jeopardized the
reform program and has disrupted vital economic activity.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA
National product per capita:
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.5% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$284 million
expenditures:
$407 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
$558 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
phosphates, cotton, cocoa, coffee
partners:
EC 40%, Africa 16%, US 1% (1990)
Imports:
$636 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemical products
partners:
EC 57%, Africa 17%, US 5%, Japan 4% (1990)
External debt:
$1.3 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 9% (1991 est.); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
179,000 kW
production:
209 million kWh
consumption per capita:
60 kWh (1990)
Industries:
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts,
textiles, beverages
Agriculture:
accounts for 33% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, cocoa, cotton; food
crops - yams, cassava, corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock
production not significant; annual fish catch of 10,000-14,000 tons
Illicit drugs:
increasingly used as transit hub by heroin traffickers
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $142 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $2
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $51 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
the official rate is pegged to the French franc, and beginning 12
January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc
from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Togo, Communications

Railroads:
570 km 1.000-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
total:
6,462 km
paved:
1,762 km
unpaved:
unimproved earth 4,700 km
Inland waterways:
50 km Mono River
Ports:
Lome, Kpeme (phosphate port)
Merchant marine:
2 roll-on/roll-off cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,118
GRT/20,529 DWT
Airports:
total:
9
usable:
9
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
fair system based on network of radio relay routes supplemented by
open wire lines; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 3 (2 relays) TV;
satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE

@Togo, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 898,448; fit for military service 471,807
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $43 million, about 3% of GDP (1989)

@Tokelau

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of New Zealand)

@Tokelau, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia, 3,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South
Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
10 sq km
land area:
10 sq km
comparative area:
about 17 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
101 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)
Terrain:
coral atolls enclosing large lagoons
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
very limited natural resources and overcrowding are contributing to
emigration to New Zealand
natural hazards:
lies in Pacific typhoon belt
international agreements:
NA

@Tokelau, People

Population:
1,523 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
-1.35% (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Tokelauan(s)
adjective:
Tokelauan
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian
Religions:
Congregational Christian Church 70%, Roman Catholic 28%, other 2%
note:
on Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on Nukunonu,
all Roman Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the
Congregational Christian Church predominant
Languages:
Tokelauan (a Polynesian language), English
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

@Tokelau, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Tokelau
Digraph:
TL
Type:
territory of New Zealand
Capital:
none; each atoll has its own administrative center
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of New Zealand)
Independence:
none (territory of New Zealand)
National holiday:
Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established
British sovereignty over New Zealand)
Constitution:
administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948, as amended in 1970
Legal system:
British and local statutes
Suffrage:
NA
Executive branch:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Administrator Graham ANSELL (since NA 1990; appointed by the Minister
of Foreign Affairs in New Zealand); Official Secretary Casimilo J.
PEREZ (since NA), Office of Tokelau Affairs; Tokelau's governing
Council will elect its first head of government
Legislative branch:
unicameral Council of Elders (Taupulega) on each atoll
Judicial branch:
High Court in Niue, Supreme Court in New Zealand
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Member of:
SPC, WHO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of New Zealand)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of New Zealand)
Flag:
the flag of New Zealand is used

@Tokelau, Economy

Overview:
Tokelau's small size, isolation, and lack of resources greatly
restrain economic development and confine agriculture to the
subsistence level. The people must rely on aid from New Zealand to
maintain public services, annual aid being substantially greater than
GDP. The principal sources of revenue come from sales of copra,
postage stamps, souvenir coins, and handicrafts. Money is also
remitted to families from relatives in New Zealand.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million (1988 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$800 (1988 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$430,830
expenditures:
$2.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $37,300 (1987 est.)
Exports:
$98,000 (f.o.b., 1983)
commodities:
stamps, copra, handicrafts
partners:
NZ
Imports:
$323,400 (c.i.f., 1983)
commodities:
foodstuffs, building materials, fuel
partners:
NZ
External debt:
$0
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
200 kW
production:
300,000 kWh
consumption per capita:
180 kWh (1990)
Industries:
small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work, plaited craft
goods; stamps, coins; fishing
Agriculture:
coconuts, copra; basic subsistence crops - breadfruit, papaya,
bananas; pigs, poultry, goats
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $24 million
Currency:
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.7771 (January 1994), 1.8495
(1993), 1.8584 (1992), l.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6708 (1989)

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