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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 36 out of 46

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@Suriname, Communications

Railroads:
166 km total; 86 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned, and 80 km
1.435-meter standard gauge; all single track
Highways:
total:
8,300 km
paved:
500 km
unpaved:
bauxite, gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 5,400 km; sand, clay
2,400 km
Inland waterways:
1,200 km; most important means of transport; oceangoing vessels with
drafts ranging up to 7 m can navigate many of the principal waterways
Ports:
Paramaribo, Moengo, Nieuw Nickerie
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,472 GRT/8,914 DWT, cargo 2,
container 1
Airports:
total:
46
usable:
38
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
international facilities good; domestic microwave system; 27,500
telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 14 FM, 6 TV, 1 shortwave; 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Suriname, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Army (including Navy which is company-size, small Air Force
element), Civil Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 113,963; fit for military service 67,648
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Svalbard

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of Norway)

@Svalbard, Geography

Location:
Nordic State, Northern Europe in the Arctic Ocean where the Arctic
Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea meet, 445 km
north of Norway
Map references:
Arctic Region, Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
62,049 sq km
land area:
62,049 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
note:
includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
3,587 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway but not recognized by Russia
territorial sea:
4 nm
International disputes:
focus of maritime boundary dispute in the Barents Sea between Norway
and Russia
Climate:
arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold
winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of
Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year
Terrain:
wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast
clear of ice about half the year; fjords along west and north coasts
Natural resources:
coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (no trees and the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry)
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
ice floes often block up the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for
coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the
northeastern coast inaccessible
international agreements:
NA
Note:
northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main
islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area

@Svalbard, People

Population:
3,018 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
-3.5% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
NA
Death rate:
NA
Net migration rate:
NA
Infant mortality rate:
NA
Life expectancy at birth:
NA
Total fertility rate:
NA
Ethnic divisions:
Russian 64%, Norwegian 35%, other 1% (1981)
Languages:
Russian, Norwegian
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

@Svalbard, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Svalbard
Digraph:
SV
Type:
territory of Norway administered by the Ministry of Industry, Oslo,
through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen;
by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway
Capital:
Longyearbyen
Independence:
none (territory of Norway)
National holiday:
NA
Legal system:
NA
Executive branch:
Chief of State:
King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991)
Head of Government:
Governor Odd BLOMDAL (since NA); Assistant Governor Jan-Atle HANSEN
(since NA September 1993)
Member of:
none
Flag:
the flag of Norway is used

@Svalbard, Economy

Overview:
Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. By treaty (9
February 1920), the nationals of the treaty powers have equal rights
to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although
US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the
only companies still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The settlements
on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned
coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the
island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the
local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal, polar bear,
fox, and walrus.
Budget:
revenues:
$13.3 million
expenditures:
$13.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
21,000 kW
production:
45 million kWh
consumption per capita:
13,860 kWh (1992)
Currency:
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates:
Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 7.4840 (January 1994), 7.0941
(1993), 6.2145 (1992), 6.4829 (1991), 6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989)

@Svalbard, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
limited facilities - Ny-Alesund, Advent Bay
Airports:
total:
4
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
5 meteorological/radio stations; local telephone service; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 1 (2 repeaters) FM, 1 TV; satellite communication
with Norwegian mainland

@Svalbard, Defense Forces

Note:
demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)

@Swaziland, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
17,360 sq km
land area:
17,200 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total 535 km, Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
Swaziland wants to reincorporate territory along the South African
border; Mbabane has asked South Africa to open negotiations on border
adjustments
Climate:
varies from tropical to near temperate
Terrain:
mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Natural resources:
asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and
diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
67%
forest and woodland:
6%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
620 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
limited access to safe drinking water presents human health risks;
wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting;
overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

@Swaziland, People

Population:
936,369 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.21% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
43.14 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
11.07 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
93.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
56.39 years
male:
52.4 years
female:
60.5 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.13 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Swazi(s)
adjective:
Swazi
Ethnic divisions:
African 97%, European 3%
Religions:
Christian 60%, indigenous beliefs 40%
Languages:
English (official; government business conducted in English), siSwati
(official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population:
67%
male:
70%
female:
65%
Labor force:
probably less than 100,000
by occupation:
private sector about 65%, public sector 35%

@Swaziland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form:
Swaziland
Digraph:
WZ
Type:
monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth
Capital:
Mbabane (administrative); Lobamba (legislative)
Administrative divisions:
4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Independence:
6 September 1968 (from UK)
National holiday:
Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)
Constitution:
none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended on 12 April 1973;
a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but has not been
formally presented to the people
Legal system:
based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts, Swazi
traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
none
Executive branch:
chief of state:
King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
head of government:
Prime Minister Prince Jameson Mbilini DLAMINI (since 12 November 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet; designated by the monarch
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament is advisory and consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly; the 30 members of the
Senate are appointed - 10 by the House of Assembly and 20 by the king;
the members of the House are elected by popular vote; last election
held in October 1993
Judicial branch:
High Court, Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
none; banned by the Constitution promulgated on 13 October 1978
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA,
SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Absalom Vusani MAMBA
chancery:
3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 362-6683 or 6685
FAX:
(202) 244-8059
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John SPROTT
embassy:
Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane
mailing address:
P. O. Box 199, Mbabane
telephone:
[268] 46441 through 46445
FAX:
[268] 45959
Flag:
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue;
the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large
black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with
feather tassels, all placed horizontally

@Swaziland, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which occupies more
than 60% of the population and contributes nearly 25% to GDP.
Manufacturing, which includes a number of agroprocessing factories,
accounts for another quarter of GDP. Mining has declined in importance
in recent years; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted in 1978,
and health concerns cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of sugar
and forestry products are the main earners of hard currency.
Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique,
Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa, from which it receives
90% of its imports and to which it sends about half of its exports.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$342 million
expenditures:
$410 million, including capital expenditures of $130 million (1994
est.)
Exports:
$632 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
sugar, edible concentrates, wood pulp, canned fruit, citrus
partners:
South Africa 50% (est.), EC countries, Canada
Imports:
$734 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, petroleum products,
foodstuffs, chemicals
partners:
South Africa 90% (est.), Switzerland, UK
External debt:
$240 million (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.6% (1991); accounts for 40% of GDP (1989)
Electricity:
capacity:
60,000 kW
production:
198 million kWh (1991)
consumption per capita:
180 kWh (1991)
Industries:
mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar
Agriculture:
accounts for 23% of GDP and over 60% of labor force; mostly
subsistence agriculture; cash crops - sugarcane, cotton, maize,
tobacco, rice, citrus fruit, pineapples; other crops and livestock -
corn, sorghum, peanuts, cattle, goats, sheep; not self-sufficient in
grain
Economic aid:
recipient:
bilateral aid (1991) $35 million of which US disbursements $12
million, UK disbursements $6 million, and Denmark $2 million;
multilateral aid (1991) $24 million of which EC disbursements $8
million
Currency:
1 lilangeni (E) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
emalangeni (E) per US$1 -3.4551 (March 1994), 3.2636 (1993), 2.8497
(1992), 2.7563 (1991), 2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989); note - the Swazi
emalangeni is at par with the South African rand
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Swaziland, Communications

Railroads:
297 km (plus 71 km disused), 1.067-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
total:
2,853 km
paved:
510 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, gravel, stabilized earth 1,230 km; improved earth 1,113
km
Airports:
total:
23
usable:
21
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
system consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines and low-capacity
microwave links; 17,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 7 AM, 6 FM,
10 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Swaziland, Defense Forces

Branches:
Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force, Royal Swaziland Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 204,608; fit for military service 118,380
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22 million, NA% of GDP (FY93/94)

@Sweden, Geography

Location:
Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between
Norway and Finland
Map references:
Arctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
449,964 sq km
land area:
410,928 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than California
Land boundaries:
total 2,205 km, Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km
Coastline:
3,218 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy
summers; subarctic in north
Terrain:
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Natural resources:
zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower
potential
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
2%
forest and woodland:
64%
other:
27%
Irrigated land:
1,120 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
acid rain damaging soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the
Baltic Sea
natural hazards:
ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of
Bothnia, can interfere with navigation
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note:
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

@Sweden, People

Population:
8,778,461 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.52% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.5 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.9 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
78.25 years
male:
75.47 years
female:
81.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Swede(s)
adjective:
Swedish
Ethnic divisions:
white, Lapp (Sami), foreign born or first-generation immigrants 12%
(Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Pentecostal 1%, other
3.5% (1987)
Languages:
Swedish
note:
small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants speak native
languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1979 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
4.552 million (84% unionized,1992)
by occupation:
community, social and personal services 38.3%, mining and
manufacturing 21.2%, commerce, hotels, and restaurants 14.1%, banking,
insurance 9.0%, communications 7.2%, construction 7.0%, agriculture,
fishing, and forestry 3.2% (1991)

@Sweden, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form:
Sweden
local long form:
Konungariket Sverige
local short form:
Sverige
Digraph:
SW
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Stockholm
Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (lan, singular and plural); Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan,
Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan,
Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan,
Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens Lan,
Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan, Sodermanlands Lan,
Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens Lan,
Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan
Independence:
6 June 1809 (constitutional monarchy established)
National holiday:
Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June
Constitution:
1 January 1975
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess
VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the King (born 14 July
1977)
head of government:
Prime Minister Carl BILDT (since 3 October 1991); Deputy Prime
Minister Bengt WESTERBERG (since NA)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
parliament (Riksdag):
elections last held 15 September 1991 (next to be held NA September
1994); results - Social Democratic Party 37.6%, Moderate Party
(conservative) 21.9%, Liberal People's Party 9.1%, Center Party 8.5%,
Christian Democrats 7.1%, New Democracy 6.7%, Left Party (Communist)
4.5%, Green Party 3.4%, other 1.2%; seats - (349 total) Social
Democratic 138, Moderate Party (conservative) 80, Liberal People's
Party 33, Center Party 31, Christian Democrats 26, New Democracy 25,
Left Party (Communist) 16; note - the Green Party has no seats in the
Riksdag because it received less than the required 4% of the vote
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling four-party coalition consists of Moderate Party (conservative),
Carl BILDT; Liberal People's Party, Bengt WESTERBERG; Center Party,
Olof JOHANSSON; and the Christian Democratic Party, Alf SVENSSON;
Social Democratic Party, Ingvar CARLSSON; New Democracy Party, Harriet
COLLIANDER; Left Party (VP; Communist), Gudrun SCHYMAN; Communist
Workers' Party, Rolf HAGEL; Green Party, no formal leader
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN,
COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-6, G-8, G-9,
G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MTRC, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN,
UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM,
UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Carl Henrik LILJEGREN
chancery:
Suites 1200 and 715, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 944-5600
FAX:
(202) 342-1319
consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Thomas SIEBERT
embassy:
Strandvagen 101, S-115 89 Stockholm
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[46] (8) 783-5300
FAX:
[46] (8) 661-1964
Flag:
blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the
vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style
of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Sweden, Economy

Overview:
Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during World War I
through World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of
living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive
welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent
internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force.
Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an
economy that is heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned
firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the
engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. In the last
few years, however, this extraordinarily favorable picture has been
clouded by inflation, growing unemployment, and a gradual loss of
competitiveness in international markets. Although Prime Minister
BILDT's center-right minority coalition had hoped to charge ahead with
free-market-oriented reforms, a skyrocketing budget deficit - almost
14% of GDP in FY94 projections - and record unemployment have
forestalled many of the plans. Unemployment in 1993 is estimated at
around 8% with another 5% in job training. Continued heavy foreign
exchange speculation forced the government to cooperate in late 1992
with the opposition Social Democrats on two crisis packages - one a
severe austerity pact and the other a program to spur industrial
competitiveness - which basically set economic policy through 1997. In
November 1992, Sweden broke its tie to the EC's ECU, and the krona has
since depreciated about 25% against the dollar. The government hopes
the boost in export competitiveness from the depreciation will help
lift Sweden out of its 3-year recession. To curb the budget deficit
and bolster confidence in the economy, BILDT continues to propose cuts
in welfare benefits, subsidies, defense, and foreign aid. Sweden
continues to harmonize its economic policies with those of the EU in
preparation for scheduled membership by early 1995, which will help to
broaden European economic unity.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $153.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
-2.7% (1993)
National product per capita:
$17,600 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.4% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8.2% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$45.1 billion
expenditures:
$73.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94)
Exports:
$49.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and
steel products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products
partners:
EC 55.8% (Germany 15%, UK 9.7%, Denmark 7.2%, France 5.8%), EFTA 17.4%
(Norway 8.4%, Finland 5.1%), US 8.2%, Central and Eastern Europe 2.5%
(1992)
Imports:
$42.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor
vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing
partners:
EC 53.6% (Germany 17.9%, UK 6.3%, Denmark 7.5%, France 4.9%), EFTA
(Norway 6.6%, Finland 6%), US 8.4%, Central and Eastern Europe 3%
(1992)
External debt:
$19.5 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.8% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
39,716,000 kW
production:
142.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
16,560 kWh (1992)
Industries:
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone
parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods,
motor vehicles
Agriculture:
animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy products accounting
for 37% of farm income; main crops - grains, sugar beets, potatoes;
100% self-sufficient in grains and potatoes; Sweden is about 50%
self-sufficient in most products; farming accounted for 1.2% of GDP
and 1.9% of jobs in 1990
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for narcotics shipped via the CIS and Baltic
states for the European market
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.3 billion
Currency:
1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates:
Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1 - 8.1255 (January 1994), 7.834 (1993),
5.8238 (1992), 6.0475 (1991) 5.9188 (1990), 6.4469 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Sweden, Communications

Railroads:
12,084 km total; Swedish State Railways (SJ) 11,202 km - 10,819 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 6,955 km electrified and 1,152 km double
track; 182 km 0.891-meter gauge; 117 km rail ferry service;
privately-owned railways 882 km - 511 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
(332 km electrified) and 371 km 0.891-meter gauge (all electrified)
Highways:
total:
205,000 km
paved:
69,754 km (including 936 km of expressways)
unpaved:
gravel 45,900 km; unimproved earth 38,060 km; NA 51,286 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges
Pipelines:
natural gas 84 km
Ports:
Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Kalmar, Malmo, Stockholm;
numerous secondary and minor ports
Merchant marine:
161 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,049,554 GRT/2,516,350 DWT,
bulk 10, cargo 24, chemical tanker 25, combination ore/oil 1,
container 2, oil tanker 30, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 39, short-sea passenger 10, specialized tanker
4, vehicle carrier 13
Airports:
total:
252
usable:
248
with permanent-surface runways:
138
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
11
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
94
Telecommunications:
excellent domestic and international facilities; 8,200,000 telephones;
mainly coaxial and multiconductor cables carry long-distance network;
parallel microwave network carries primarily radio, TV and some
telephone channels; automatic system; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 360
(mostly repeaters) FM, 880 (mostly repeaters) TV; 5 submarine coaxial
cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1
EUTELSAT

@Sweden, Defense Forces

Branches:
Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Navy, Swedish Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,146,145; fit for military service 1,874,787; reach
military age (19) annually 55,262 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $5.2 billion, 2.6% of GDP (FY93/94)

@Switzerland, Geography

Location:
Central Europe, between France and Austria
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
41,290 sq km
land area:
39,770 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total 1,852 km, Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km,
Liechtenstein 41 km, Germany 334 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy
winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers
Terrain:
mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central
plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes
Natural resources:
hydropower potential, timber, salt
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
40%
forest and woodland:
26%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
250 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution from vehicle emissions and open air burning; acid rain;
water pollution from increased use of agricultural fertilizers; loss
of biodiversity
natural hazards:
subject to avalanches, landslides, flash floods
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic
Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the
Sea
Note:
landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along with
southeastern France and northern Italy, contains the highest
elevations in Europe

@Switzerland, People

Population:
7,040,119 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.7% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
12.23 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
78.17 years
male:
74.8 years
female:
81.71 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.6 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Swiss (singular and plural)
adjective:
Swiss
Ethnic divisions:
total population:
German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6%
Swiss nationals:
German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 47.6%, Protestant 44.3%, other 8.1% (1980)
Languages:
German 65%, French 18%, Italian 12%, Romansch 1%, other 4%
note:
figures for Swiss nationals only -
German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
3.31 million (904,095 foreign workers, mostly Italian)
by occupation:
services 50%, industry and crafts 33%, government 10%, agriculture and
forestry 6%, other 1% (1989)

@Switzerland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Swiss Confederation
conventional short form:
Switzerland
local long form:
Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German) Confederation Suisse
(French) Confederazione Svizzera (Italian)
local short form:
Schweiz (German) Suisse (French) Svizzera (Italian)
Digraph:
SZ
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
Bern
Administrative divisions:
26 cantons (cantons, singular - canton in French; cantoni, singular -
cantone in Italian; kantone, singular - kanton in German); Aargau,
Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve,
Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden,
Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau,
Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich
Independence:
1 August 1291
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss Confederation, 1 August
(1291)
Constitution:
29 May 1874
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of general
obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Otto STICH (1994 calendar year; presidency rotates
annually); Vice President Kaspar VILLIGER (term runs concurrently with
that of president)
cabinet:
Federal Council (German - Bundesrat, French - Censeil Federal, Italian
- Consiglio Federale); elected by the Federal Assembly from own
members
Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Assembly (German - Bundesversammlung, French -
Assemblee Federale, Italian - Assemblea Federale)
Council of States:
(German - Standerat, French - Conseil des Etats, Italian - Consiglio
degli Stati) elections last held throughout 1991 (next to be held NA
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46 total) FDP
18, CVP 16, SVP 4, SPS 3, LPS 3, LdU 1, Ticino League 1
National Council:
(German - Nationalrat, French - Conseil National, Italian - Consiglio
Nazionale) elections last held 20 October 1991 (next to be held NA
October 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (200
total) FDP 44, SPS 42, CVP 37, SVP 25, GPS 14, LPS 10, AP 8, LdU 6, SD
5, EVP 3, PdA 2, Ticino League 2, other 2
Judicial branch:
Federal Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Free Democratic Party (FDP), Bruno HUNZIKER, president; Social
Democratic Party (SPS), Helmut HUBACHER, chairman; Christian
Democratic People's Party (CVP), Eva SEGMULLER-WEBER, chairman; Swiss
People's Party (SVP), Hans UHLMANN, president; Green Party (GPS),
Peter SCHMID, president; Automobile Party (AP), DREYER; Alliance of
Independents' Party (LdU), Dr. Franz JAEGER, president; Swiss
Democratic Party (SD), NA; Evangelical People's Party (EVP), Max
DUNKI, president; Workers' Party (PdA; Communist), Jean SPIELMANN,
general secretary; Ticino League, leader NA; Liberal Party (LPS),
Gilbert COUTAU, president
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM
(cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO,
MTRC, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN (observer),
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Carlo JAGMETTI
chancery:
2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 745-7900
FAX:
(202) 387-2564
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael C. POLT
embassy:
Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[41] (31) 357-7011
FAX:
[41] (31) 357-7344
branch office:
Geneva
consulate(s) general:
Zurich
Flag:
red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that
does not extend to the edges of the flag

@Switzerland, Economy

Overview:
Switzerland's economy - one of the most prosperous and stable in the
world - is nonetheless undergoing a painful adjustment after both the
inflationary boom of the late-1980s and the electorate's rejection of
membership in the European Economic Area in 1992. The Swiss finally
emerged from a three-year recession in mid-1993 and posted a -0.6% GDP
growth for the year. After a three-year struggle with inflation, the
Swiss central bank's tight monetary policies have begun to pay off.
Inflation slowed to 3.3% in 1993 from about 4% in 1992 and is expected
to slow down further to 1.5% in 1994. Unemployment, however, will
continue to be a problem over the near term. Swiss unemployment
reached 5.1% in 1993 and will likely remain at that level through 1994
before declining in 1995. The voters' rejection of a referendum on
membership in the EEA, which was supported by most political,
business, and financial leaders has raised doubts that the country can
maintain its preeminent prosperity and leadership in commercial
banking in the twenty-first century. Despite these problems, Swiss per
capita output, general living standards, education and science, health
care, and diet remain unsurpassed in Europe. The country has few
natural resources except for the scenic natural beauty that has made
it a world leader in tourism. Management-labor relations remain
generally harmonious.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $149.1 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
-0.6% (1993)
National product per capita:
$21,300 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5.1% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$23.7 billion
expenditures:
$26.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$63 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, precision instruments, metal products,
foodstuffs, textiles and clothing
partners:
Western Europe 63.1% (EC countries 56%, other 7.1%), US 8.8%, Japan
3.4%
Imports:
$60.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
agricultural products, machinery and transportation equipment,
chemicals, textiles, construction materials
partners:
Western Europe 79.2% (EC countries 72.3%, other 6.9%), US 6.4%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
17,710,000 kW
production:
56 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
8,200 kWh (1992)
Industries:
machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments
Agriculture:
dairy farming predominates; less than 50% self-sufficient in food;
must import fish, refined sugar, fats and oils (other than butter),
grains, eggs, fruits, vegetables, meat
Illicit drugs:
money-laundering center
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $3.5 billion
Currency:
1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or
centesimi
Exchange rates:
Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.715 (January
1994), 1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992), 1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990),
1.6359 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Switzerland, Communications

Railroads:
4,418 km total; 3,073 km are government owned and 1,345 km are
nongovernment owned; the government network consists of 2,999 km
1.435-meter standard gauge and 74 km 1.000-meter narrow gauge track;
1,432 km double track, 99% electrified; the nongovernment network
consists of 510 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, and 835 km 1.000-meter
gauge, 100% electrified
Highways:
total:
71,106 km
paved:
71,106 km (including 1,502 km of expressways)
Inland waterways:
65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen to Bodensee); 12
navigable lakes
Pipelines:
crude oil 314 km; natural gas 1,506 km
Ports:
Basel (river port)
Merchant marine:
23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 337,455 GRT/592,213 DWT, bulk
10, cargo 4, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo
2, specialized tanker 1
Airports:
total:
70
usable:
69
with permanent-surface runways:
42
with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
18
Telecommunications:
excellent domestic, international, and broadcast services; 5,890,000
telephones; extensive cable and microwave networks; broadcast stations
- 7 AM, 265 FM, 18 (1,322 repeaters) TV; communications satellite
earth station operating in the INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean and Indian
Ocean) system

@Switzerland, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Air Force is part of the Army), Frontier Guards, Fortification
Guards
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,853,075; fit for military service 1,589,288; reach
military age (20) annually 43,005 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $3.4 billion, 1.7% of GDP (1993)

@Syria, Geography

Location:
Middle East, along the Mediterranean Sea, between Turkey and Lebanon
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
185,180 sq km
land area:
184,050 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than North Dakota
note:
includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory
Land boundaries:
total 2,253 km, Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375
km, Turkey 822 km
Coastline:
193 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
41 nm
territorial sea:
35 nm
International disputes:
separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Golan Heights is
Israeli occupied; Hatay question with Turkey; periodic disputes with
Iraq over Euphrates water rights; ongoing dispute over water
development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers;
Syrian troops in northern Lebanon since October 1976
Climate:
mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild,
rainy winters (December to February) along coast
Terrain:
primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains
in west
Natural resources:
petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore,
rock salt, marble, gypsum
Land use:
arable land:
28%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
46%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
20%
Irrigated land:
6,700 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water
pollution from dumping of untreated sewage and wastes from petroleum
refining; lack of safe drinking water
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Environmental
Modification
Note:
there are 40 Jewish settlements and civilian land use sites in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (April 1994)

@Syria, People

Population:
14,886,672 (July 1994 est.)
note:
in addition, there are 30,500 people living in the Israeli-occupied
Golan Heights--16,500 Arabs (15,000 Druze and 1,500 Alawites) and
14,000 Jewish settlers (1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.74% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
43.65 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.25 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
42.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
66.46 years
male:
65.37 years
female:
67.61 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.65 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Syrian(s)
adjective:
Syrian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects 16%,
Christian (various sects) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in Damascus,
Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)
Languages:
Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian, French
widely understood
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
64%
male:
78%
female:
51%
Labor force:
2.951 million (1989)
by occupation:
miscellaneous and government services 36%, agriculture 32%, industry
and construction 32%; note - shortage of skilled labor (1984)

@Syria, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Syrian Arab Republic
conventional short form:
Syria
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah
local short form:
Suriyah
former:
United Arab Republic (with Egypt)
Digraph:
SY
Type:
republic under leftwing military regime since March 1963
Capital:
Damascus
Administrative divisions:
14 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al
Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az
Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq, Tartus
Independence:
17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French
administration)
National holiday:
National Day, 17 April (1946)
Constitution:
13 March 1973
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and civil law system; special religious courts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Hafiz al-ASAD (since 22 February 1971 see note); Vice
Presidents 'Abd al-Halim ibn Said KHADDAM, Rif'at al-ASAD, and
Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984); election last held 2
December 1991 (next to be held December 1998); results - President
Hafiz al-ASAD was reelected for a fourth seven-year term with 99.98%
of the vote; note - President ASAD seized power in the November 1970
coup, assumed presidential powers 22 February 1971, and was confirmed
as president in the 12 March 1971 national elections
head of government:
Prime Minister Mahmud ZU'BI (since 1 November 1987); Deputy Prime
Minister Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984); Deputy Prime
Minister Salim YASIN (since NA December 1981); Deputy Prime Minister
Rashid AKHTARINI (since 4 July 1992)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
People's Council (Majlis al-Chaab):
elections last held 22-23 May 1990 (next to be held NA May 1994);
results - Ba'th 53.6%, ASU 3.2%, SCP 3.2%, Arab Socialist Unionist
Movement 2.8%, ASP 2%, Democratic Socialist Union Party 1.6%,
independents 33.6%; seats - (250 total) Ba'th 134, ASU 8, SCP 8, Arab
Socialist Unionist Movement 7, ASP 5, Democratic Socialist Union Party
4, independents 84; note - the People's Council was expanded to 250
seats total prior to the May 1990 election
Judicial branch:
Supreme Constitutional Court, High Judicial Council, Court of
Cassation, State Security Courts
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party is the Arab Socialist Resurrectionist (Ba'th) Party; the
Progressive National is dominated by Ba'thists but includes
independents and members of the Syrian Arab Socialist Party (ASP);
Arab Socialist Union (ASU); Syrian Communist Party (SCP); Arab
Socialist Unionist Movement; and Democratic Socialist Union Party
Other political or pressure groups:
non-Ba'th parties have little effective political influence; Communist
party ineffective; conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Walid MUALEM
chancery:
2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 232-6313
FAX:
(202) 234-9548
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Christopher W. S. ROSS
embassy:
Abou Roumaneh, Al-Mansur Street No. 2, Damascus
mailing address:
P. O. Box 29, Damascus
telephone:
[963] (11) 332-814, 332-315, 714-108, 330-788
FAX:
[963] (11) 247-938
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with two
small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the
white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band
and of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription)
in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the
flag of Egypt, which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

@Syria, Economy

Overview:
Syria's state-dominated Ba'thist economy has benefited from the Gulf
war of early 1991, increased oil production, good weather, and
economic deregulation. Economic growth averaged roughly 10% in
1990-93. The Gulf war provided Syria an aid windfall of nearly $5
billion dollars from Arab, European, and Japanese donors. These
inflows more than offset Damascus's war-related costs and will help
Syria cover some of its debt arrears, restore suspended credit lines,
and initiate selected military and civilian purchases. In 1992 the
government spurred economic development by loosening controls on
domestic and foreign investment while maintaining strict political
controls. For the long run, Syria's economy is still saddled with a
large number of poorly performing public sector firms, and industrial
productivity remains to be improved. Another major long-term concern
is the additional drain of upstream Euphrates water by Turkey when its
vast dam and irrigation projects are completed by mid-decade.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $81.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
7.6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
16.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7.5% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$7.13 billion
expenditures:
$9.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $4 billion (1993 est.)
Exports:
$3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
petroleum 53%, textiles 22%, cotton, fruits and vegetables
partners:
EC 48%, former CEMA countries 24%, Arab countries 18% (1991)
Imports:
$4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs 21%, metal products 17%, machinery 15%
partners:
EC 37%, former CEMA countries 15%, US and Canada 10% (1991)
External debt:
$19.4 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 21% (1991); accounts for 19% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
3,205,000 kW
production:
11.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
830 kWh (1992)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining,
petroleum
Agriculture:
accounts for 30% of GDP and one-third of labor force; all major crops
(wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas) grown mainly on
rain-watered land causing wide swings in production; animal products -
beef, lamb, eggs, poultry, milk; not self-sufficient in grain or
livestock products
Illicit drugs:
a transit country for Lebanese and Turkish refined cocaine going to
Europe and heroin and hashish bound for regional and Western markets
Economic aid:
recipient:
no US aid; aid from other countries (Western and Arab) totals $1.358
billion (1993 est.); no Ex-Im, OPEC programs in place; almost $5
billion in loans and grants from Arab and Western donors from 1990-92
as a result of Gulf war stance
Currency:
1 Syrian pound (#S) = 100 piastres
Exchange rates:
Syrian pounds (#S) per US$1 - 11.2 (official fixed rate), 26.6
(blended rate used by the UN and diplomatic missions), 42.0
(neighboring country rate - applies to most state enterprise imports),
46.0 - 53.0 (offshore rate) (yearend 1993)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Syria, Communications

Railroads:
1,998 km total; 1,766 km standard gauge, 232 km 1.050-meter (narrow)
gauge
Highways:
total:
29,000 km
paved:
22,680 km (including 670 km of expressways) (1988)
unpaved:
6,320 km
Inland waterways:
870 km; minimal economic importance
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,304 km; petroleum products 515 km
Ports:
Tartus, Latakia, Baniyas, Jablah
Merchant marine:
57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 151,519 GRT/243,910 DWT, bulk 7,
cargo 48, vehicle carrier 2
Airports:
total:
104
usable:
100
with permanent-surface runways:
24
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
21
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital
upgrades, including fiber optic technology; 512,600 telephones (37
telephones per 1,000 persons); broadcast stations - 9 AM, 1 FM, 17 TV;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Intersputnik;
1 submarine cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq,
Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey

@Syria, Defense Forces

Branches:
Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air Force, Syrian Arab
Air Defense Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 3,300,397; fit for military service 1,850,545; reach
military age (19) annually 155,569 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.2 billion, 6% of GDP (1992)

@Taiwan, Geography

Location:
Eastern Asia, off the southeastern coast of China, between Japan and
the Philippines
Map references:
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia
Area:
total area:
35,980 sq km
land area:
32,260 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland and Delaware combined
note:
includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,448 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; Paracel Islands
occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan;
Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai)
claimed by China and Taiwan
Climate:
tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to
August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year
Terrain:
eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling
plains in west
Natural resources:
small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos
Land use:
arable land:
24%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
55%
other:
15%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution from industrial emissions, untreated sewage; air
pollution; contamination of drinking water supplies
natural hazards:
subject to earthquakes and typhoons
international agreements:
signed, but not ratified - Marine Life Conservation

@Taiwan, People

Population:
21,298,930 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.96% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
15.6 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.63 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.25 years
male:
72.01 years
female:
78.66 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.81 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Chinese
Ethnic divisions:
Taiwanese 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, aborigine 2%
Religions:
mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other
2.5%
Languages:
Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
86%
male:
93%
female:
79%
Labor force:
7.9 million
by occupation:
industry and commerce 53%, services 22%, agriculture 15.6%, civil
administration 7% (1989)

@Taiwan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Taiwan
local long form:
none
local short form:
T'ai-wan
Digraph:
TW
Type:
multiparty democratic regime; opposition political parties legalized
in March, 1989
Capital:
Taipei
Administrative divisions:
some of the ruling party in Taipei claim to be the government of all
China; in keeping with that claim, the central administrative
divisions include 2 provinces (sheng, singular and plural) and 2
municipalities* (shih, singular and plural) - Fu-chien (some 20
offshore islands of Fujian Province including Quemoy and Matsu),
Kao-hsiung*, T'ai-pei*, and Taiwan (the island of Taiwan and the
Pescadores islands); the more commonly referenced administrative
divisions are those of Taiwan Province - 16 counties (hsien, singular
and plural), 5 municipalities* (shih, singular and plural), and 2
special municipalities** (chuan-shih, singular and plural); Chang-hua,
Chia-i, Chia-i*, Chi-lung*, Hsin-chu, Hsin-chu*, Hua-lien, I-lan,
Kao-hsiung, Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li, Nan-t'ou, P'eng-hu, P'ing-tung,
T'ai-chung, T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan, T'ai-nan*, T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**,
T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan, and Yun-lin; the provincial capital is at
Chung-hsing-hsin-ts'un
note:
Taiwan uses the Wade-Giles system for romanization
National holiday:
National Day, 10 October (1911) (Anniversary of the Revolution)
Constitution:
1 January 1947, amended in 1992, presently undergoing revision
Legal system:
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President LI Teng-hui (since 13 January 1988); Vice President LI
Yuan-zu (since 20 May 1990)
head of government:
Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) LIEN Chan (since 23 February
1993); Vice Premier (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) HSU Li-teh
(since 23 February 1993) presidential election last held 21 March 1990
(next to be held NA March 1996); results - President LI Teng-hui was
reelected by the National Assembly; vice presidential election last
held 21 March 1990 (next election will probably be a direct popular
election and will be held NA March 1996); results - LI Yuan-zu was
elected by the National Assembly
cabinet:
Executive Yuan; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Yuan and unicameral National Assembly
Legislative Yuan:
elections last held 19 December 1992 (next to be held near the end of
1995); results - KMT 60%, DPP 31%, independents 9%; seats - (304
total, 161 elected) KMT 96, DPP 50, independents 15
National Assembly:
elections - first National Assembly elected in November 1946 with a
supplementary election in December 1986; second and present National
Assembly elected in December 1991; seats - (403 total) KMT 318, DPP
75, other 10; (next election to be held in 1997)
Judicial branch:
Judicial Yuan
Political parties and leaders:
Kuomintang (KMT, Nationalist Party), LI Teng-hui, chairman; Democratic
Progressive Party (DPP); Chinese New Party (CNP); Labor Party (LP)
Other political or pressure groups:
Taiwan independence movement, various environmental groups
note:
debate on Taiwan independence has become acceptable within the
mainstream of domestic politics on Taiwan; political liberalization
and the increased representation of the opposition Democratic
Progressive Party in Taiwan's legislature have opened public debate on
the island's national identity; advocates of Taiwan independence, both
within the DPP and the ruling Kuomintang, oppose the ruling party's
traditional stand that the island will eventually unify with mainland
China; the aims of the Taiwan independence movement include
establishing a sovereign nation on Taiwan and entering the UN; other
organizations supporting Taiwan independence include the World United
Formosans for Independence and the Organization for Taiwan Nation
Building
Member of:
expelled from UN General Assembly and Security Council on 25 October
1971 and withdrew on same date from other charter-designated
subsidiary organs; expelled from IMF/World Bank group April/May 1980;
seeking to join GATT; attempting to retain membership in INTELSAT;
suspended from IAEA in 1972, but still allows IAEA controls over
extensive atomic development, APEC, AsDB, BCIE, ICC, IOC, COCOM
(cooperating), WCL
Diplomatic representation in US:
none; unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of
the US are maintained through a private instrumentality, the
Coordination Council for North American Affairs (CCNAA) with
headquarters in Taipei and field offices in Washington and 10 other US
cities
US diplomatic representation:
unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of Taiwan
are maintained through a private institution, the American Institute
in Taiwan (AIT), which has offices in Taipei at #7, Lane 134, Hsin Yi
Road, Section 3, telephone [886] (2) 709-2000, and in Kao-hsiung at #2
Chung Cheng 3d Road, telephone [886] (7) 224-0154 through 0157, and
the American Trade Center at Room 3207 International Trade Building,
Taipei World Trade Center, 333 Keelung Road Section 1, Taipei 10548,
telephone [886] (2) 720-1550
Flag:
red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing
a white sun with 12 triangular rays

@Taiwan, Economy

Overview:
Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with considerable government
guidance of investment and foreign trade and partial government
ownership of some large banks and industrial firms. Real growth in GNP
has averaged about 9% a year during the past three decades. Export
growth has been even faster and has provided the impetus for
industrialization. Agriculture contributes about 4% to GDP, down from
35% in 1952. Taiwan currently ranks as number 13 among major trading
countries. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being
replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive industries.
Taiwan has become a major investor in China, Thailand, Indonesia, the
Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam. The tightening of labor markets
has led to an influx of foreign workers, both legal and illegal.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $224 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$10,600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
1.5% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$30.3 billion
expenditures:
$30.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
$85 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
electrical machinery 19.7%, electronic products 19.6%, textiles 10.9%,
footwear 3.3%, foodstuffs 1.0%, plywood and wood products 0.9% (1993
est.)
partners:
US 27.6%, Hong Kong 21.7%, EC countries 15.2%, Japan 10.5% (1993 est.)
Imports:
$77.1 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment 15.7%, electronic products 15.6%, chemicals
9.8%, iron and steel 8.5%, crude oil 3.9%, foodstuffs 2.1% (1993 est.)
partners:
Japan 30.1%, US 21.7%, EC countries 17.6% (1993 est.)
External debt:
$620 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.6% (1993 est.); accounts for more than 40% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
18,382,000 kW
production:
98.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
4,718 kWh (1992)
Industries:
electronics, textiles, chemicals, clothing, food processing, plywood,
sugar milling, cement, shipbuilding, petroleum refining
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GNP and 16% of labor force (includes part-time
farmers); heavily subsidized sector; major crops - vegetables, rice,
fruit, tea; livestock - hogs, poultry, beef, milk; not self-sufficient
in wheat, soybeans, corn; fish catch increasing, reached 1.4 million
metric tons in 1988
Illicit drugs:
an important heroin transit point; also a major drug money laundering
center
Economic aid:
recipient:
US, including Ex-Im (FY46-82), $4.6 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $500 million
Currency:
1 New Taiwan dollar (NT$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
New Taiwan dollars per US$1 - 26.6 (1993), 25.4 (1992), 25.748 (1991),
27.108 (1990), 26.407 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Taiwan, Communications

Railroads:
about 4,600 km total track with 1,075 km common carrier lines and
3,525 km industrial lines; common carrier lines consist of the
1.067-meter gauge 708 km West Line and the 367 km East Line; a 98.25
km South Link Line connection was completed in late 1991; common
carrier lines owned by the government and operated by the Railway
Administration under Ministry of Communications; industrial lines
owned and operated by government enterprises
Highways:
total:
20,041 km
paved:
bituminous, concrete pavement 17,095 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, gravel 2,371 km; graded earth 575 km
Pipelines:

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