Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 35 out of 46

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.1 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Infant mortality rate:
47.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.11 years
male:
62.37 years
female:
67.94 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.37 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
South African(s)
adjective:
South African
Ethnic divisions:
black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%, Indian 2.6%
Religions:
Christian (most whites and Coloreds and about 60% of blacks), Hindu
(60% of Indians), Muslim 2%
Languages:
eleven official languages, including Afrikaans, English, Ndebele,
Pedi, Sotho, Swati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
76%
male:
78%
female:
75%
Labor force:
13.4 million economically active (1990)
by occupation:
services 35%, agriculture 30%, industry 20%, mining 9%, other 6%

@South Africa, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of South Africa
conventional short form:
South Africa
Abbreviation:
RSA
Digraph:
SF
Type:
republic
Capital:
Pretoria (administrative); Cape Town (legislative); Bloemfontein
(judicial)
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Eastern Transvaal, Kwa Zulu/Natal, Northern
Cape, Northern Transvaal, Northwest, Orange Free State,
Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging, Western Cape
note:
previously the administrative divisions consisted of 4 provinces;
Cape, Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal; there were 10 homelands not
recognized by the US - 4 independent (Bophuthatswana, Ciskei,
Transkei, Venda) and 6 other (Gazankulu, Kangwane, KwaNdebele,
KwaZulu, Lebowa, QwaQwa)
Independence:
31 May 1910 (from UK)
National holiday:
Republic Day, 31 May (1910)
Constitution:
27 April 1994 (interim constitution, replacing the constitution of 3
September 1984)
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
Executive President Nelson MANDELA (since 10 May 1994); Deputy
Executive President Frederik W. DE KLERK (since 10 May 1994); Deputy
Executive President Thabo MBEKI (since 10 May 1994)
note:
any political party that wins 20% or more of the National Assembly
votes in a general election is entitled to name a Deputy Executive
President
cabinet:
Cabinet appointed by the Executive President
Legislative branch:
bicameral
National Assembly:
elections held 26-29 April 1994 (next to be held NA); results - ANC
62.6%, NP 20.4%, IFP 10.5%, FF 2.2%, DP 1.7%, PAC 1.2%, ACDP 0.5%,
other 0.9%; seats - (400 total) ANC 252, NP 82, IFP 43, FF 9, DP 7,
PAC 5, ACDP 2
Senate:
the Senate is composed of members who are nominated by the nine
provincial parliaments (which are elected in parallel with the
National Assembly) and has special powers to protect regional
interests, including the right to limited self-determination for
ethnic minorities; seats - (90 total) ANC 61, NP 17, FF 4, IFP 5, DP 3
note:
when the National Assembly meets in joint session with the Senate to
consider the provisions of the Constitution, the combined group is
referred to as the Constitutional Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
African National Congress (ANC), Cyril RAMAPHOSA; National Party (NP),
Frederik W. DE KLERK, president; Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP),
Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI, president; Freedom Front (FF), Constand VILJOEN,
president; Democratic Party (DP); Pan Africanist Congress (PAC),
Clarence MAKWETU, president; African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP)
note:
in addition to these seven parties which won seats in the National
Assembly, twelve other parties won votes in the national elections in
April 1994
Other political or pressure groups:
NA;;
Member of:
BIS, CCC, ECA, GATT, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO (suspended), ICC, IDA,
IFC, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU (suspended), LORCS, OAU, SACU, UN,
UNCTAD, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO (suspended), ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Harry Heinz SCHWARZ
chancery:
3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 232-4400
consulate(s) general:
Beverly Hills (California), Chicago, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Princeton N. LYMAN
embassy:
877 Pretorius St., Arcadia 0083
mailing address:
P.O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone:
[27] (12) 342-1048
FAX:
[27] (12) 342-2244 or 2299
consulate(s) general:
Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg
Flag:
two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated by a
central green band which splits into a horozontal Y, the arms of which
end at the corners of the hoist side, embracing a black isoceles
triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the
red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by
narrow white stripes
note:
prior to 26 April 1994 the flag was actually four flags in one - three
miniature flags reproduced in the center of the white band of the
former flag of the Netherlands, which has three equal horizontal bands
of orange (top), white, and blue; the miniature flags are a vertically
hanging flag of the old Orange Free State with a horizontal flag of
the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a horizontal flag of the old
Transvaal Republic adjoining on the other side

@South Africa, Economy

Overview:
Many of the white one-seventh of the South African population enjoy
incomes, material comforts, and health and educational standards equal
to those of Western Europe. In contrast, most of the remaining
population suffers from the poverty patterns of the Third World,
including unemployment and lack of job skills. The main strength of
the economy lies in its rich mineral resources, which provide
two-thirds of exports. Economic developments for the remainder of the
1990s will be driven largely by the new government's attempts to
improve black living conditions and to set the country on an
aggressive export-led growth path. The shrinking economy in recent
years has absorbed less than 5% of the more than 300,000 workers
entering the labor force annually. Local economists estimate that the
economy must grow between 5% and 6% in real terms annually to absorb
all of the new entrants.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $171 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.7% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
50% (1994 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$26.3 billion
expenditures:
$34 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.5 billion (FY94
est.)
Exports:
$24.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
gold 27%, other minerals and metals 20-25%, food 5%, chemicals 3%
partners:
Italy, Japan, US, Germany, UK, other EC countries, Hong Kong
Imports:
$18.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
machinery 32%, transport equipment 15%, chemicals 11%, oil, textiles,
scientific instruments
partners:
Germany, US, Japan, UK, Italy
External debt:
$17 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for about 40% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
46,000,000 kW
production:
180 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
4,100 kWh (1991)
Industries:
mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium),
automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron and steel,
chemical, fertilizer, foodstuffs
Agriculture:
accounts for about 5% of GDP and 30% of labor force; diversified
agriculture, with emphasis on livestock; products - cattle, poultry,
sheep, wool, milk, beef, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables;
self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
transshipment center of heroin and cocaine; cocaine consumption on the
rise
Economic aid:
many aid packages for the new government are still being prepared;
current aid pledges include US $600 million over 3 years; UK $150
million over 3 years; Australia $21 million over 3 years
Currency:
1 rand (R) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
rand (R) per US$1 - 3.4551 (March 1994), 3.2636 (1993), 2.8497 (1992),
2.7563 (1991), 2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@South Africa, Communications

Railroads:
20,638 km route distance total; 20,324 km of 1.067-meter gauge
trackage (counts double and multiple tracking as single track); 314 km
of 610 mm gauge; substantial electrification of 1.067 meter gauge
Highways:
total:
188,309 km
paved:
54,013 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, gravel, improved earth 134,296 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 931 km; petroleum products 1,748 km; natural gas 322 km
Ports:
Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha, Mosselbaai
Merchant marine:
5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 213,273 GRT/201,043 DWT,
container 4, vehicle carrier 1
Airports:
total:
886
usable:
718
with permanent-surface runways:
140
with runways over 3,659 m:
5
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
213
Telecommunications:
the system is the best developed, most modern, and has the highest
capacity in Africa; it consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines,
coaxial cables, radio relay links, fiber optic cable, and
radiocommunication stations; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town,
Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria; over 4,500,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 286 FM, 67 TV; 1 submarine
cable; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

@South Africa, Defense Forces

Branches:
the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) includes Army, Navy,
Air Force, and Medical Services of the former South Africa, the armed
forces of the former homelands, and the ANC and PAC military
components; the initial strength of the SANDF has been set at about
100,000 active duty members with plans to reduce it to about 40,000 by
1997; it is manned mostly by nonwhites, but the higher officer grades
are held by whites; the South African Police (SAP) have incorporated
the police forces of the former homelands since the elections of 1994;
a National Peacekeeping Force (NPKF) to ensure peaceful proceedures
during the 1994 elections was established briefly from the military
components of the principal political factions, but was dissolved on 2
June 1994, following the elections.
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 10,557,346; fit for military service 6,437,240; reach
military age (18) annually 431,832 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.9 billion, about 2.5% of GDP (FY93
budget)

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Geography

Location:
Southern South America, in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the south
Argentine coast, southeast of the Falkland Islands
Map references:
Antarctic Region
Area:
total area:
4,066 sq km
land area:
4,066 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Rhode Island
note:
includes Shag Rocks, Clerke Rocks, Bird Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
NA km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
Climate:
variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year, interspersed
with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow
Terrain:
most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and
mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep,
glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic
origin with some active volcanoes
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (largely covered by permanent ice and snow with some sparse
vegetation consisting of grass, moss, and lichen)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
the South Sandwich Islands are subject to active volcanism
international agreements:
NA
Note:
the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide
good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in this century, live on
South Georgia; weather conditions generally make it difficult to
approach the South Sandwich Islands

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, People

Population:
no indigenous population; there is a small military garrison on South
Georgia, and the British Antarctic Survey has a biological station on
Bird Island; the South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
conventional short form:
none
Digraph:
SX
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
none; Grytviken on South Georgia is the garrison town
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Constitution:
3 October 1985
Legal system:
English common law
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by
Commissioner David Everard TATHAM (since August 1992; resident at
Stanley, Falkland Islands)
Legislative branch:
no elections
Judicial branch:
none

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Economy

Overview:
Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential
source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands
receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK.
Budget:
revenues:
$291,777
expenditures:
$451,000, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
900 kW
production:
2 million kWh
consumption per capita:
NA (1992)

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Grytviken on South Georgia
Airports:
total:
5
usable:
5
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
coastal radio station at Grytviken; no broadcast stations

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Spain, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Portugal and France
Map references:
Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
504,750 sq km
land area:
499,400 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
note:
includes Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, and five places of
sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco -
Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de
Velez de la Gomera
Land boundaries:
total 1,903.2 km, Andorra 65 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km,
Portugal 1,214 km
Coastline:
4,964 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Gibraltar question with UK; Spain controls five places of sovereignty
(plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal
enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco contests, as well as the
islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas
Chafarinas
Climate:
temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy
along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool
along coast
Terrain:
large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees
in north
Natural resources:
coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum,
zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash, hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
31%
permanent crops:
10%
meadows and pastures:
21%
forest and woodland:
31%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
33,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from untreated sewage and effluents
from the offshore production of oil and gas; air pollution;
deforestation; desertification
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber,
Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen
Oxides, Law of the Sea
Note:
strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

@Spain, People

Population:
39,302,665 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.25% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
11.05 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.82 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.71 years
male:
74.45 years
female:
81.21 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.4 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Spaniard(s)
adjective:
Spanish
Ethnic divisions:
composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
Religions:
Roman Catholic 99%, other sects 1%
Languages:
Castilian Spanish, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
95%
male:
97%
female:
93%
Labor force:
14.621 million
by occupation:
services 53%, industry 24%, agriculture 14%, construction 9% (1988)

@Spain, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form:
Spain
local short form:
Espana
Digraph:
SP
Type:
parliamentary monarchy
Capital:
Madrid
Administrative divisions:
17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad
autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Canarias, Cantabria,
Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna, Communidad Valencia,
Extremadura, Galicia, Islas Baleares, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia,
Navarra, Pais Vasco
note:
there are five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of Morocco
(Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de
Velez de la Gomera) with administrative status unknown
Independence:
1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)
National holiday:
National Day, 12 October
Constitution:
6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978
Legal system:
civil law system, with regional applications; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975)
head of government:
Prime Minister Felipe GONZALEZ Marquez (since 2 December 1982); Deputy
Prime Minister Narcis SERRA y Serra (since 13 March 1991)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; designated by the prime minister
Council of State:
is the supreme consultative organ of the government
Legislative branch:
bicameral The General Courts or National Assembly (Las Cortes
Generales)
Senate (Senado):
elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held by NA June 1997);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (255 total) PSOE 117,
PP 107, CiU 15, PNV 5, IU 2, other 9
Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados):
elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held by NA June 1997);
results by percent of party NA; seats - (350 total) PSOE 159, PP 141,
IU 18, CiU 17, PNV 5, CN 4, HB 2, other 4
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo)
Political parties and leaders:
principal national parties, from right to left:
Popular Party (PP), Jose Maria AZNAR; Social Democratic Center (CDS),
Rafael Calvo ORTEGA; Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), Felipe
GONZALEZ Marquez, secretary general; Socialist Democracy Party (DS),
Ricardo Garcia DAMBORENEA; Spanish Communist Party (PCE), Julio
ANGUITA; United Left (IU) a coalition of parties including the PCE, a
branch of the PSOE, and other small parties, Julio ANGUITA
chief regional parties:
Convergence and Unity (CiU), Jordi PUJOL Saley and Miguel ROCA in
Catalonia; Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), Xabier ARZALLUS and Jose
Antonio ARDANZA; Basque Solidarity (EA), Carlos GARAICOETXEA Urizza;
Basque Popular Unity (HB), Jon IDIGORAS and Inaki ESNAOLA; Basque
Socialist Party (PSE), coalition of the PSE, EE and PSOE, Jose Maria
BANEGAS and Jon LARRINAGA; Andalusian Progress Party (PA), Pedro
PACHECO; Canarian Coalition (CN), Dimas MARTIN; Catalan Republican
Left, Angel COLOM; Galician Coalition, Senen BERNARDEZ; Aragonese
Regionalist Party (PAR), Jose Maria MUR Bernad; Valencian Union (UV),
Vicente GONZALEZ Lizondo, Manuel CAMPILLOS Martinez
Other political or pressure groups:
on the extreme left, the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) and the
First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO) use terrorism to
oppose the government; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977)
include the Communist-dominated Workers Commissions (CCOO); the
Socialist General Union of Workers (UGT), and the smaller independent
Workers Syndical Union (USO); business and landowning interests; the
Catholic Church; Opus Dei; university students
Member of:
AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM,
CSCE, EBRD, AfDB, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-8, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA
(observer), LORCS, MTRC, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jaime De OJEDA y Eiseley
chancery:
2700 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 265-0190 or 0191
consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard N. GARDNER
embassy:
Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address:
APO AE 09642
telephone:
[34] (1) 577-4000
FAX:
[34] (1) 577-5735
consulate(s) general:
Barcelona
consulate(s):
Bilbao
Flag:
three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red
with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band;
the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of
Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on
either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar

@Spain, Economy

Overview:
After the economic boom of 1986-90, the Spanish economy fell into
recession along with the economies of other EU member states. Real GDP
barely grew in 1992 and declined by approximately 1% in 1993.
Unemployment, now nearly one-fourth of the workforce, and the sharp
downturn in business investment have contributed to sagging domestic
demand. Devaluation of the peseta since September 1992 has made
Spanish exports more competitive, but an export-led recovery in 1994
will depend largely on economic recovery in Spain's major market - the
other EU nations. A solid recovery will also require appropriate
domestic policy actions, including controlling the budget deficit and
wage increases, reforming labor market regulations, and possibly
loosening monetary policy another notch. Foreign investors,
principally from other EU countries, have invested over $60 billion in
Spain since 1986. Despite the recession, inflation remained at about
5% in 1993. The main source of inflationary pressure is the fiscal
deficit.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $498 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
-1% (1993)
National product per capita:
$12,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
22% (yearend 1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$97.7 billion
expenditures:
$128 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$72.8 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
cars and trucks, semifinished manufactured goods, foodstuffs,
machinery
partners:
EC 71.2%, US 4.8%, other developed countries 7.9% (1992)
Imports:
$92.5 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
machinery, transport equipment, fuels, semifinished goods, foodstuffs,
consumer goods, chemicals
partners:
EC 60.7%, US 7.4%, other developed countries 11.5%, Middle East 5.9%
(1992)
External debt:
$90 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.7% (1992)
Electricity:
capacity:
46,600,000 kW
production:
157 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
4,000 kWh (1992)
Industries:
textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals
and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine
tools, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for about 5% of GDP and 14% of labor force; major products -
grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus fruit,
beef, pork, poultry, dairy; largely self-sufficient in food; fish
catch of 1.4 million metric tons is among top 20 nations
Illicit drugs:
key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine and North
African hashish entering the European market
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1.9 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-79), $545
million
note:
not currently a recipient
Currency:
1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 136.6 (May 1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38
(1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Spain, Communications

Railroads:
15,430 km total; Spanish National Railways (RENFE) operates 12,691 km
(all 1,668-mm gauge, 6,184 km electrified, and 2,295 km double track);
FEVE (government-owned narrow-gauge railways) operates 1,821 km
(predominantly 1,000-mm gauge, 441 km electrified); privately owned
railways operate 918 km (predominantly 1,000-mm gauge, 512 km
electrified, and 56 km double track)
Highways:
total:
318,022 km (1988)
paved:
178,092 km (including 2,142 km of expressways)
unpaved:
139,930 km
Inland waterways:
1,045 km, but of minor economic importance
Pipelines:
crude oil 265 km; petroleum products 1,794 km; natural gas 1,666 km
Ports:
Algeciras, Alicante, Almeria, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena,
Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, El Ferrol del Caudillo, Puerto de Gijon,
Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands), Mahon, Malaga,
Melilla, Rota, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Sagunto, Tarragona, Valencia,
Vigo, and 175 minor ports
Merchant marine:
192 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,328,730 GRT/2,213,671 DWT,
bulk 21, cargo 55, chemical tanker 14, container 11, liquefied gas 5,
oil tanker 29, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 33, short-sea passenger 6, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier
1
Airports:
total:
105
usable:
99
with permanent-surface runways:
60
with runways over 3,659 m:
4
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
22
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
26
Telecommunications:
generally adequate, modern facilities; 15,350,464 telephones;
broadcast stations - 190 AM, 406 (134 repeaters) FM, 100 (1,297
repeaters) TV; 22 coaxial submarine cables; 2 communications satellite
earth stations operating in INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean and Indian
Ocean); MARECS, INMARSAT, and EUTELSAT systems; tropospheric links

@Spain, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Civil Guard, National Police, Coastal
Civil Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 10,377,990; fit for military service 8,396,405; reach
military age (20) annually 337,764 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $5.8 billion, 1.3% of GDP (1994 est.)

@Spratly Islands, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, in the South China Sea, between Vietnam and the
Philippines
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia
Area:
total area:
NA sq km but less than 5 km2
land area:
less than 5 sq km
comparative area:
NA
note:
includes 100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts scattered over
the South China Sea
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
926 km
Maritime claims:
NA
International disputes:
all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam;
parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984,
Brunei established an exclusive economic zone, which encompasses
Louisa Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
flat
Natural resources:
fish, guano, undetermined oil and natural gas potential
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to typhoons
international agreements:
NA
Note:
strategically located near several primary shipping lanes in the
central South China Sea; serious navigational hazard; includes
numerous small islands, atolls, shoals, and coral reefs

@Spratly Islands, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are scattered garrisons

@Spratly Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Spratly Islands
Digraph:
PG

@Spratly Islands, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to commercial fishing. The proximity to
nearby oil- and gas-producing sedimentary basins suggests the
potential for oil and gas deposits, but the region is largely
unexplored, and there are no reliable estimates of potential reserves;
commercial exploitation has yet to be developed.
Industries:
none

@Spratly Islands, Communications

Ports:
no natural harbors
Airports:
total:
4
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0

@Spratly Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
about 50 small islands or reefs are occupied by China, Malaysia, the
Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam

@Sri Lanka, Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, 29 km southeast of India across the Palk Strait in the
Indian Ocean
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
65,610 sq km
land area:
64,740 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,340 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest
monsoon (June to October)
Terrain:
mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior
Natural resources:
limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay
Land use:
arable land:
16%
permanent crops:
17%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
37%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
5,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by
poaching; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased
pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes
and sewage runoff
natural hazards:
occasional cyclones and tornadoes
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea,
Marine Life Conservation
Note:
strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

@Sri Lanka, People

Population:
18,129,850 (July 1994 est.)
note:
since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and armed
Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand Tamil
civilians have fled the island; as of late 1992, nearly 115,000 were
housed in refugee camps in south India, another 95,000 lived outside
the Indian camps, and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought political
asylum in the West
Population growth rate:
1.18% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
18.51 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.77 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
21.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.9 years
male:
69.37 years
female:
74.55 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.12 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Sri Lankan(s)
adjective:
Sri Lankan
Ethnic divisions:
Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay, and Vedda 1%
Religions:
Buddhist 69%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 8%
Languages:
Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national
language) 18%
note:
English is commonly used in government and is spoken by about 10% of
the population
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
88%
male:
93%
female:
84%
Labor force:
6.6 million
by occupation:
agriculture 45.9%, mining and manufacturing 13.3%, trade and transport
12.4%, services and other 28.4% (1985 est.)

@Sri Lanka, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
conventional short form:
Sri Lanka
former:
Ceylon
Digraph:
CE
Type:
republic
Capital:
Colombo
Administrative divisions:
8 provinces; Central, North Central, North Eastern, North Western,
Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western
Independence:
4 February 1948 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence and National Day, 4 February (1948)
Constitution:
adopted 16 August 1978
Legal system:
a highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch, Muslim,
Sinhalese, and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Dingiri Banda WIJETUNGA (since 7 May 1993); election last
held 19 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1994); results -
Ranasinghe PREMADASA (UNP) 50%, Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE (SLFP) 45%,
other 5%; note - following the assassination of President PREMADASA on
1 May 1993, Prime Minister WIJETUNGA became acting president; on 7 May
1993, he was confirmed by a vote of Parliament to finish out the term
of the assassinated president
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president in consultation with the prime
minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament:
elections last held 15 February 1989 (next to be held by NA February
1995); results - UNP 51%, SLFP 32%, SLMC 4%, TULF 3%, USA 3%, EROS 3%,
MEP 1%, other 3%; seats - (225 total) UNP 125, SLFP 67, other 33
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
United National Party (UNP), Dingiri Banda WIJETUNGA; Sri Lanka
Freedom Party (SLFP), Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress
(SLMC), M. H. M. ASHRAFF; All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), C. G.
Kumar PONNAMBALAM; People's United Front (MEP, or Mahajana Eksath
Peramuna), Dinesh GUNAWARDENE; Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF),
M. SIVASITHAMBARAM; New Socialist Party (NSSP, or Nava Sama Samaja
Party), Vasudeva NANAYAKKARA; Lanka Socialist Party/Trotskyite (LSSP,
or Lanka Sama Samaja Party), Colin R. DE SILVA; Sri Lanka People's
Party (SLMP, or Sri Lanka Mahajana Party), Ossie ABEYGUNASEKERA;
Communist Party, K. P. SILVA; Communist Party/Beijing (CP/B), N.
SHANMUGATHASAN; Democratic United National Front (DUNF), G. M.
PREMACHANDRA; Eelam People's Democratic Party (EPDP), Douglas
DEVANANDA; Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO), leader NA;
Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRL), Suresh
PREMACHANDRAN; Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students (EROS),
Shankar RAJI; People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE),
Dharmalingam SIDARTHAN; Liberal Party (LP), Chanaka AMARATUNGA; Ceylon
Workers Congress (CLDC), S. THONDAMAN; several ethnic Tamil and Muslim
parties, represented in either parliament or provincial councils
note:
the United Socialist Alliance (USA), which was formed in 1987 and
included the NSSP, LSSP, SLMP, CP/M, and CP/B, was defunct as of 1993,
following the formation of the People's Alliance Party (PEP)
Other political or pressure groups:
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and other smaller Tamil
separatist groups; other radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups; Buddhist
clergy; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups; labor unions
Member of:
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ananda W.P. GURUGE
chancery:
2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-4025 through 4028
FAX:
(202) 232-7181
consulate(s):
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Teresita C. SCHAFFER
embassy:
210 Galle Road, Colombo 3
mailing address:
P. O. Box 106, Colombo
telephone:
[94] (1) 44-80-07
FAX:
[94] (1) 57-42-64
Flag:
yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal
vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a
large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword, and there
is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as a
border that goes around the entire flag and extends between the two
panels

@Sri Lanka, Economy

Overview:
Industry - dominated by the fast-growing apparel industry - has
surpassed agriculture as the main source of export earnings and
accounts for over 16% of GDP. The economy has been plagued by high
rates of unemployment since the late 1970s. Economic growth, which has
been depressed by ethnic unrest, accelerated in 1991-93 as domestic
conditions began to improve and conditions for foreign investment
brightened.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $53.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.6% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$2.3 billion
expenditures:
$3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (1993)
Exports:
$2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
garments and textiles, teas, gems, petroleum products, coconuts,
rubber, other agricultural products, marine products, graphite
partners:
US 33.4%, Germany, UK, Netherlands, Japan, France, Singapore (1992)
Imports:
$3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
food and beverages, textiles and textile materials, petroleum and
petroleum products, machinery and equipment
partners:
Japan, India, US 4.3%, UK, Singapore, Germany, Hong King, Taiwan,
South Korea (1991)
External debt:
$5.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7% (1991 est.); accounts for 16.5% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
1,300,000 kW
production:
3.6 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
200 kWh (1992)
Industries:
processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural
commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco
Agriculture:
accounts for one-fourth of GDP and nearly half of labor force; most
important staple crop is paddy rice; other field crops - sugarcane,
grains, pulses, oilseeds, roots, spices; cash crops - tea, rubber,
coconuts; animal products - milk, eggs, hides, meat; not
self-sufficient in rice production
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $5.1
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $169 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $369 million
Currency:
1 Sri Lankan rupee (SLRe) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Sri Lankan rupees (SLRes) per US$1 - 49.672 (January 1994), 48.322
(1993), 43.687 (1992), 41.372 (1991), 40.063 (1990), 36.047 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Sri Lanka, Communications

Railroads:
1,948 km total (1990); all 1.868-meter broad gauge; 102 km double
track; no electrification; government owned
Highways:
total:
75,263 km
paved:
mostly bituminous treated 27,637 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, gravel 32,887 km; improved, unimproved earth 14,739 km
Inland waterways:
430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft
Pipelines:
crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)
Ports:
Colombo, Trincomalee
Merchant marine:
26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 289,115 GRT/453,609 DWT, bulk 2,
cargo 12, container 1, oil tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 8
Airports:
total:
14
usable:
13
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
very inadequate domestic service, good international service; 114,000
telephones (1982); broadcast stations - 12 AM, 5 FM, 5 TV; submarine
cables extend to Indonesia and Djibouti; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations

@Sri Lanka, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,906,666; fit for military service 3,825,774; reach
military age (18) annually 178,213 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $417 million, 3.5% of GDP (1994 est.)

@Sudan, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, along the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,505,810 sq km
land area:
2.376 million sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Land boundaries:
total 7,687 km, Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km,
Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya
383 km, Uganda 435 km, Zaire 628 km
Coastline:
853 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
18 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
administrative boundary with Kenya does not coincide with
international boundary; administrative boundary with Egypt does not
coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle,"
a barren area of 20,580 sq km, the dispute over this area escalated in
1993, this area continues to be in dispute
Climate:
tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April to
October)
Terrain:
generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and west
Natural resources:
small reserves of petroleum, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc,
tungsten, mica, silver
Land use:
arable land:
5%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
24%
forest and woodland:
20%
other:
51%
Irrigated land:
18,900 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
contaminated water supplies present human health risks; wildlife
populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion;
desertification
natural hazards:
dust storms
international agreements:
party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity
Note:
largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries

@Sudan, People

Population:
29,419,798 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.36% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
41.95 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.09 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
79.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
54.27 years
male:
53.4 years
female:
55.19 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.09 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Sudanese
Ethnic divisions:
black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5%
(mostly in south and Khartoum)
Languages:
Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic,
Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
note:
program of Arabization in process
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
27%
male:
43%
female:
12%
Labor force:
6.5 million
by occupation:
agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 10%, government 6%
note:
labor shortages for almost all categories of skilled employment (1983
est.); 52% of population of working age (1985)

@Sudan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form:
Sudan
local long form:
Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form:
As-Sudan
former:
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Digraph:
SU
Type:
ruling military junta - Revolutionary Command Council - dissolved on
16 October 1993 and government civilianized
Capital:
Khartoum
Administrative divisions:
9 states (wilayat, singular - wilayat or wilayah*); A'ali an Nil, Al
Wusta*, Al Istiwa'iyah*, Al Khartum, Ash Shamaliyah*, Ash Sharqiyah*,
Bahr al Ghazal, Darfur, Kurdufan
Independence:
1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Constitution:
12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim
constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June
1989
Legal system:
based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991,
the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in
the northern states; the council is still studying criminal provisions
under Islamic law; Islamic law applies to all residents of the six
northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious
courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
none
Executive branch:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Lt. General Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October
1993); prior to 16 October 1993, BASHIR served concurrently as Chief
of State, Chairman of the RCC, Prime Minister, and Minister of Defence
(since 30 June 1989); Vice President Major General al-Zubayr Muhammad
SALIH (since 19 October 1993); note - upon its dissolution on 16
October 1993, the RCC's executive and legislative powers were devolved
to the President and the Transitional National Assembly (TNA), Sudan's
appointed legislative body
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president; note - on 30 October 1993
President BASHIR announced a new, predominantly civilian cabinet,
consisting of 20 federal ministers, most of whom retained their
previous cabinet positions
note:
Lt. Gen. BASHIR's government is dominated by members of Sudan's
National Islamic Front, a fundamentalist political organization formed
from the Muslim Brotherhood in 1986; front leader Hasan al-TURABI
controls Khartoum's overall domestic and foreign policies
Legislative branch:
appointed 300-member Transitional National Assembly; officially
assumes all legislative authority for Sudan until the eventual,
unspecified resumption of national elections
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Special Revolutionary Courts
Political parties and leaders:
none; banned following 30 June 1989 coup
Other political or pressure groups:
National Islamic Front, Hasan al-TURABI
Member of:
ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ahmad SULAYMAN
chancery:
2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 338-8565 through 8570
FAX:
(202) 667-2406
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Donald K. PETTERSON
embassy:
Shar'ia Ali Abdul Latif, Khartoum
mailing address:
P. O. Box 699, Khartoum, or APO AE 09829
telephone:
74700 or 74611
FAX:
Telex 22619 AMEM SD
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a
green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

@Sudan, Economy

Overview:
Sudan is buffeted by civil war, chronic political instability, adverse
weather, high inflation, a drop in remittances from abroad, and
counterproductive economic policies. The economy is dominated by
governmental entities that account for more than 70% of new
investment. The private sector's main areas of activity are
agriculture and trading, with most private industrial investment
predating 1980. The economy's base is agriculture, which employs 80%
of the work force. Industry mainly processes agricultural items.
Sluggish economic performance over the past decade, attributable
largely to declining annual rainfall, has reduced levels of per capita
income and consumption. A large foreign debt and huge arrearages
continue to cause difficulties. In 1990 the International Monetary
Fund took the unusual step of declaring Sudan noncooperative because
of its nonpayment of arrearages to the Fund. The government
implemented a comprehensive economic reform program in 1992 that
included slashing the fiscal deficit, liberalizing foreign exchange
regulations, and lifting most price controls, but it had backtracked
on most reforms by mid-1993 because of its fear of generating a
domestic backlash. The government's failure to pursue economic reform,
its continued prosecution of the civil war, and its growing
international isolation have led to a further deterioration of the
non-agricultural sectors of the economy during 1993. Agriculture, on
the other hand, after several disappointing years, enjoyed favorable
growing conditions in 1993, and its strong performance produced an
overall growth rate in GNP of about 7%.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $21.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
7% (FY93 est.)
National product per capita:
$750 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
105% (FY93 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% (FY93 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$374.4 million
expenditures:
$1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $214 million (1993
est.)
Exports:
$350 million (f.o.b., FY93 est.)
commodities:
cotton 52%, sesame, gum arabic, peanuts
partners:
Western Europe 46%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Eastern Europe 9%, Japan 9%, US
3% (FY88)
Imports:
$1.1 billion (c.i.f., FY93 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery and
equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles
partners:
Western Europe 32%, Africa and Asia 15%, US 13%, Eastern Europe 3%
(FY88)
External debt:
$17 billion (June 1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.8% (FY93 est.); accounts for 11% of GDP (FY92)
Electricity:
capacity:
610,000 kW
production:
905 million kWh
consumption per capita:
40 kWh (1991)
Industries:
cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling,
shoes, petroleum refining
Agriculture:
accounts for 35% of GDP and 80% of labor force; water shortages;
two-thirds of land area suitable for raising crops and livestock;
major products - cotton, oilseeds, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic,
sheep; marginally self-sufficient in most foods
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.5 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $5.1
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.1 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $588 million
Currency:
1 Sudanese pound (#Sd) = 100 piastres
Exchange rates:
official rate - Sudanese pounds (#Sd) per US$1 - 215 (January 1994),
333.3 (December 1993), 90.1 (March 1992), 5.4288 (1991), 4.5004 (fixed
rate since 1987); note - the commercial rate is 300 (January 1994)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Sudan, Communications

Railroads:
5,516 km total; 4,800 km 1.067-meter gauge, 716 km 1.6096-meter-gauge
plantation line
Highways:
total:
20,703 km
paved:
bituminous treated 2,000 km
unpaved:
gravel 4,000 km; improved earth 2,304 km; unimproved earth 12,399 km
Inland waterways:
5,310 km navigable
Pipelines:
refined products 815 km
Ports:
Port Sudan, Sawakin
Merchant marine:
10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 89,842 GRT/122,379 DWT, cargo 8,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2
Airports:
total:
70
usable:
58
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
29
Telecommunications:
large, well-equipped system by African standards, but barely adequate
and poorly maintained by modern standards; consists of microwave radio
relay, cable, radio communications, troposcatter, and a domestic
satellite system with 14 stations; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 3 TV;
satellite earth stations for international traffic - 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT

@Sudan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,640,123; fit for military service 4,080,715; reach
military age (18) annually 305,885 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $339 million, 2.2% of GDP (1989 est.)

@Suriname, Geography

Location:
Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between
French Guiana and Guyana
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
163,270 sq km
land area:
161,470 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Georgia
Land boundaries:
total 1,707 km, Brazil 597 km, French Guiana 510 km, Guyana 600 km
Coastline:
386 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims area in French Guiana between Litani Rivier and Riviere
Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa Rivier); claims area in Guyana
between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Koetari Rivers (all
headwaters of the Courantyne)
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps
Natural resources:
timber, hydropower potential, fish, shrimp, bauxite, iron ore, and
small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, gold
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
97%
other:
3%
Irrigated land:
590 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna which
for the most part is not threatened because of the lack of
development; relatively small population most of which lives along the
coast

@Suriname, People

Population:
422,840 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.57% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
25.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
31.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.45 years
male:
66.94 years
female:
72.08 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.79 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Surinamer(s)
adjective:
Surinamese
Ethnic divisions:
Hindustani (East Indian) 37%, Creole (black and mixed) 31%, Javanese
15.3%, Bush black 10.3%, Amerindian 2.6%, Chinese 1.7%, Europeans 1%,
other 1.1%
Religions:
Hindu 27.4%, Muslim 19.6%, Roman Catholic 22.8%, Protestant 25.2%
(predominantly Moravian), indigenous beliefs 5%
Languages:
Dutch (official), English widely spoken, Sranan Tongo (Surinamese,
sometimes called Taki-Taki) is native language of Creoles and much of
the younger population and is lingua franca among others, Hindi
Suriname Hindustani (a variant of Bhoqpuri), Javanese
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
95%
male:
95%
female:
95%
Labor force:
104,000 (1984)
by occupation:
NA

@Suriname, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Suriname
conventional short form:
Suriname
local long form:
Republiek Suriname
local short form:
Suriname
former:
Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana
Digraph:
NS
Type:
republic
Capital:
Paramaribo
Administrative divisions:
10 districts (distrikten, singular - distrikt); Brokopondo,
Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca,
Sipaliwini, Wanica
Independence:
25 November 1975 (from Netherlands)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 November (1975)
Constitution:
ratified 30 September 1987
Legal system:
NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Ronald R. VENETIAAN (since 16 September 1991); Vice
President and Prime Minister Jules R. AJODHIA (since 16 September
1991); election last held 6 September 1991 (next to be held NA May
1996); results - elected by the National Assembly - Ronald VENETIAAN
(NF) 80% (645 votes), Jules WIJDENBOSCH (NDP) 14% (115 votes), Hans
PRADE (DA '91) 6% (49 votes)
cabinet:
Cabinet of Ministers; appointed by the president from members of the
National Assembly
note:
Commander in Chief of the National Army maintains significant power
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale):
elections last held 25 May 1991 (next to be held NA May 1996); results
- percent of vote NA; seats - (51 total) NF 30, NDP 10, DA '91 9,
Independent 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
The New Front (NF), a coalition of four parties (NPS, VHP, KTPI, SPA),
leader Ronald R. VENETIAAN; Progressive Reform Party (VHP), Jaggernath
LACHMON; National Party of Suriname (NPS), Ronald VENETIAAN; Party of
National Unity and Solidarity (KTPI), Willy SOEMITA; Suriname Labor
Party (SPA) Fred DERBY; Democratic Alternative '91 (DA '91), Winston
JESSURUN, a coalition of four parties (AF, HPP, Pendawa Lima, BEP)
formed in January 1991; Alternative Forum (AF), Gerard BRUNINGS,
Winston JESSURUN; Reformed Progressive Party (HPP), Panalal PARMESSAR;
Party for Brotherhood and Unity in Politics (BEP), Caprino ALLENDY;
Pendawa Lima, Marsha JAMIN; National Democratic Party (NDP), Desire
BOUTERSE; Progressive Workers' and Farm Laborers' Union (PALU), Ir
Iwan KROLIS, chairman;
Other political or pressure groups:
Surinamese Liberation Army (SLA), Ronnie BRUNSWIJK, Johan "Castro"
WALLY; Union for Liberation and Democracy, Kofi AFONGPONG; Mandela
Bushnegro Liberation Movement, Leendert ADAMS; Tucayana Amazonica,
Alex JUBITANA, Thomas SABAJO
Member of:
ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, GATT, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Willem A. UDENHOUT
chancery:
Suite 108, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 244-7488 or 7490 through 7492
FAX:
(202) 244-5878
consulate(s) general:
Miami
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roger R. GAMBLE
embassy:
Dr. Sophie Redmonstraat 129, Paramaribo
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1821, Paramaribo
telephone:
[597] 472900, 477881, or 476459
FAX:
[597] 410025
Flag:
five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white, red
(quadruple width), white, and green (double width); there is a large
yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band

@Suriname, Economy

Overview:
The economy is dominated by the bauxite industry, which accounts for
15% of GDP and about 70% of export earnings. The economy has been in
trouble since the Dutch ended development aid in 1982. A drop in world
bauxite prices which started in the late 1970s and continued until
late 1986 was followed by the outbreak of a guerrilla insurgency in
the interior that crippled the important bauxite sector. Although the
insurgency has since ebbed and the bauxite sector recovered,
Paramaribo has failed to initiate the economic reforms necessary to
stabilize the economy or win renewed Dutch aid disbursements. High
inflation, high unemployment, widespread black market activity, and
hard currency shortfalls continue to mark the economy.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.17 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-0.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
109% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
16.5% (1990)
Budget:
revenues:
$466 million
expenditures:
$716 million, including capital expenditures of $123 million (1989
est.)
Exports:
$290 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
alumina, aluminum, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas
partners:
Norway 33%, Netherlands 26%, US 13%, Japan 6%, Brazil 6%, UK 3% (1992)
Imports:
$250 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods
partners:
US 42%, Netherlands 22%, Trinidad and Tobago 10%, Brazil 5% (1992)
External debt:
$180 million (March 1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -5% (1991 est.); accounts for 27% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
458,000 kW
production:
2.018 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
4,920 kWh (1992)
Industries:
bauxite mining, alumina and aluminum production, lumbering, food
processing, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 10.4% of GDP and 25% of export earnings; paddy rice
planted on 85% of arable land and represents 60% of total farm output;
other products - bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains, peanuts,
beef, chicken; shrimp and forestry products of increasing importance;
self-sufficient in most foods
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $2.5 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5
billion
Currency:
1 Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (Sf.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Surinamese guilders, gulden, or florins (Sf.) per US$1 - 1.7850 (fixed
rate); parallel rate 109 (January 1994)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

Book of the day:
Facebook Google Reddit StumbleUpon Twitter Pinterest