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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau,
mountains in east
Natural resources:
diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite
Land use:
arable land:
25%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
31%
forest and woodland:
29%
other:
13%
Irrigated land:
340 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
rapid population growth pressuring the environment; overharvesting of
timber, expansion of cattle grazing, and slash-and-burn agriculture
have resulted in deforestation and soil exhaustion; civil war
depleting natural resources
natural hazards:
dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (November to May)
international agreements:
party to - Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not
ratified - Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

@Sierra Leone, People

Population:
4,630,037 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.62% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
45.06 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
18.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
141.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
46.4 years
male:
43.58 years
female:
49.3 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.96 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Sierra Leonean(s)
adjective:
Sierra Leonean
Ethnic divisions:
13 native African tribes 99% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 39%),
Creole, European, Lebanese, and Asian 1%
Religions:
Muslim 60%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%
Languages:
English (official; regular use limited to literate minority), Mende
principal vernacular in the south, Temne principal vernacular in the
north, Krio the language of the re-settled ex-slave population of the
Freetown area and is lingua franca
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write English, Merde, Temne, or Arabic
(1990 est.)
total population:
21%
male:
31%
female:
11%
Labor force:
1.369 million (1981 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 65%, industry 19%, services 16% (1981 est.)
note:
only about 65,000 wage earners (1985); 55% of population of working
age

@Sierra Leone, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Sierra Leone
conventional short form:
Sierra Leone
Digraph:
SL
Type:
military government
Capital:
Freetown
Administrative divisions:
3 provinces and 1 area*; Eastern, Northern, Southern, Western*
Independence:
27 April 1961 (from UK)
National holiday:
Republic Day, 27 April (1961)
Constitution:
1 October 1991; suspended following 19 April 1992 coup
Legal system:
based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local tribes;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
Chairman of the Supreme Council of State Capt. Valentine E. M.
STRASSER (since 29 April 1992)
cabinet:
Council of Secretaries; responsible to the NPRC
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives (suspended after coup of 29 April
1992); Chairman STRASSER promises multi-party elections sometime in
1995
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (suspended after coup of 29 April 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
status of existing political parties is unknown following 29 April
1992 coup
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Thomas Kahota KARGBO
chancery:
1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 939-9261
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Lauralee M. PETERS
embassy:
Walpole and Siaka Stevens Street, Freetown
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[232] (22) 226-481
FAX:
[232] (22) 225-471
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and light
blue

@Sierra Leone, Economy

Overview:
The economic and social infrastructure is not well developed.
Subsistence agriculture dominates the economy, generating about
one-third of GDP and employing about two-thirds of the working
population. Manufacturing, which accounts for roughly 10% of GDP,
consists mainly of the processing of raw materials and of light
manufacturing for the domestic market. Diamond mining provides an
important source of hard currency. In 1990-93, the government, with
the support of the IMF and the World Bank, has made substantial
progress toward structural reform and better fiscal management. The
government readily met all IMF/WB targets in December 1993. The budget
deficit had been dramatically reduced; the government workforce had
been cut by 25%; large amounts of domestic debt had been retired;
arrears to the IMF, World Bank, and other creditors had been reduced.
On the negative side, continued incursions by the Liberian rebels,
bandits, and army deserters in southern and eastern Sierra Leone have
severely strained the economy and threaten economically critical
regions of the country.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.5 billion (FY93 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA
National product per capita:
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
35% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$68 million
expenditures:
$118 million, including capital expenditures of $28 million (1992
est.)
Exports:
$149 million (f.o.b., FY92)
commodities:
rutile 51%, bauxite 19%, diamonds 15%, coffee 5%
partners:
US, UK, Belgium, Germany, other Western Europe
Imports:
$131 million (c.i.f., FY92)
commodities:
foodstuffs 33%, machinery and equipment 19%, fuels 16%
partners:
US, EC countries, Japan, China, Nigeria
External debt:
$633 million (FY92 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.2% (FY91); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
85,000 kW
production:
185 million kWh
consumption per capita:
45 kWh (1991)
Industries:
mining (diamonds, bauxite, rutile), small-scale manufacturing
(beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear), petroleum refinery
Agriculture:
accounts for over 30% of GDP and two-thirds of the labor force;
largely subsistence farming; cash crops - coffee, cocoa, palm kernels;
harvests of food staple rice meets 80% of domestic needs; annual fish
catch averages 53,000 metric tons
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $161 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $848
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $18 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $101 million
Currency:
1 leone (Le) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
leones (Le) per US$1 - 578.17 (January 1994), 567.46 (1993), 499.44
(1992), 295.34 (1991), 144.9275 (1990), 58.1395 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Sierra Leone, Communications

Railroads:
84 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge mineral line is used on a limited basis
because the mine at Marampa is closed
Highways:
total:
7,400 km
paved:
1,150 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, gravel 490 km; improved earth 5,760 km
Inland waterways:
800 km; 600 km navigable year round
Ports:
Freetown, Pepel, Bonthe
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (over 1,000 GRT) totaling 5,592 GRT/9,107 DWT
Airports:
total:
11
usable:
7
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
marginal telephone and telegraph service; national microwave radio
relay system unserviceable at present; 23,650 telephones; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Sierra Leone, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Police, Security Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,006,280; fit for military service 487,158
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $6 million, 0.7% of GDP (1988 est.)

@Singapore, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, between Malaysia and Indonesia
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
632.6 sq km
land area:
622.6 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
193 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
two islands in dispute with Malaysia
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons;
thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)
Terrain:
lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment
area and nature preserve
Natural resources:
fish, deepwater ports
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
7%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
5%
other:
84%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
industrial pollution; limited water supply; limited land availability
presents waste disposal problems
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

@Singapore, People

Population:
2,859,142 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.12% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
16.52 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.3 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.95 years
male:
73.17 years
female:
78.94 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.88 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Singaporean(s)
adjective:
Singapore
Ethnic divisions:
Chinese 76.4%, Malay 14.9%, Indian 6.4%, other 2.3%
Religions:
Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist,
Confucianist
Languages:
Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official),
English (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
88%
male:
93%
female:
84%
Labor force:
1,485,800
by occupation:
financial, business, and other services 30.2%, manufacturing 28.4%,
commerce 22.0%, construction 9.0%, other 10.4% (1990)

@Singapore, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Singapore
conventional short form:
Singapore
Digraph:
SN
Type:
republic within Commonwealth
Capital:
Singapore
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)
National holiday:
National Day, 9 August (1965)
Constitution:
3 June 1959, amended 1965; based on preindependence State of Singapore
Constitution
Legal system:
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President ONG Teng Cheong (since 1 September 1993) election last held
28 August 1993 (next to be held NA August 1997); results - President
ONG was elected with 59% of the vote in the country's first popular
election for president
head of government:
Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November 1990); Deputy Prime
Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president, responsible to parliament
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament:
elections last held 31 August 1991 (next to be held 31 August 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (81 total) PAP 77, SDP
3, WP 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
government:
People's Action Party (PAP), GOH Chok Tong, secretary general
opposition:
Workers' Party (WP), J. B. JEYARETNAM; Singapore Democratic Party
(SDP), CHIAM See Tong; National Solidarity Party (NSP), leader NA;
Barisan Sosialis (BS, Socialist Front), leader NA
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, COCOM (cooperating), CP, ESCAP, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNIKOM,
UNTAC, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Sellapan Rama NATHAN
chancery:
1824 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 667-7555
FAX:
(202) 265-7915
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
30 Hill Street, Singapore 0617
mailing address:
FPO AP 96534
telephone:
[65] 338-0251
FAX:
[65] 338-5010
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side
of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion
is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed
stars arranged in a circle

@Singapore, Economy

Overview:
Singapore has an open entrepreneurial economy with strong service and
manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading links
derived from its entrepot history. The economy registered nearly 10%
growth in 1993 while stemming inflation. The construction and
financial services industries and manufacturers of computer-related
components have led economic growth. Rising labor costs continue to be
a threat to Singapore's competitiveness, but there are indications
that productivity is keeping up. In applied technology, per capita
output, investment, and labor discipline, Singapore has key attributes
of a developed country.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $42.4 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
9.9% (1993)
National product per capita:
$15,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.4% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
2.7% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$11.9 billion
expenditures:
$10.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.9 billion (1994
est.)
Exports:
$61.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
computer equipment, rubber and rubber products, petroleum products,
telecommunications equipment
partners:
US 21%, Malaysia 12%, Hong Kong 8%, Japan 8%, Thailand 6% (1992)
Imports:
$66.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
aircraft, petroleum, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners:
Japan 21%, US 16%, Malaysia 15%, Saudi Arabia 5%, Taiwan 4%
External debt:
$0; Singapore is a net creditor
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.3% (1992); accounts for 28% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
4,860,000 kW
production:
18 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
6,420 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling equipment, rubber
processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship
repair, entrepot trade, financial services, biotechnology
Agriculture:
occupies a position of minor importance in the economy;
self-sufficient in poultry and eggs; must import much of other food;
major crops - rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables
Illicit drugs:
transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the US, Western
Europe, and the Third World; also a major money-laundering center
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $590 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1
billion
Currency:
1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Singapore dollars (S$) per US$1 - 1.6032 (January 1994), 1.6158
(1993), 1.6290 (1992), 1.7276 (1991), 1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Singapore, Communications

Railroads:
38 km of 1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
total:
2,644 km (1985)
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Singapore
Merchant marine:
533 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 10,656,067 GRT/17,009,400 DWT,
bulk 87, cargo 125, chemical tanker 14, combination bulk 3,
combination ore/oil 8, container 80, liquefied gas 4, livestock
carrier 1, oil tanker 179, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 3,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 20
note:
many Singapore flag ships are foreign owned
Airports:
total:
10
usable:
10
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
good domestic facilities; good international service; good radio and
television broadcast coverage; 1,110,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 13 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; submarine cables extend to Malaysia
(Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT

@Singapore, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 857,824; fit for military service 630,055
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.7 billion, 6% of GDP (1993 est.)

@Slovakia, Geography

Location:
Central Europe, between Hungary and Poland
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
48,845 sq km
land area:
48,800 sq km
comparative area:
about twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries:
total 1,355 km, Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 515 km,
Poland 444 km, Ukraine 90 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Hungary; unresolved property issues with
Czech Republic over redistribution of former Czechoslovak federal
property
Climate:
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:
rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the
south
Natural resources:
brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and
manganese ore; salt
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
acid rain damaging forests
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
landlocked

@Slovakia, People

Population:
5,403,505 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.53% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
14.55 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.28 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
10.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.81 years
male:
68.66 years
female:
77.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.96 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Slovak(s)
adjective:
Slovak
Ethnic divisions:
Slovak 85.6%, Hungarian 10.8%, Gypsy 1.5% (the 1992 census figures
underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which could reach 500,000 or
more), Czech 1.1%, Ruthenian 15,000, Ukrainian 13,000, Moravian 6,000,
German 5,000, Polish 3,000
Religions:
Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%,
other 17.5%
Languages:
Slovak (official), Hungarian
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
2.484 million
by occupation:
industry 33.2%, agriculture 12.2%, construction 10.3%, communication
and other 44.3% (1990)

@Slovakia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Slovak Republic
conventional short form:
Slovakia
local long form:
Slovenska Republika
local short form:
Slovensko
Digraph:
LO
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Bratislava
Administrative divisions:
4 departments (kraje, singular - Kraj) Bratislava, Zapadoslovensky,
Stredoslovensky, Vychodoslovensky
Independence:
1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)
National holiday:
Anniversary of Slovak National Uprising, August 29 (1944)
Constitution:
ratified 1 September 1992; fully effective 1 January 1993
Legal system:
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the
obligations of Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Michal KOVAC (since 8 February 1993); election last held 8
February 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - Michal KOVAC
elected by the National Council
head of government:
Prime Minister Jozef MORAVCIK (since 16 March 1994)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime
minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Council (Narodni Rada):
elections last held 5-6 June 1992 (next to be held 31
September-1October 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
- (150 total) Movement for a Democratic Slovakia 55, Party of the
Democratic Left 28, Christian Democratic Movement 18, Slovak National
Party 9, National Democratic Party 5, Hungarian Christian Democratic
Movement/Coexistence 14, Democratic Union of Slovakia 16, independents
5
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, Vladimir MECIAR, chairman; Party
of the Democratic Left, Peter WEISS, chairman; Christian Democratic
Movement, Jan CARNOGURSKY; Slovak National Party, Jan SLOTA, chairman;
Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement, Vojtech BUGAR; National
Democratic Party - New Alternative, Ludovit CERNAK, chairman;
Democratic Union of Slovakia, Jozef MORAVCIK, chairman; Coexistence
Movement, Miklos DURAY, chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
Green Party; Social Democratic Party in Slovakia; Freedom Party;
Slovak Christian Union; Hungarian Civic Party
Member of:
BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NACC, NSG, PCA, UN (as of 8 January 1993), UNAVEM II, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMUR, UNPROFOR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate Bravislav LICHARDUS
chancery:
(temporary) Suite 330, 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 965-5161
FAX:
(202) 965-5166
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassdor Theodore RUSSELL
embassy:
Hviezdoslavovo Namesite 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[42] (7) 330-861
FAX:
[42] (7) 335-439
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist
side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue

@Slovakia, Economy

Overview:
The dissolution of Czechoslovakia into two independent states - the
Czech Republic and Slovakia - on 1 January 1993 has complicated the
task of moving toward a more open and decentralized economy. The old
Czechoslovakia, even though highly industrialized by East European
standards, suffered from an aging capital plant, lagging technology,
and a deficiency in energy and many raw materials. In January 1991,
approximately one year after the end of communist control of Eastern
Europe, the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic launched a sweeping
program to convert its almost entirely state-owned and controlled
economy to a market system. In 1991-92 these measures resulted in
privatization of some medium- and small-scale economic activity and
the setting of more than 90% of prices by the market - but at a cost
in inflation, unemployment, and lower output. For Czechoslovakia as a
whole inflation in 1991 was roughly 50% and output fell 15%. In 1992
in Slovakia, inflation slowed to an estimated 8.7% and the estimated
fall in GDP was a more moderate 7%. In 1993 GDP fell roughly 5%, with
the disruptions from the separation from the Czech lands probably
accounting for half the decline; exports to the Czech Republic fell
about 35%. Bratislava adopted an austerity program in June and
devalued its currency 10% in July. In 1993, inflation rose an
estimated 23%, unemployment topped 14%, and the budget deficit
exceeded the IMF target of $485 million by over $200 million. By
yearend 1993 Bratislava estimated that 29% of GDP was being produced
in the private sector. The forecast for 1994 is gloomy; Bratislava
optimistically projects no growth in GDP, 17% unemployment, a $425
million budget deficit, and 12% inflation. At best, if Slovakia stays
on track with the IMF, GDP could fall by only 2-3% in 1994 and
unemployment could be held under 18%, but a currency devaluation will
likely drive inflation above 15%.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $31 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
23% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
14.4% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$4.5 billion
expenditures:
$5.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$5.13 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment; chemicals; fuels, minerals, and
metals; agricultural products
partners:
Czech Republic, CIS republics, Germany, Poland, Austria, Hungary,
Italy, France, US, UK
Imports:
$5.95 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment; fuels and lubricants; manufactured
goods; raw materials; chemicals; agricultural products
partners:
Czech Republic, CIS republics, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland,
Hungary, UK, Italy
External debt:
$3.2 billion hard currency indebtedness (31 December 1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate -13.5% (December 1993 over December 1992)
Electricity:
capacity:
6,800,000 kW
production:
24 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
4,550 kWh (1992)
Industries:
brown coal mining, chemicals, metal-working, consumer appliances,
fertilizer, plastics, armaments
Agriculture:
largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and
livestock production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops,
fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western
Europe
Economic aid:
donor:
the former Czechoslovakia was a donor - $4.2 billion in bilateral aid
to non-Communist less developed countries (1954-89)
Currency:
1 koruna (Sk) = 100 halierov
Exchange rates:
koruny (Sk) per US$1 - 32.9 (December 1993), 28.59 (December 1992),
28.26 (1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989); note - values
before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rate
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Slovakia, Communications

Railroads:
3,669 km total (1990)
Highways:
total:
17,650 km (1990)
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km
Ports:
maritime outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin), Croatia
(Rijeka), Slovenia (Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal
river ports are Komarno on the Danube and Bratislava on the Danube
Merchant marine:
total 19 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 309,502 GRT/521,997 DWT, bulk
13, cargo 6
note:
most under the flag of Saint Vincent
Airports:
total:
46
usable:
32
with permanent-surface runways:
7
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
18
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
NA

@Slovakia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Railroad Units
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,426,290; fit for military service 1,095,604; reach
military age (18) annually 48,695 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
8.2 billion koruny, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of
defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results

@Slovenia, Geography

Location:
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Austria and Croatia
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
20,296 sq km
land area:
20,296 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total 1,045 km, Austria 262 km, Croatia 501 km, Italy 199 km, Hungary
83 km
Coastline:
32 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
dispute with Croatia over fishing rights in the Adriatic and over some
border areas; the border issue is currently under negotiation
Climate:
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to
hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain:
a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region
adjacent to Italy, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to
the east
Natural resources:
lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
45%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; heavy metals
and toxic chemicals along coastal waters; forest damage near Koper
from air pollution originating at metallurgical and chemical plants
natural hazards:
subject to flooding and earthquakes
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Slovenia, People

Population:
1,972,227 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.23% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
11.81 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.5 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.36 years
male:
70.49 years
female:
78.44 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.67 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Slovene(s)
adjective:
Slovenian
Ethnic divisions:
Slovene 91%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Muslim 1%, other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 96% (including 2% Uniate), Muslim 1%, other 3%
Languages:
Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 7%, other 2%
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
786,036
by occupation:
agriculture 2%, manufacturing and mining 46%

@Slovenia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form:
Slovenia
local long form:
Republika Slovenije
local short form:
Slovenija
Digraph:
SI
Type:
emerging democracy
Capital:
Ljubljana
Administrative divisions:
60 provinces (pokajine, singular - pokajina) Ajdovscina, Brezice,
Celje, Cerknica, Crnomelj, Dravograd, Gornja Radgona, Grosuplje,
Hrastnik Lasko, Idrija, Ilirska Bistrica, Izola, Jesenice, Kamnik,
Kocevje, Koper, Kranj, Krsko, Lenart, Lendava, Litija,
Ljubljana-Bezigrad, Ljubljana-Center, Ljubljana-Moste-Polje,
Ljubljana-Siska, Ljubljana-Vic-Rudnik, Ljutomer, Logatec, Maribor,
Metlika, Mozirje, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ormoz,
Pesnica, Piran, Postojna, Ptuj, Radlje Ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne Na
Koroskem, Ribnica, Ruse, Sentjur Pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skofja
Loka, Slovenj Gradec, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje
Pri Jelsah, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trzic, Velenje, Vrhnika,
Zagorje Ob Savi, Zalec
Independence:
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Constitution:
adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Milan KUCAN (since 22 April 1990); election last held 6
December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Milan KUCAN
reelected by direct popular vote
head of government:
Prime Minister Janez DRNOVSEK (since 14 May 1992); Deputy Prime
Minister Lojze PETERLE (since NA)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly
State Assembly:
elections last held 6 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (total 90) LDS 22, SKD 15,
United List (former Communists and allies) 14, Slovene National Party
12, SLS 10, Democratic Party 6, ZS 5, SDSS 4, Hungarian minority 1,
Italian minority 1
State Council:
will become operational after next election in 1996; in the election
of 6 December 1992 40 members were elected to represent local and
socioeconomic interests
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Slovene Christian Democrats (SKD), Lozje PETERLE, chairman; Liberal
Democratic (LDS), Janez DRNOVSEK, chairman; Social-Democratic Party of
Slovenia (SDSS), Joze PUCNIK, chairman; Socialist Party of Slovenia
(SSS), Viktor ZAKELJ, chairman; Greens of Slovenia (ZS), Dusan PLUT,
chairman; National Democratic, Rajko PIRNAT, chairman; Democratic
Peoples Party, Marjan PODOBNIK, chairman; Reformed Socialists (former
Communist Party), Ciril RIBICIC, chairman; United List (former
Communists and allies); Slovene National Party, leader NA; Democratic
Party, Igor BAVCAR; Slovene People's Party (SLS), Ivan OMAN
note:
parties have changed as of the December 1992 elections
Other political or pressure groups:
none
Member of:
CCC, CE, CEI, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU,
NAM (guest), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ernest PETRIC
chancery:
1525 New Hampshir Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20036
telephone:
(202) 667-5363
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador E. Allan WENDT
embassy:
P.O. Box 254, Prazakova 4, 61000 Ljubljana
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[386] (61) 301-427/472/485
FAX:
[386] (61) 301-401
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red with the
Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav in white against a
blue background at the center, beneath it are two wavy blue lines
depicting seas and rivers, and around it, there are three six-sided
stars arranged in an inverted triangle); the seal is located in the
upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands

@Slovenia, Economy

Overview:
Slovenia was by far the most prosperous of the former Yugoslav
republics, with a per capita income more than twice the Yugoslav
average, indeed not far below the levels in neighboring Austria and
Italy. Because of its strong ties to Western Europe and the small
scale of damage during its brief fight for independence from
Yugoslavia, Slovenia has the brightest prospects among the former
Yugoslav republics for economic recovery over the next few years. The
dissolution of Yugoslavia, however, has led to severe short-term
dislocations in production, employment, and trade ties. For example,
overall industrial production has fallen 26% since 1990; particularly
hard hit have been the iron and steel, machine-building, chemical, and
textile industries. Meanwhile, the continued fighting in other former
Yugoslav republics has led to further destruction of long-established
trade channels and to an influx of tens of thousands of Croatian and
Bosnian refugees. The key program for breaking up and privatizing
major industrial firms was established in late 1992. Despite slow
progress in privatization Slovenia has reasonable prospects for an
upturn in 1994. Bright spots for encouraging Western investors are
Slovenia's comparatively well-educated work force, its developed
infrastructure, and its Western business attitudes, but instability in
Croatia is a deterrent. Slovenia in absolute terms is a small economy,
and a little Western investment would go a long way.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $15 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$7,600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
22.9% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
15.5% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$5.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 38%, other manufactured goods 44%,
chemicals 9%, food and live animals 4.6%, raw materials 3%, beverages
and tobacco less than 1% (1992)
partners:
Germany 27%, Croatia 14%, Italy 13%, France 9% (1992)
Imports:
$5.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 35%, other manufactured goods 26.7%,
chemicals 14.5%, raw materials 9.4%, fuels and lubricants 7%, food and
live animals 6% (1992)
partners:
Germany 23%, Croatia 14%, Italy 14%, France 8%, Austria 8% (1992)
External debt:
$1.9 billion
Industrial production:
growth rate -2.8% (1993); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
2,900,000 kW
production:
10 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
5,090 kWh (1992)
Industries:
ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum reduction and
rolled products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including
military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood
products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Agriculture:
accounts for 5% of GDP; dominated by stock breeding (sheep and cattle)
and dairy farming; main crops - potatoes, hops, hemp, flax; an export
surplus in these commodities; Slovenia must import many other
agricultural products and has a negative overall trade balance in this
sector
Illicit drugs:
NA
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 tolar (SlT) = 100 stotins
Exchange rates:
tolars (SIT) per US$1 - 112 (June 1993), 28 (January 1992)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Slovenia, Communications

Railroads:
1,200 km, 1.435 m gauge (1991)
Highways:
total:
14,553 km
paved:
10,525 km
unpaved:
gravel 4,028 km
Inland waterways:
NA
Pipelines:
crude oil 290 km; natural gas 305 km
Ports:
coastal - Koper
Merchant marine:
19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 309,502 GRT/521,997 DWT
controlled by Slovenian owners, bulk 13, cargo 6
note:
most under the flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; no ships
remain under the Slovenian flag
Airports:
total:
14
usable:
13
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
130,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 5 FM, 7 TV; 370,000
radios; 330,000 TVs

@Slovenia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Slovene Defense Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 513,885; fit for military service 411,619; reach
military age (19) annually 15,157 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
13.5 billion tolars, 4.5% of GDP (1993); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

@Solomon Islands, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Melanesia, just east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific
Ocean
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
28,450 sq km
land area:
27,540 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
5,313 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather
Terrain:
mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls
Natural resources:
fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates, lead, zinc, nickel
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
93%
other:
4%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; limited arable land
natural hazards:
subject to typhoons, but they are rarely destructive; geologically
active region with frequent earth tremors
international agreements:
party to - Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
located just east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

@Solomon Islands, People

Population:
385,811 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.43% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
38.93 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.63 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
27.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.48 years
male:
68.05 years
female:
73.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.73 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Solomon Islander(s)
adjective:
Solomon Islander
Ethnic divisions:
Melanesian 93%, Polynesian 4%, Micronesian 1.5%, European 0.8%,
Chinese 0.3%, other 0.4%
Religions:
Anglican 34%, Roman Catholic 19%, Baptist 17%, United
(Methodist/Presbyterian) 11%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, other
Protestant 5%
Languages:
Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca, English
spoken by 1%-2% of population
note:
120 indigenous languages
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
23,448 economically active
by occupation:
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 32.4%, services 25%, construction,
manufacturing, and mining 7.0%, commerce, transport, and finance 4.7%
(1984)

@Solomon Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Solomon Islands
former:
British Solomon Islands
Digraph:
BP
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Honiara
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces and 1 town*; Central, Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel,
Makira, Malaita, Temotu, Western
Independence:
7 July 1978 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 7 July (1978)
Constitution:
7 July 1978
Legal system:
common law
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Sir George LEPPING (since 27 June 1989, previously acted as
governor general since 7 July 1988)
head of government:
Prime Minister Francis Billy HILLY (since June 1993); Deputy Prime
Minister Francis SAEMALA (since June 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the prime
minister from members of parliament
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Parliament:
elections last held NA May 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (47 total) National Unity Group
21, PAP 8, National Action Party 6, LP 4, UP 3, Christian Fellowship
2, NFP 1, independents 2
Judicial branch:
High Court
Political parties and leaders:
People's Alliance Party (PAP); United Party (UP), leader NA; Solomon
Islands Liberal Party (SILP), Bartholemew ULUFA'ALU; Nationalist Front
for Progress (NFP), Andrew NORI; Labor Party (LP), Joses TUHANUKU;
National Action Party, leader NA; Christian Fellowship, leader NA;
National Unity Group, Solomon MAMALONI
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, LORCS, SPARTECA, SPC,
SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant); ambassador traditionally resides in Honiara (Solomon
Islands)
US diplomatic representation:
embassy closed July 1993; the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is
accredited to the Solomon Islands
Flag:
divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side
corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white
five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is
green

@Solomon Islands, Economy

Overview:
The bulk of the population depend on subsistence agriculture, fishing,
and forestry for at least part of their livelihood. Most manufactured
goods and petroleum products must be imported. The islands are rich in
undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold.
The economy suffered from a severe cyclone in mid-1986 that caused
widespread damage to the infrastructure. In 1993, the government was
working with the IMF to develop a structural adjustment program to
address the country's fiscal deficit.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $900 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.8% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,500 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
13% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$48 million
expenditures:
$107 million, including capital expenditures of $45 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$84 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
fish 46%, timber 31%, palm oil 5%, cocoa, copra
partners:
Japan 39%, UK 23%, Thailand 9%, Australia 5%, US 2% (1991)
Imports:
$110 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
plant and machinery manufactured goods, food and live animals, fuel
partners:
Australia 34%, Japan 16%, Singapore 14%, NZ 9%
External debt:
$128 million (1988 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -3.8% (1991 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
21,000 kW
production:
39 million kWh
consumption per capita:
115 kWh (1990)
Industries:
copra, fish (tuna)
Agriculture:
including fishing and forestry, accounts for 31% of GDP; mostly
subsistence farming; cash crops - cocoa, beans, coconuts, palm
kernels, timber; other products - rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruit,
cattle, pigs; not self-sufficient in food grains; 90% of the total
fish catch of 44,500 metric tons was exported (1988)
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-89), $250 million
Currency:
1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1 - 3.2383 (November 1993),
2.9281 (1992), 2.7148 (1991), 2.5288 (1990), 2.2932 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Solomon Islands, Communications

Highways:
total:
1,300 km
paved:
30 km
unpaved:
gravel 290 km; earth 980 km
note:
in addition, there are 800 km of private logging and plantation roads
of varied construction (1982)
Ports:
Honiara, Ringi Cove
Airports:
total:
31
usable:
30
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
3,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Solomon Islands, Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Somalia, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the northwestern Indian Ocean, south of the
Arabian Peninsula
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
637,660 sq km
land area:
627,340 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 2,366 km, Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km
Coastline:
3,025 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional
Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden
Climate:
desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), cooler southwest
monsoon (May to October); irregular rainfall; hot, humid periods
(tangambili) between monsoons
Terrain:
mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Natural resources:
uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum,
bauxite, copper, salt
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
46%
forest and woodland:
14%
other:
38%
Irrigated land:
1,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
use of contaminated water contributes to health problems;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards:
recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea; signed, but not
ratified - Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
Note:
strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab
el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

@Somalia, People

Population:
6,666,873 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.24% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
45.97 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
13.53 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
125.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
54.75 years
male:
54.49 years
female:
55.01 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.25 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Somali(s)
adjective:
Somali
Ethnic divisions:
Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000, Europeans 3,000, Asians 800
Religions:
Sunni Muslim
Languages:
Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
24%
male:
36%
female:
14%
Labor force:
2.2 million (very few are skilled laborers)
by occupation:
pastoral nomad 70%, agriculture, government, trading, fishing,
handicrafts, and other 30%
note:
53% of population of working age (1985)

@Somalia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Somalia
former:
Somali Republic
Digraph:
SO
Type:
none
Capital:
Mogadishu
Administrative divisions:
18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir,
Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose,
Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool,
Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
Independence:
1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became
independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which
became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1
July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)
National holiday:
NA
Constitution:
25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979
Legal system:
NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Somalia has no functioning government; presidential elections last
held 23 December 1986 (next to be held NA); results - President SIAD
was reelected without opposition
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's Assembly
People's Assembly (Golaha Shacbiga):
elections last held 31 December 1984 (next to be held NA); results -
SRSP was the only party; seats - (177 total, 171 elected) SRSP 171;
note - the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Maj. Gen.
Mohamed SIAD Barre on 27 January 1991; the provisional government has
promised that a democratically elected government will be established
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (non-functioning)
Political parties and leaders:
the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the former regime on 27
January 1991; formerly the only party was the Somali Revolutionary
Socialist Party (SRSP), headed by former President and Commander in
Chief of the Army Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre
Other political or pressure groups:
numerous clan and subclan factions are currently vying for power
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
Somalian Embassy ceased operations on 8 May 1991
US diplomatic representation:
the US Embassy in Mogadishu was evacuated and closed indefinitely in
January 1991; United States Liaison Office (USLO) opened in December
1992
Flag:
light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design
based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust
territory)

@Somalia, Economy

Overview:
One of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has
few resources. Moreover, much of the economy has been devastated by
the civil war. Agriculture is the most important sector, with
livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export
earnings. Nomads and seminomads who are dependent upon livestock for
their livelihoods make up more than half of the population. Crop
production generates only 10% of GDP and employs about 20% of the work
force. The main export crop is bananas; sugar, sorghum, and corn are
grown for the domestic market. The small industrial sector is based on
the processing of agricultural products and accounts for less than 10%
of GDP. Greatly increased political turmoil in 1991-93 has resulted in
a substantial drop in output, with widespread famine.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
210% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$58 million (1990 est.)
commodities:
bananas, live animals, fish, hides
partners:
Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)
Imports:
$249 million (1990 est.)
commodities:
petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials
partners:
US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)
External debt:
$1.9 billion (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1990); accounts for 4% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
former 75,000 kW is almost completely shut down by the destruction of
the civil war; UN, relief organizations, and foreign military units in
Somalia use their own portable power systems
production:
NA
consumption per capita:
NA
Industries:
a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum
refining; probably shut down by the widespread destruction during the
civil war
Agriculture:
dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle, sheep, goats);
crops - bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not
self-sufficient in food; distribution of food disrupted by civil
strife; fishing potential largely unexploited
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $639 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.8
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.1 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $336 million
Currency:
1 Somali shilling (So. Sh.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1 - 2,616 (1 July 1993), 4,200
(December 1992), 3,800.00 (December 1990), 490.7 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Somalia, Communications

Highways:
total:
22,500 km
paved:
2,700 km
unpaved:
gravel 3,000 km; improved, stabilized earth 16,800 km (1992)
Pipelines:
crude oil 15 km
Ports:
Mogadishu, Berbera, Chisimayu (Kismaayo), Bender Cassim (Boosaaso)
Merchant marine:
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,554 GRT/6,892 DWT, cargo 1,
refrigerated cargo 1
Airports:
total:
76
usable:
59
with permanent-surface runways:
8
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
24
Telecommunications:
the public telecommunications system was completely destroyed or
dismantled by the civil war factions; all relief organizations depend
on their own private systems (1993)

@Somalia, Defense Forces

Branches:
NA
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,630,864; fit for military service 915,368
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@South Africa, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, at the extreme southern tip of the continent
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,219,912 sq km
land area:
1,219,912 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
note:
includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward
Island)
Land boundaries:
total 4,750 km, Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km,
Namibia 855 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km
Coastline:
2,798 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
the dispute with Namibia over Walvis Bay and 12 offshore islands has
been resolved and these territories were transferred to Namibian
sovereignty on 1 March 1994; Swaziland has asked South Africa to open
negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories
that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the
Swazi Kingdom
Climate:
mostly semiarid; subtropical along coast; sunny days, cool nights
Terrain:
vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
Natural resources:
gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium,
salt, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
65%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
21%
Irrigated land:
11,280 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water
conservation and control measures; growth in water usage threatens to
outpace supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban
discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion;
desertification
natural hazards:
subject to prolonged droughts
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of
the Sea
Note:
South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely
surrounds Swaziland

@South Africa, People

Population:
43,930,631 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.62% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
33.58 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.53 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)

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