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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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Grenadines and Barbados; new SHF links to Grenada and Saint Lucia;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV (cable)

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force, Coast Guard
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@San Marino, Geography

Location:
Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
60 sq km
land area:
60 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 39 km, Italy 39 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Terrain:
rugged mountains
Natural resources:
building stone
Land use:
arable land:
17%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
83%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
international agreements:
NA
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See
and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

@San Marino, People

Population:
24,091 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.96% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
11.17 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.39 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
5.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
81.23 years
male:
77.17 years
female:
85.28 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.53 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Sammarinese
Ethnic divisions:
Sammarinese, Italian
Religions:
Roman Catholic
Languages:
Italian
Literacy:
age 14 and over can read and write (1976)
total population:
96%
male:
96%
female:
95%
Labor force:
4,300 (est.)
by occupation:
NA

@San Marino, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of San Marino
conventional short form:
San Marino
local long form:
Repubblica di San Marino
local short form:
San Marino
Digraph:
SM
Type:
republic
Capital:
San Marino
Administrative divisions:
9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo
Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino,
San Marino, Serravalle
Independence:
301 AD (by tradition)
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic, 3 September
Constitution:
8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of
a constitution
Legal system:
based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
co-chiefs of state:
Captain Regent Alberto CECCHETTI and Captain Regent Fausto MULARONI
(for the period 1 April 1994-30 September 1994) real executive power
is wielded by the secretary of state for foreign affairs and the
secretary of state for internal affairs
head of government:
Secretary of State Gabriele GATTI (since July 1986)
cabinet:
Congress of State; elected by the Council for the duration of its
term
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Great and General Council:
(Consiglio Grande e Generale) elections last held 30 May 1993 (next
to be held by NA May 1998); results - DCS 41.4%, PSS 23.7%, PDP 18.6%,
ADP 7.7%, MD 5.3%, RC 3.3%; seats - (60 total) DCS 26, PSS 14, PDP 11,
ADP 4, MD 3, RC 2
Judicial branch:
Council of Twelve (Consiglio dei XII)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party (DCS), Pier Marino MENICUCCI, Luigi
LONFERNINI; Democratic Progressive Party (PDP) formerly San Marino
Communist Party (PSS), Stefano MACINA; San Marino Socialist Party
(PSS), Dr. Emma ROSSI, Antonio Lazzaro VOLPINARI; Democratic Movement
(MD), Emilio Della BALDA; Popular Democratic Alliance (ADP); Communist
Refoundation (RC), Guiseppe AMICHI, Renato FABBRI
Member of:
CE, CSCE, ECE, ICAO, ICFTU, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS,
NAM (guest), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
honorary consulate(s) general:
Washington and New York
honorary consulate(s):
Detroit
US diplomatic representation:
no mission in San Marino, but the Consul General in Florence (Italy)
is accredited to San Marino
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the
national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has
a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath,
below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)

@San Marino, Economy

Overview:
The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 1991 more than 3.1
million tourists visited San Marino, 2.7 million of whom were
Italians. The key industries are wearing apparel, electronics, and
ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per
capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those
of Italy.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $370 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$16,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.2% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3% (1991)
Budget:
revenues:
$275 million
expenditures:
$275 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
trade data are included with the statistics for Italy; commodity trade
consists primarily of exchanging building stone, lime, wood,
chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics for a wide
variety of consumer manufactures
Imports:
see exports
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for 42% of workforce
Electricity:
supplied by Italy
Industries:
wine, olive oil, cement, leather, textile, tourism
Agriculture:
employs 3% of labor force; products - wheat, grapes, maize, olives,
meat, cheese, hides; small numbers of cattle, pigs, horses; depends on
Italy for food imports
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 Italian lire (Lit) = 100 centesimi; note - also mints its own coins
Exchange rates:
Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,700.2 (January 1994), 1,573.7 (1993),
1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@San Marino, Communications

Highways:
total:
104 km
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Telecommunications:
automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system;
11,700 telephones; broadcast services from Italy; microwave and cable
links into Italian networks; no communication satellite facilities

@San Marino, Defense Forces

Branches:
public security or police force
Defense expenditures:
$3.7 million (1992 est.), 1% of GDP

@Sao Tome and Principe, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, in the Atlantic Ocean, 340 km off the coast of Gabon
straddling the equator
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
960 sq km
land area:
960 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
209 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Terrain:
volcanic, mountainous
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
20%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
75%
other:
3%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Sao Tome and Principe, People

Population:
136,780 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.63% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
35.2 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.88 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
63.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
63.33 years
male:
61.48 years
female:
65.24 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.52 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Sao Tomean(s)
adjective:
Sao Tomean
Ethnic divisions:
mestico, angolares (descendents of Angolan slaves), forros
(descendents of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from
Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais
born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)
Religions:
Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
Portuguese (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population:
57%
male:
73%
female:
42%
Labor force:
21,096 (1981); most of population engaged in subsistence agriculture
and fishing; labor shortages on plantations and of skilled workers;
56% of population of working age (1983)

@Sao Tome and Principe, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
conventional short form:
Sao Tome and Principe
local long form:
Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe
local short form:
Sao Tome e Principe
Digraph:
TP
Type:
republic
Capital:
Sao Tome
Administrative divisions:
2 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Principe, Sao Tome
Independence:
12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
Constitution:
new constitution approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990
Legal system:
based on Portuguese law system and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Miguel TROVOADA (since 4 April 1991); election last held 3
March 1991 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - Miguel TROVOADA
was elected without opposition in Sao Tome's first multiparty
presidential election
head of government:
Prime Minister Noberto Jose D'Alva COSTA ALEGRE (since 16 May 1992)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the proposal of
the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National People's Assembly:
(Assembleia Popular Nacional) elections last held 20 January 1991
(next to be held NA January 1996); results - PCD-GR 54.4%, MLSTP
30.5%, CODO 5.2%, FDC 1.5%, other 8.4%; seats - (55 total) PCD-GR 33,
MLSTP 21, CODO 1; note - this was the first multiparty election in Sao
Tome and Principe
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Party for Democratic Convergence-Reflection Group (PCD-GR), Daniel
Lima Dos Santos DAIO, secretary general; Movement for the Liberation
of Sao Tome and Principe (MLSTP), Carlos da GRACA; Christian
Democratic Front (FDC), Alphonse Dos SANTOS; Democratic Opposition
Coalition (CODO), leader NA; other small parties
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOM (observer), ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
Sao Tome and Principe has no embassy in the US, but does have a
Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by First Secretary Domingos
AUGUSTO Ferreira, located at 122 East 42nd Street, Suite 1604, New
York, NY 10168, telephone (212) 697-4211
US diplomatic representation:
ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a
nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands
Flag:
three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and
green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the
center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the
hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Sao Tome and Principe, Economy

Overview:
The economy has remained dependent on cocoa since the country gained
independence nearly 15 years ago. Since then, however, cocoa
production has gradually deteriorated because of drought and
mismanagement, so that by 1987 output had fallen to less than 50% of
its former levels. As a result, a shortage of cocoa for export has
created a serious balance-of-payments problem. Production of less
important crops, such as coffee, copra, and palm kernels, has also
declined. The value of imports generally exceeds that of exports by a
ratio of 4:1. The emphasis on cocoa production at the expense of other
food crops has meant that Sao Tome has to import 90% of food needs. It
also has to import all fuels and most manufactured goods. Over the
years, Sao Tome has been unable to service its external debt, which
amounts to roughly 80% of export earnings. Considerable potential
exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has
taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also
implemented a Five-Year Plan covering 1986-90 to restructure the
economy and reschedule external debt service payments in cooperation
with the International Development Association and Western lenders.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $50 million (1990)
National product real growth rate:
1.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$450 (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
27% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$10.2 million
expenditures:
$36.8 million, including capital expenditures of $22.5 million (1989
est.)
Exports:
$5.4 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
cocoa 78%, copra, coffee, palm oil
partners:
Netherlands, Germany, China, Portugal
Imports:
$31.5 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery and electrical equipment 44%, food products 18%, petroleum
11%
partners:
Portugal, Japan, Spain, France, Angola
External debt:
$163.6 million (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1% (1991); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
5,000 kW
production:
10 million kWh
consumption per capita:
80 kWh (1991)
Industries:
light construction, shirts, soap, beer, fisheries, shrimp processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 25% of GDP; dominant sector of economy, primary source of
exports; cash crops - cocoa (85%), coconuts, palm kernels, coffee;
food products - bananas, papaya, beans, poultry, fish; not
self-sufficient in food grain and meat
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $8 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $89
million
Currency:
1 dobra (Db) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
dobras (Db) per US$1 - 129.59 (1 July 1993), 230 (1992), 260.0
(November 1991), 122.48 (December 1988), 72.827 (1987), 36.993 (1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Sao Tome and Principe, Communications

Highways:
total:
300 km
paved:
200 km
unpaved:
100 km
note:
roads on Principe are mostly unpaved and in need of repair
Ports:
Sao Tome, Santo Antonio
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,096 GRT/1,105 DWT
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
minimal system; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 2 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Sao Tome and Principe, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 32,560; fit for military service 17,136
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Saudi Arabia, Geography

Location:
Middle East, between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,960,582 sq km
land area:
1,960,582 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US
Land boundaries:
total 4,415 km, Iraq 814 km, Jordan 728 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676
km, Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km
Coastline:
2,640 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
18 nm
continental shelf:
not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
large section of boundary with Yemen not defined; status of boundary
with UAE not final; Kuwaiti ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim
islands is disputed by Saudi Arabia
Climate:
harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature
Terrain:
mostly uninhabited, sandy desert
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
39%
forest and woodland:
1%
other:
59%
Irrigated land:
4,350 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of
perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the
development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal
pollution from oil spills
natural hazards:
frequent sand and dust storms
international agreements:
party to - Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
ratified - Law of the Sea
Note:
extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great
leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and
Suez Canal

@Saudi Arabia, People

Population:
18,196,783 (July 1994 est.)
note:
the population figure is consistent with a 3.24% growth rate; a 1992
census gives the number of Saudi citizens as 12,304,835 and the number
of residents who are not citizens as 4,624,459
Population growth rate:
3.24% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
38.25 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.83 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.91 years
male:
66.25 years
female:
69.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.67 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Saudi(s)
adjective:
Saudi or Saudi Arabian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
Religions:
Muslim 100%
Languages:
Arabic
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
62%
male:
73%
female:
48%
Labor force:
5 million-6 million
by occupation:
government 34%, industry and oil 28%, services 22%, agriculture 16%

@Saudi Arabia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
conventional short form:
Saudi Arabia
local long form:
Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
local short form:
Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
Digraph:
SA
Type:
monarchy
Capital:
Riyadh
Administrative divisions:
14 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash
Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Al Qurayyat, Ar Riyad, Ash
Sharqiyah, Asir, Hail, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk
Independence:
23 September 1932 (unification)
National holiday:
Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)
Constitution:
none; governed according to Shari'a (Islamic law)
Legal system:
based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been introduced;
commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
none
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June
1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd
al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the King, appointed heir to the
throne 13 June 1982)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; mostly made up of the royal family appointed by
the king
Legislative branch:
a consultative council comprised of 60 members and a chairman who are
appointed by the King for a term of four years
Judicial branch:
Supreme Council of Justice
Political parties and leaders:
none allowed
Member of:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, GCC, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer),
OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador BANDAR bin Sultan Abd al-Aziz Al Saud
chancery:
601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 342-3800
consulate(s) general:
Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires C. David Welch
embassy:
Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh
mailing address:
American Embassy, Unit 61307, Riyadh; International Mail: P. O. Box
94309, Riyadh 11693; or APO AE 09803-1307
telephone:
[966] (1) 488-3800
FAX:
[966] (1) 482-4364
consulate(s) general:
Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)
Flag:
green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated as There
is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a white
horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side); green is the
traditional color of Islam

@Saudi Arabia, Economy

Overview:
The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75% of budget revenues, 35%
of GDP, and almost all export earnings. Saudi Arabia has the largest
reserves of petroleum in the world, ranks as the largest exporter of
petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. For the 1990s the
government intends to bring its budget, which has been in deficit
since 1983, back into balance, and to encourage private economic
activity. Roughly four million foreign workers play an important role
in the Saudi economy, for example, in the oil and banking sectors. For
about a decade, Saudi Arabia's domestic and international outlays have
outstripped its income, and the government has cut its foreign
assistance and is beginning to rein in domestic programs.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $194 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$11,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
6.5% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$39 billion
expenditures:
$50 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.5 billion (1993
est.)
Exports:
$42.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 92%
partners:
US 21%, Japan 18%, Singapore 6%, France 6%, Korea 5%
Imports:
$26 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, motor vehicles,
textiles
partners:
US 18%, UK 12%, Japan 10%, Germany 5%, France 5%
External debt:
$18.9 billion (December 1989 est., includes short-term trade credits)
Industrial production:
growth rate 20% (1991 est.); accounts for 46% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
28,554,000 kW
production:
63 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
3,690 kWh (1992)
Industries:
crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals,
cement, two small steel-rolling mills, construction, fertilizer,
plastics
Agriculture:
accounts for about 10% of GDP, 16% of labor force; subsidized by
government; products - wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus
fruit, mutton, chickens, eggs, milk; approaching self-sufficiency in
food
Illicit drugs:
death penalty for traffickers; increasing consumption of heroin and
cocaine
Economic aid:
donor:
pledged bilateral aid (1979-89), $64.7 billion; pledged $100 million
in 1993 to fund reconstruction of Lebanon
Currency:
1 Saudi riyal (SR) = 100 halalah
Exchange rates:
Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1 - 3.7450 (fixed rate since late 1986),
3.7033 (1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Saudi Arabia, Communications

Railroads:
1390 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 448 km are double tracked
Highways:
total:
74,000 km
paved:
35,000 km
unpaved:
gravel, improved earth 39,000 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 6,400 km; petroleum products 150 km; natural gas 2,200 km
(includes natural gas liquids 1,600 km)
Ports:
Jiddah, Ad Dammam, Ras Tanura, Jizan, Al Jubayl, Yanbu' al Bahr,
Yanbu' al Sinaiyah
Merchant marine:
74 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 865,343 GRT/1,240,874 DWT, bulk
1, cargo 11, chemical tanker 4, container 3, liquefied gas 1,
livestock carrier 5, oil tanker 23, passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 6,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 11, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 1
Airports:
total:
215
usable:
195
with permanent-surface runways:
71
with runways over 3,659 m:
14
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
38
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
105
Telecommunications:
modern system with extensive microwave and coaxial and fiber optic
cable systems; 1,624,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 43 AM, 13
FM, 80 TV; microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar,
UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; submarine
cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; earth stations - 3 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT, 1 INMARSAT

@Saudi Arabia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Land Force (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard,
Coast Guard, Frontier Forces, Special Security Force, Public Security
Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 5,682,036; fit for military service 3,140,464; reach
military age (17) annually 147,420 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $16.5 billion, 13% of GDP (1993 budget)

@Senegal, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between
Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
196,190 sq km
land area:
192,000 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries:
total 2,640 km, The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338
km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km
Coastline:
531 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
short section of the boundary with The Gambia is indefinite; Senegal
and Guinea-Bissau signed an agreement resolving their maritime
boundary in 1993; boundary with Mauritania
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (December to April) has strong
southeast winds; dry season (May to November) dominated by hot, dry
harmattan wind
Terrain:
generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Natural resources:
fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
27%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
30%
forest and woodland:
31%
other:
12%
Irrigated land:
1,800 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards:
lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Marine Dumping
Note:
The Gambia is almost an enclave

@Senegal, People

Population:
8,730,508 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.11% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
43.15 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.01 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
75.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
56.58 years
male:
55.12 years
female:
58.09 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.09 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Senegalese
Ethnic divisions:
Wolof 36%, Fulani 17%, Serer 17%, Toucouleur 9%, Diola 9%, Mandingo
9%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 2%
Religions:
Muslim 92%, indigenous beliefs 6%, Christian 2% (mostly Roman
Catholic)
Languages:
French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
38%
male:
52%
female:
25%
Labor force:
2.509 million (77% are engaged in subsistence farming; 175,000 wage
earners)
by occupation:
private sector 40%, government and parapublic 60%
note:
52% of population of working age (1985)

@Senegal, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Senegal
conventional short form:
Senegal
local long form:
Republique du Senegal
local short form:
Senegal
Digraph:
SG
Type:
republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Dakar
Administrative divisions:
10 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick,
Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence:
20 August 1960 (from France; The Gambia and Senegal signed an
agreement on 12 December 1981 that called for the creation of a loose
confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was
dissolved on 30 September 1989)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Constitution:
3 March 1963, last revised in 1991
Legal system:
based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
in Supreme Court, which also audits the government's accounting
office; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Abdou DIOUF (since 1 January 1981); election last held 21
February 1993 (next to be held February 2000); results - Abdou DIOUF
(PS) 58.4%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 32.03%, other 9.57%
head of government:
Prime Minister Habib THIAM (since 7 April 1991)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister in consultation
with the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale):
elections last held 9 May 1993 (next to be held NA May 1998); results
- PS 70%, PDS 23%, other 7%; seats - (120 total) PS 84, PDS 27, LD-MPT
3, Let Us Unite Senegal 3, PIT 2, UDS-R 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
Socialist Party (PS), President Abdou DIOUF; Senegalese Democratic
Party (PDS), Abdoulaye WADE; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement
(LD-MPT), Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY; Independent Labor Party (PIT), Amath
DANSOKHO; Senegalese Democratic Union-Renewal (UDS-R), Mamadou
Puritain FALL; other small uninfluential parties
Other political or pressure groups:
students; teachers; labor; Muslim Brotherhoods
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC,
PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMUR, UNTAC, UPU,
WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mamadou Mansour SECK
chancery:
2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 234-0540 or 0541
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mark JOHNSON
embassy:
Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Avenue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address:
B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone:
[221] 23-42-96 or 23-34-24
FAX:
[221] 22-29-91
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with
a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Senegal, Economy

Overview:
After 14 years of mixed compliance with IMF and World Bank economic
reform programs, Senegal finds its economy remains hostage to negative
economic forces. Declining terms of trade, weather-related setbacks,
and relentless growth in population have held back overall growth and
left per capita incomes stagnant, if not diminished. The economy
continues to rely on exports of fish, peanuts, and phosphates for hard
currency earnings. A 50% devaluation of the African franc in January
1994 is likely to lead to substantial increases in local currency
prices for producers that may spur improved production. A sheltered
import-substitution sector, comprising textiles, shoes, and other
light manufacturing, will remain plagued, however, by high labor,
transportation, and energy costs. Public finances face a decade-long
trend in declining tax revenues, making the government increasingly
dependent on official development assistance from bilateral donors.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $11.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.2% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-1.8% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$1.2 billion
expenditures:
$1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $269 million (1992
est.)
Exports:
$904 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
fish, ground nuts, petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
partners:
France, other EC members, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali
Imports:
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
foods and beverages, consumer goods, capital goods, petroleum
partners:
France, other EC, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire, Algeria, China, Japan
External debt:
$2.9 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.9% (1991); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
215,000 kW
production:
760 million kWh
consumption per capita:
100 kWh (1991)
Industries:
agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, petroleum
refining, building materials
Agriculture:
accounts for 20% of GDP; major products - peanuts (cash crop), millet,
corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; estimated
two-thirds self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 354,000 metric tons
in 1990
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Europe and
North America
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $551 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $5.23
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $589 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $295 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
the official rate is pegged to the French franc, and beginning 12
January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc
from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Senegal, Communications

Railroads:
1,034 km 1.000-meter gauge; all single track except 70 km double track
Dakar to Thies
Highways:
total:
14,007 km
paved:
3,777 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, improved earth 10,230 km
Inland waterways:
897 km total; 785 km on the Senegal, 112 km on the Saloum
Ports:
Dakar, Kaolack, Foundiougne, Ziguinchor
Merchant marine:
1 bulk ship (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,995 GRT/3,775 DWT
Airports:
total:
26
usable:
20
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
16
Telecommunications:
above-average urban system, using microwave and cable; broadcast
stations - 8 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 3 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Senegal, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,951,370; fit for military service 1,018,802; reach
military age (18) annually 94,973 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 2% of GDP (1989 est.)

@Serbia and Montenegro

Header
Note:
Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint
independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as
a state by the US; the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic
of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor
republics represents its continuation

@Serbia and Montenegro, Geography

Location:
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bulgaria
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
102,350 sq km
land area:
102,136 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Kentucky
note:
Serbia has a total area and a land area of 88,412 sq km making it
slightly larger than Maine; Montenegro has a total area of 13,938 sq
km and a land area of 13,724 sq km making it slightly larger than
Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total 2,246 km, Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia; 173 km with
Motenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km
with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia
(south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
note:
the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km
Coastline:
199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Sandzak region bordering northern Montenegro and southeastern Serbia -
Muslims seeking autonomy; disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina and
Croatia over Serbian populated areas; Albanian majority in Kosovo
seeks independence from Serbian Republic
Climate:
in the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers
with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and
Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast,
hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy
snowfall inland
Terrain:
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east,
limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountain and
hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off
the coast; home of largest lake in former Yugoslavia, Lake Scutari
Natural resources:
oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite,
chrome
Land use:
arable land:
30%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
25%
other:
20%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
coastal water pollution from sewage outlets, especially in
tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and
other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped
into the Sava which flows into the Danube
natural hazards:
subject to destructive earthquakes
international agreements:
NA
Note:
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey
and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

@Serbia and Montenegro, People

Population:
total:
10,759,897 (July 1994 est.)
Montenegro:
666,583 (July 1994 est.)
Serbia:
10,093,314 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
Montenegro:
0.79% (1994 est.)
Serbia:
0.54% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
Montenegro:
13.72 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Serbia:
14.35 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
Montenegro:
5.84 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Serbia:
8.94 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
Montenegro:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Serbia:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Montenegro:
10.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Serbia:
21.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Montenegro:
*** No data for this item ***
total population:
79.44 years
male:
76.57 years
female:
82.5 years (1994 est.)
Serbia:
*** No data for this item ***
total population:
73.39 years
male:
70.9 years
female:
76.07 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Montenegro:
1.74 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Serbia:
2.06 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Serb(s) and Montenegrin(s)
adjective:
Serbian and Montenegrin
Ethnic divisions:
Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians 4%, other 13%
Religions:
Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%
Languages:
Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
2,640,909
by occupation:
industry, mining 40%, agriculture 5% (1990)

@Serbia and Montenegro, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Serbia and Montenegro
local long form:
none
local short form:
Srbija-Crna Gora
Digraph:
Serbia:
SR
Montenegro:
MW
Type:
republic
Capital:
Belgrade
Administrative divisions:
2 republics (pokajine, singular - pokajina); and 2 autonomous
provinces*; Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*
Independence:
11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as
self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia - SFRY)
National holiday:
NA
Constitution:
27 April 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Zoran LILIC (since 25 June 1993); note - Slobodan MILOSEVIC is
president of Serbia (since 9 December 1990); Momir BULATOVIC is
president of Montenegro (since 23 December 1990); Federal Assembly
elected Zoran LILIC on 25 June 1993
head of government:
Prime Minister Radoje KONTIC (since 29 December 1992); Deputy Prime
Ministers Jovan ZEBIC (since NA March 1993), Asim TELACEVIC (since NA
March 1993), Zeljko SIMIC (since NA 1993)
cabinet:
Federal Executive Council
Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Assembly
Chamber of Republics:
elections last held 31 May 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total; 20 Serbian, 20
Montenegrin)
Chamber of Citizens:
elections last held 31 May 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
percent of votes by party NA; seats (138 total; 108 Serbian, 30
Montenegrin) - SPS 73, SRS 33, DPSCG 23, SK-PJ 2, DZVM 2, independents
2, vacant 3
Judicial branch:
Savezni Sud (Federal Court), Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Serbian Socialist Party (SPS; former Communist Party), Slobodan
MILOSEVIC; Serbian Radical Party (SRS), Vojislav SESELJ; Serbian
Renewal Movement (SPO), Vuk DRASKOVIC, president; Democratic Party
(DS), Zoran DJINDJIC; Democratic Party of Serbia, Vojlslav KOSTUNICA;
Democratic Party of Socialists (DPSCG), Momir BULATOVIC, president;
People's Party of Montenegro (NS), Novak KILIBARDA; Liberal Alliance
of Montenegro, Slavko PEROVIC; Democratic Community of Vojvodina
Hungarians (DZVM), Agoston ANDRAS; League of Communists-Movement for
Yugoslavia (SK-PJ), Dragan ATANASOVSKI; Democratic Alliance of Kosovo
(LDK), Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president
Other political or pressure groups:
Serbian Democratic Movement (DEPOS; coalition of opposition parties)
Diplomatic representation in US:
US and Serbia and Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic
relations; the Embassy of the former Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia continues to function in the US
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Rudolf V. PERINA
embassy:
address NA, Belgrade
mailing address:
American Embassy Box 5070, Unit 25402, APO AE 09213-5070
telephone:
[38] (11) 645-655
FAX:
[38] (1) 645-221
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red

@Serbia and Montenegro, Economy

Overview:
The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation has been followed by
bloody ethnic warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and
the breakup of important interrepublic trade flows. Serbia and
Montenegro faces major economic problems; output has dropped sharply,
particularly in 1993. First, like the other former Yugoslav republics,
it depended on its sister republics for large amounts of foodstuffs,
energy supplies, and manufactures. Wide varieties in climate, mineral
resources, and levels of technology among the republics accentuate
this interdependence, as did the communist practice of concentrating
much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup
of many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial
plants lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical
assets in the fighting all have contributed to the economic
difficulties of the republics. One singular factor in the economic
situation of Serbia and Montenegro is the continuation in office of a
communist government that is primarily interested in political and
military mastery, not economic reform. A further complication is the
imposition of economic sanctions by the UN.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $10 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
hyperinflation (1993)
Unemployment rate:
more than 60% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 29%, manufactured goods 28.5%,
miscellaneous manufactured articles 13.5%, chemicals 11%, food and
live animals 9%, raw materials 6%, fuels and lubricants 2%, beverages
and tobacco 1%
partners:
prior to the imposition of sanctions by the UN Security Council trade
partners were principally the other former Yugoslav republics; Italy,
Germany, other EC, the FSU countries, East European countries, US
Imports:
$6.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 26%, fuels and lubricants 18%,
manufactured goods 16%, chemicals 12.5%, food and live animals 11%,
miscellaneous manufactured items 8%, raw materials, including coking
coal for the steel industry 7%, beverages, tobacco, and edible oils
1.5%
partners:
prior to the imposition of sanctions by the UN Security Council the
trade partners were principally the other former Yugoslav republics;
the FSU countries, EC countries (mainly Italy and Germany), East
European countries, US
External debt:
$4.2 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -42% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
8,850,000 kW
production:
42 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
3,950 kWh (1992)
Industries:
machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; armored vehicles
and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery), metallurgy
(steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth,
cadmium), mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone),
consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances),
electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Agriculture:
the fertile plains of Vojvodina produce 80% of the cereal production
of the former Yugoslavia and most of the cotton, oilseeds, and
chicory; Vojvodina also produces fodder crops to support intensive
beef and dairy production; Serbia proper, although hilly, has a
well-distributed rainfall and a long growing season; produces fruit,
grapes, and cereals; in this area, livestock production (sheep and
cattle) and dairy farming prosper; Kosovo produces fruits, vegetables,
tobacco, and a small amount of cereals; the mountainous pastures of
Kosovo and Montenegro support sheep and goat husbandry; Montenegro has
only a small agriculture sector, mostly near the coast where a
Mediterranean climate permits the culture of olives, citrus, grapes,
and rice
Illicit drugs:
NA
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 Yugoslav New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras
Exchange rates:
Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1 - 1,100,000 (15 June 1993), 28.230
(December 1991), 15.162 (1990), 15.528 (1989), 0.701 (1988), 0.176
(1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Serbia and Montenegro, Communications

Railroads:
NA
Highways:
total:
46,019 km
paved:
26,949 km
unpaved:
gravel 10,373 km; earth 8,697 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas 2,110 km
Ports:
coastal - Bar; inland - Belgrade
Merchant marine:
bulk 19, bulk 2, cargo 16, combination ore/oil 1, conbination
tanker/ore carrier 1, container 5, passenger ship 1
Montenegro:
total 42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 804,156 GRT/1,368,813 DWT
(controlled by Montenegrin beneficial owners)
Serbia:
total 3 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 246,631 GRT/451,843 DWT
(controlled by Serbian beneficial owners)
note:
most under Maltese flag, all under the flag of Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines; no ships remain under Yugoslav flag
Airports:
total:
55
usable:
51
with permanent-surface runways:
18
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
11
Telecommunications:
700,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 26 AM, 9 FM, 18 TV; 2,015,000
radios; 1,000,000 TVs; satellite ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT

@Serbia and Montenegro, Defense Forces

Branches:
People's Army - Ground Forces (internal and border troops), Naval
Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Territorial
Defense Force, Civil Defense
Manpower availability:
Montenegro:
males age 15-49 179,868; fit for military service 146,158; reach
military age (19) annually 5,399 (1994 est.)
Serbia:
males age 15-49 2,546,717; fit for military service 2,048,921; reach
military age (19) annually 80,937 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
245 billion dinars, 4%-6% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of
defense expenditures into US dollars using the prevailing exchange
rate could produce misleading results

@Seychelles, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa in the western Indian Ocean northeast of Madagascar
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
455 sq km
land area:
455 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
491 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims Tromelin Island
Climate:
tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late
May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to
May)
Terrain:
Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are
coral, flat, elevated reefs
Natural resources:
fish, copra, cinnamon trees
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
18%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
18%
other:
60%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
no fresh water, catchments collect rain water
natural hazards:
lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; short
droughts possible
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
Note:
40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands

@Seychelles, People

Population:
72,113 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.84% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
21.88 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.93 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
11.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.67 years
male:
66.05 years
female:
73.39 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.23 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Seychellois (singular and plural)
adjective:
Seychelles
Ethnic divisions:
Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 8%, other 2%
Languages:
English (official), French (official), Creole
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population:
58%
male:
56%
female:
60%
Labor force:
27,700 (1985)
by occupation:
industry and commerce 31%, services 21%, government 20%, agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 12%, other 16% (1985)
note:
57% of population of working age (1983)

@Seychelles, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Seychelles
conventional short form:
Seychelles
Digraph:
SE
Type:
republic
Capital:
Victoria
Administrative divisions:
23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile,
Anse Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon,
Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand' Anse (on Mahe Island),
Grand' Anse (on Praslin Island), La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Mont
Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe Larue, Port Glaud, Saint Louis,
Takamaka
Independence:
29 June 1976 (from UK)
National holiday:
National Day, 18 June (1993) ( adoption of new constitution)
Constitution:
18 June 1993
Legal system:
based on English common law, French civil law, and customary law
Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); election last held
20- 23 July 1993; results - President France Albert RENE reelected by
59.5% of votes, MANCHAM (PS party) 36.72%
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
People's Assembly (Assemblee du Peuple):
elections last held 20-23 July 1993; results - SPPF 82%, DP 15%, UO
3%; seats - (33 total, 22 elected) SPPF 22
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party - Seychelles People's Progressive Front (SPPF), France
Albert RENE; Democratic Party (DP), Sir James MANCHAM; United
Opposition (UO) is a coalition of the following parties: Seychelles
Party (PS), Wavel RAMKALAWAN; Seychelles Democratic Movement (MSPD),
Jacques HONDOUL; Seychelles Liberal Party (SLP), Ogilvie BERLOUIS;;
Other political or pressure groups:
trade unions; Roman Catholic Church
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Marc Michael Rogers MARENGO
chancery:
(temporary) 820 Second Avenue, Suite 900F, New York, NY 10017
telephone:
(212) 687-9766 or 9767
FAX:
(212) 922-9177
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Matthew F. MATTINGLY
embassy:
4th Floor, Victoria House, Box 251, Victoria, Mahe
mailing address:
Box 148, Unit 62501, Victoria, Seychelles; APO AE 09815-2501
telephone:
(248) 25256
FAX:
(248) 25189
Flag:
three horizontal bands of red (top), white (wavy), and green; the
white band is the thinnest, the red band is the thickest

@Seychelles, Economy

Overview:
In this small, open, tropical island economy, the tourist industry
employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of
hard currency earnings. In recent years the government has encouraged
foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other services. At
the same time, the government has moved to reduce the high dependence
on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and
small-scale manufacturing.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $407 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,900 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.3% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9% (1987)
Budget:
revenues:
$172 million
expenditures:
$181 million, including capital expenditures of $48 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$47 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
fish, copra, cinnamon bark, petroleum products (re-exports)
partners:
UK 54% France 23%, Reunion 14%, (1991)
Imports:
$192 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
manufactured goods, food, petroleum products, tobacco, beverages,
machinery and transportation equipment
partners:
South Africa 13%, Singapore 12%, UK 12% (1991)
External debt:
$201 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.3% (1991); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
30,000 kW
production:
80 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,160 kWh (1991)
Industries:
tourism, processing of coconut and vanilla, fishing, coir rope
factory, boat building, printing, furniture, beverage
Agriculture:
accounts for 5% of GDP, mostly subsistence farming; cash crops -
coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla; other products - sweet potatoes, cassava,
bananas; broiler chickens; large share of food needs imported;
expansion of tuna fishing under way
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $26 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1978-89), $315
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $60 million
Currency:
1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Seychelles rupees (SRe) per US$1 - 5.2681 (January 1994), 5.1815
(1993), 5.1220 (1992), 5.2893 (1991), 5.3369 (1990), 5.6457 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Seychelles, Communications

Highways:
total:
260 km
paved:
160 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, earth 100 km
Ports:
Victoria
Merchant marine:
1 refrigerated cargo (over 1,000 GRT) totaling 1,827 GRT/2,170 DWT
Airports:
total:
14
usable:
14
with permanent-surface runways:
8
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
direct radio communications with adjacent islands and African coastal
countries; 13,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 2 TV;
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; USAF tracking station

@Seychelles, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, National Guard, Marines, Coast Guard, Presidential Protection
Unit, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 19,399; fit for military service 9,900
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $12 million, 4% of GDP (1990 est.)

@Sierra Leone, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Guinea and
Liberia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
71,740 sq km
land area:
71,620 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
total 958 km, Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km
Coastline:
402 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter
dry season (December to April)
Terrain:

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