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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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well-educated population, and a diverse industrial base, continues to
experience severe difficulties in moving from its old centrally
planned economy to a modern market economy. President YEL'TSIN's
government has made some progress toward a market economy by freeing
most prices, slashing defense spending, unifying foreign exchange
rates, and launching an ambitious privatization program. Yet much of
the old order persists and YEL'TSIN faces formidable opposition to
further measures such as the reduction of subsidies to old-line
industries. Output continues to fall although the mix is gradually
becoming more responsive to Russia's needs. According to Russian
official data, GDP declined by 12% in 1993 compared with 19% in 1992.
Industrial output in 1993 fell 16% with all major sectors taking a
hit. Agricultural production, meanwhile, was down 6%. The grain
harvest totalled 99 million tons - some 8 million tons less than in
1992. Unemployment climbed in 1993 but remained low by Western
standards. The official number of unemployed rose from 578,000 at the
beginning of 1993 to about 1 million - or roughly 1.4% of the work
force - by yearend. According to the Russian labor minister, the
actual number of unemployed probably was closer to 4 million.
Government fears of large-scale unemployment continued to hamper
industrial restructuring efforts. According to official statistics,
average real wages remained flat. Nonetheless, a substantial portion
of the population, particularly the elderly and people in remote
areas, finds its well-being steadily shrinking. The disparity in
incomes between the rich and poor continued to rise in 1993, primarily
reflecting the high earnings of enterprise managers and persons
employed in the emerging private sector. The government tried to
narrow the income gap by raising the wages of budget-funded workers -
mainly teachers and health care specialists. Official data may
overstate hardships, because many Russians supplement their income by
moonlighting or by bartering goods and services, activities that often
go unreported. Russia made good progress on privatization in 1993
despite active opposition from key cabinet members, hard-line
legislators, and antireform regional leaders. By yearend, for example,
roughly 35% of Russia's medium and large state enterprises had been
auctioned, while the number of private farms in Russia increased by
86,000, reaching a total of 170,000. As a result, about 6% of
agricultural land now has been privatized. Financial stabilization
continued to remain a challenge for the government. Moscow tightened
financial policies in early 1993 - including postponing planned budget
spending - and succeeded in reducing monthly inflation from 27% in
January to 20% in May and June. In the summer, however, the government
relaxed austerity measures in the face of mounting pressure from
industry and agriculture, sparking a new round of inflation; the
monthly inflation rate jumped to 25% in August. In response, Moscow
announced a package of measures designed to curb government spending
and inflation. It included eliminating bread subsidies, delaying
payment obligations, raising interest rates, and phasing out
concessionary Central Bank credits to enterprises and regions. The
measures met with some success; the monthly inflation rate declined to
13% in December. According to official statistics, Russia's 1993 trade
with nations outside the former Soviet Union produced a $16 billion
surplus, up from $6 billion in 1992. Moscow arrested the steep drop in
exports that it had been suffering as a result of ruptured ties with
former trading partners, output declines, and erratic efforts to move
to world prices. Foreign sales - comprised largely of oil, natural
gas, and other raw materials - grew slightly. Imports were down by 15%
or so as a result of new import taxes and Moscow's reluctance to
increase its debt burden by purchasing grain and other goods with
foreign credits. Russian trade with other former Soviet republics
continued to decline and yielded a surplus of some $5 billion. At the
same time, Russia paid only a fraction of the roughly $20 billion in
debt coming due in 1993, and by mid-year, Russia's foreign debt had
amounted to $81.5 billion. While Moscow reached agreement to
restructure debts with Paris Club official creditors in April 1993,
Moscow's refusal to waive its right to sovereign immunity kept Russia
and its bank creditors from agreeing to restructure Moscow's
commercial loans. Capital flight continued to be a serious problem in
1993, with billions of dollars in assets owned by Russians being
parked abroad at yearend. Russia's capital stock continues to
deteriorate because of insufficient maintenance and new construction.
The capital stock on average is twice the age of capital stock in the
West. Many years will pass before Russia can take full advantage of
its natural resources and its human assets.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $775.4 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Russian statistics, which are very
uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-12% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,190 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
21% per month (average 1993); 13% per month (December 1993)
Unemployment rate:
1.4% (1 January 1994; official data)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$43 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products,
metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military
manufactures
partners:
Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries, Cuba
Imports:
$27 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, consumer goods, grain, meat,
sugar, semifinished metal products
partners:
Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries, Cuba
External debt:
$81.5 billion (mid-year 1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -16% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
213,000,000 KW
production:
956 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
6,782 kWh (1 January 1992)
Industries:
complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal,
oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from
rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; ship-
building; road and rail transportation equipment; communications
equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction
equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment;
medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables
Agriculture:
grain, sugar beet, sunflower seeds, meat, milk, vegetables, fruits;
because of its northern location does not grow citrus, cotton, tea,
and other warm climate products
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for domestic
consumption; government has active eradication program; used as
transshipment point for Asian and Latin American illicit drugs to
Western Europe and Latin America
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1990-93), $13 billion; other
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1988-93), $115 billion
Currency:
1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks
Exchange rates:
rubles per US$1 - 1,247 (27 December 1993), 415 (24 December 1992);
nominal exchange rate still deteriorating but real exchange rate
strengthening
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Russia, Communications

Railroads:
158,100 km all 1.520-meter broad gauge; 86,800 km in common carrier
service, of which 48,900 km are diesel traction and 37,900 km are
electric traction; 71,300 km serves specific industry and is not
available for common carrier use (30 June 1993)
Highways:
total:
893,000 km
paved and gravel:
677,000 km
unpaved:
216,000 km
Inland waterways:
total navigable routes in general use 100,000 km; routes with
navigation guides serving the Russian River Fleet 95,900 km; of which
routes with night navigational aids 60,400 km; man-made navigable
routes 16,900 km (30 June 1993)
Pipelines:
crude oil 48,000 km; petroleum products 15,000 km; natural gas 140,000
km (30 June 1993)
Ports:
coastal - St. Petersburg, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Petropavlovsk,
Arkhangel'sk, Novorossiysk, Vladivostok, Nakhodka, Kholmsk, Korsakov,
Magadan, Tiksi, Tuapse, Vanino, Vostochnyy, Vyborg; inland -
Astrakhan', Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan', Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Samara,
Moscow, Rostov, Volgograd
Merchant marine:
867 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,084,988 GRT/11,124,929 DWT,
barge carrier 2, bulk cargo 26, cargo 454, chemical tanker 9,
combination bulk 28, combination ore/oil 16, container 82,
multi-function large load carrier 3, oil tanker 125, passenger 6,
passenger cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 17, roll-on/roll-off cargo 74,
short-sea passenger 18, specialized tanker 2
Airports:
total:
2,550
usable:
964
with permanent-surface runways:
565
with runways over 3,659 m:
19
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
275
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
426
Telecommunications:
Russia is enlisting foreign help, by means of joint ventures, to speed
up the modernization of its telecommunications system; NMT-450 analog
cellular telephone networks are operational and growing in Moscow and
St. Petersburg; expanded access to international E-mail service
available via Sprint network; intercity fiberoptic cable installation
remains limited; the inadequacy of Russian telecommunications is a
severe handicap to the economy, especially with respect to
international connections; total installed telephones 24,400,000, of
which in urban areas 20,900,000 and in rural areas 3,500,000; of
these, total installed in homes 15,400,000; total pay phones for long
distant calls 34,100; telephone density is about 164 telephones per
1,000 persons (in 1992, only 661,000 new telephones were installed
compared with 855,000 in 1991 and in 1992 the number of unsatisfied
applications for telephones reached 11,000,000); international traffic
is handled by an inadequate system of satellites, land lines,
microwave radio relay and outdated submarine cables; this traffic
passes through the international gateway switch in Moscow which
carries most of the international traffic for the other countries of
the Commonwealth of Independent States; a new Russian Raduga satellite
will link Moscow and St. Petersburg with Rome from whence calls will
be relayed to destinations in Europe and overseas; satellite ground
stations - INTELSAT, Intersputnik, Eutelsat (Moscow), INMARSAT,
Orbita; broadcast stations - 1,050 AM/FM/SW (reach 98.6% of
population), 7,183 TV; receiving sets - 54,200,000 TVs, 48,800,000
radio receivers, 74,300,000 radio receivers with multiple speaker
systems for program diffusion

@Russia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Strategic Rocket
Forces, Command and General Support, Security Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 37,706,825; fit for military service 29,623,429; reach
military age (18) annually 1,098,307 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Rwanda, Geography

Location:
Central Africa, between Tanzania and Zaire
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
26,340 sq km
land area:
24,950 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 893 km, Burundi 290 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km, Zaire
217 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January);
mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain:
mostly grassy uplands and hills; mountains in west
Natural resources:
gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), natural gas,
hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
29%
permanent crops:
11%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland:
10%
other:
32%
Irrigated land:
40 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion
natural hazards:
periodic droughts
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
landlocked; predominantly rural population

@Rwanda, People

Population:
8,373,963 (July 1994 est.)
note:
the demographic estimates were prepared before civil strife, starting
in April 1994, set in motion substantial and continuing population
changes
Population growth rate:
2.78% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
49.17 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
21.35 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
118.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
40.25 years
male:
39.33 years
female:
41.21 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
8.19 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Rwandan(s)
adjective:
Rwandan
Ethnic divisions:
Hutu 90%, Tutsi 9%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%, indigenous beliefs and
other 25%
Languages:
Kinyarwanda (official), French (official), Kiswahili used in
commercial centers
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
50%
male:
64%
female:
37%
Labor force:
3.6 million
by occupation:
agriculture 93%, government and services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
note:
49% of population of working age (1985)

@Rwanda, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Rwanda
conventional short form:
Rwanda
local long form:
Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form:
Rwanda
Digraph:
RW
Type:
republic; presidential system
note:
a new, interim government formed in August 1992 to last until peace
accord; political parties are working to form a multiethical
broad-based transitonal government to lead them to elections in 1995
Capital:
Kigali
Administrative divisions:
10 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture in French; plural -
NA, singular - prefegitura in Kinyarwanda); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu,
Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali, Ruhengeri
Independence:
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution:
18 June 1991
Legal system:
based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Interim President Dr. Theodore SINDIKUBWABO (since 8 April 1994,
following the death of President Juvenal HABYARIMANA on 6 April 1994)
the last election was held 19 December 1988 (next planned for 1995);
results - the late President Juvenal HABYARIMANA was reelected
head of government:
Prime Minister Jean KAMBANDA, appointed by President SINDIKUBWABWO 8
April 1994 following the assassination of Agatha UWILINGIYIMANA on 7
April 1994
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Development Council:
(Conseil National de Developpement) elections last held 19 December
1988 (new elections to be held in 1995); results - MRND was the only
party; seats - (70 total) MRND 70
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (consists of the Court of Cassation and the
Council of State in joint session)
Political parties and leaders:
Republican National Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND);
significant independent parties include: Democratic Republican
Movement (MDR); Liberal Party (PL); Democratic and Socialist Party
(PSD); Coalition for the Defense of the Republic (CDR); Party for
Democracy in Rwanda (PADER); Christian Democratic Party (PDL)
note:
formerly a one-party state, Rwanda legalized independent parties in
mid-1991; since then, at least 10 new political parties have
registered
Other political or pressure groups:
Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF), Alexis KANYARENGWE, Chairman (since
1990); Rwanda Patriotic Army (RPA), the RPF military wing, Maj. Gen.
Paul KAGAME, commander
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Aloys UWIMANA
chancery:
1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 232-2882
FAX:
(202) 232-4544
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali
mailing address:
B. P. 28, Kigali
telephone:
[250] 75601 through 75603
FAX:
[250] 72128
note:
embassy closed on 10 April 1994 and personnel withdrawn because of
severe civil strife and consequent danger for foreign nationals
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green with
a large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea, which
has a plain yellow band

@Rwanda, Economy

Overview:
Almost 50% of GDP comes from the agricultural sector; coffee and tea
make up 80-90% of total exports. The amount of fertile land is
limited, however, and deforestation and soil erosion have created
problems. The industrial sector in Rwanda is small, contributing only
17% to GDP. Manufacturing focuses mainly on the processing of
agricultural products. The Rwandan economy remains dependent on
coffee/tea exports and foreign aid. Weak international prices since
1986 have caused the economy to contract and per capita GDP to
decline. A structural adjustment program with the World Bank began in
October 1990. Ethnic-based insurgency in 1990-93 devastated wide areas
of the north and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. A peace
accord in mid-1993 temporarily ended most of the fighting, but massive
resumption of civil warfare in April 1994 in the capital city Kigali
has been taking thousands of lives and severely damaging short-term
economic prospects
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$350 million
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$66.6 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
coffee 63%, tea, cassiterite, wolframite, pyrethrum
partners:
Germany, Belgium, Italy, Uganda, UK, France, US
Imports:
$259.5 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
textiles, foodstuffs, machines and equipment, capital goods, steel,
petroleum products, cement and construction material
partners:
US, Belgium, Germany, Kenya, Japan
External debt:
$845 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -2.2% (1991); accounts for 17% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
30,000 kW
production:
130 million kWh
consumption per capita:
15 kWh (1991)
Industries:
mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite (tungsten ore), tin,
cement, agricultural processing, small-scale beverage production,
soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Agriculture:
accounts for almost 50% of GDP and about 90% of the labor force; cash
crops - coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums);
main food crops - bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; stock raising;
self-sufficiency declining; country imports foodstuffs as farm
production fails to keep up with a 2.8% annual growth in population
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $128 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $45 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $58 million
note:
in October 1990 Rwanda launched a Structural Adjustment Program with
the IMF; since September 1991, the EC has given $46 million and the US
$25 million in support of this program (1993)
Currency:
1 Rwandan franc (RF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1 - 145.45 (December 1993), 133.35 (1992),
125.14 (1991), 82.60 (1990), 79.98 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Rwanda, Communications

Highways:
total:
4,885 km
paved:
460 km
unpaved:
gravel, improved earth 1,725 km; unimproved earth 2,700 km
Inland waterways:
Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft
Airports:
total:
8
usable:
7
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
telephone system does not provide service to the general public but is
intended for business and government use; the capital, Kigali, is
connected to the centers of the prefectures by microwave radio relay;
the remainder of the network depends on wire and high frequency radio;
international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring
countries and satellite communications to more distant countries;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE
station in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service); broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV

@Rwanda, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Air Wing), Gendarmerie
note:
Rwanda plans to demobilize and reorganize with RPF elements during
1994
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,733,246; fit for military service 883,291
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $37 million, 1.6% of GDP (1988 est.)

@Saint Helena

Header
Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

@Saint Helena, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the South Atlantic Ocean, 1,920 km west of Angola,
about two-thirds of the way between South America and Africa
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total area:
410 sq km
land area:
410 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than 2.3 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes Ascension, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island, Nightingale
Island, and Tristan da Cunha
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
60 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds
Terrain:
rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains
Natural resources:
fish; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles and sooty terns,
no minerals
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
83%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
active volcanism on Tristan da Cunha
international agreements:
NA
Note:
Napoleon Bonaparte's place of exile and burial (the remains were taken
to Paris in 1840); harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown
anywhere else in the world

@Saint Helena, People

Population:
6,741 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.31% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
9.64 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.55 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
37.24 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.75 years
male:
72.68 years
female:
76.58 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.14 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Saint Helenian(s)
adjective:
Saint Helenian
Ethnic divisions:
NA
Religions:
Anglican (majority), Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic
Languages:
English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1987)
total population:
98%
male:
97%
female:
98%
Labor force:
2,516
by occupation:
professional, technical, and related workers 8.7%, managerial,
administrative, and clerical 12.8%, sales people 8.1%, farmer,
fishermen, etc. 5.4%, craftspersons, production process workers 14.7%,
others 50.3% (1987)

@Saint Helena, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Saint Helena
Digraph:
SH
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Jamestown
Administrative divisions:
1 administrative area and 2 dependencies*; Ascension*, Saint Helena,
Tristan da Cunha*
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen, 10 June 1989 (second
Saturday in June)
Constitution:
1 January 1989
Legal system:
NA
Suffrage:
NA
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government:
Governor A. N. HOOLE (since NA)
cabinet:
Executive Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Council:
elections last held October 1984 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected) number of
seats by party NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Saint Helena Labor Party; Saint Helena Progressive Party
note:
both political parties inactive since 1976
Member of:
ICFTU
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Saint Helenian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the
shield features a rocky coastline and three-masted sailing ship

@Saint Helena, Economy

Overview:
The economy depends primarily on financial assistance from the UK. The
local population earns some income from fishing, the raising of
livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are few jobs, a
large proportion of the work force has left to seek employment
overseas.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-1.1% (1986)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$3.2 million
expenditures:
$2.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1984 est.)
Exports:
$23,900 (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities:
fish (frozen and salt-dried skipjack, tuna), handicrafts
partners:
South Africa, UK
Imports:
$2.4 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities:
food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed, building materials,
motor vehicles and parts, machinery and parts
partners:
UK, South Africa
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
9,800 kW
production:
10 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,390 kWh (1989)
Industries:
crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fishing
Agriculture:
maize, potatoes, vegetables; timber production being developed;
crawfishing on Tristan da Cunha
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1992-93), $13.5 million
Currency:
1 Saint Helenian pound (#S) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Saint Helenian pounds (#S) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6033
(1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989);
note - the Saint Helenian pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Saint Helena, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA (mainland 107 km, Ascension NA, Tristan da Cunha NA)
paved:
169.7 km (mainland 87 km, Ascension 80 km, Tristan da Cunha 2.70 km)
unpaved:
NA (mainland 20 km earth roads, Ascension NA, Tristan da Cunha NA)
Ports:
Jamestown (Saint Helena), Georgetown (Ascension)
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
1,500 radio receivers; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 550
telephones in automatic network; HF radio links to Ascension, then
into worldwide submarine cable and satellite networks; major coaxial
submarine cable relay point between South Africa, Portugal, and UK at
Ascension; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Saint Helena, Defense Forces
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Saint Kitts and Nevis, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about one-third of the way
between Puerto Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
269 sq km
land area:
269 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
135 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal
temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)
Terrain:
volcanic with mountainous interiors
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
22%
permanent crops:
17%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
17%
other:
41%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to hurricanes (July to October)
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection

@Saint Kitts and Nevis, People

Population:
40,671 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.72% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
23.7 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.98 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
19.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
66.11 years
male:
63.14 years
female:
69.27 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.6 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Kittsian(s), Nevisian(s)
adjective:
Kittsian, Nevisian
Ethnic divisions:
black African
Religions:
Anglican, other Protestant sects, Roman Catholic
Languages:
English
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
98%
male:
98%
female:
98%
Labor force:
20,000 (1981)

@Saint Kitts and Nevis, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
conventional short form:
Saint Kitts and Nevis
former:
Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
Digraph:
SC
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Basseterre
Administrative divisions:
14 parishs; Christ Church Nichola Town, Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint
George Basseterre, Saint George Gingerland, Saint James Windward,
Saint John Capesterre, Saint John Figtree, Saint Mary Cayon, Saint
Paul Capesterre, Saint Paul Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre, Saint
Thomas Lowland, Saint Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point
Independence:
19 September 1983 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 19 September (1983)
Constitution:
19 September 1983
Legal system:
based on English common law
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Sir Clement Athelston ARRINDELL (since 19 September 1983,
previously Governor General of the Associated State since NA November
1981)
head of government:
Prime Minister Dr. Kennedy Alphonse SIMMONDS (since 19 September 1983,
previously Premier of the Associated State since NA February 1980);
Deputy Prime Minister Sydney Earl MORRIS (since NA)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general in consultation with the
prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of Assembly:
elections last held 29 November 1993 (next to be held by 21 March
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (14 total, 11
elected) PAM 4, SKNLP 4, NRP 1, CCM 2
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
People's Action Movement (PAM), Dr. Kennedy SIMMONDS; Saint Kitts and
Nevis Labor Party (SKNLP), Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS; Nevis Reformation Party
(NRP), Simeon DANIEL; Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), Vance AMORY
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IMF,
INTERPOL, LORCS, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Minister-Counselor (Deputy Chief of Mission), Charge
d'Affaires ad interim Aubrey Eric HART
chancery:
Suite 608, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 833-3550
FAX:
(202) 833-3553
US diplomatic representation:
no official presence since the Charge d'Affaires resides in Saint
John's (Antigua and Barbuda)
Flag:
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black band
bearing two white five-pointed stars; the black band is edged in
yellow; the upper triangle is green, the lower triangle is red

@Saint Kitts and Nevis, Economy

Overview:
The economy has historically depended on the growing and processing of
sugarcane and on remittances from overseas workers. In recent years,
tourism and export-oriented manufacturing have assumed larger roles.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $163 million (1992)
National product real growth rate:
4.1% (1992)
National product per capita:
$4,000 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.9% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
12.2% (1990)
Budget:
revenues:
$85.7 million
expenditures:
$85.8 million, including capital expenditures of $42.4 million (1993
est.)
Exports:
$32.4 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
sugar, clothing, electronics, postage stamps
partners:
US 53%, UK 22%, Trinidad and Tobago 5%, OECS 5% (1988)
Imports:
$100 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
foodstuffs, intermediate manufactures, machinery, fuels
partners:
US 36%, UK 17%, Trinidad and Tobago 6%, Canada 3%, Japan 3%, OECS 4%
(1988)
External debt:
$43.3 million (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 11.8% (1988 est.); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
15,800 kW
production:
45 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,120 kWh (1992)
Industries:
sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing, footwear,
beverages
Agriculture:
accounts for 7% of GDP; cash crop - sugarcane; subsistence crops -
rice, yams, vegetables, bananas; fishing potential not fully
exploited; most food imported
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-88), $10.7 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $67
million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Saint Kitts and Nevis, Communications

Railroads:
58 km 0.760-meter gauge on Saint Kitts for sugarcane
Highways:
total:
300 km
paved:
125 km
unpaved:
otherwise improved 125 km; unimproved earth 50 km
Ports:
Basseterre (Saint Kitts), Charlestown (Nevis)
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
good interisland VHF/UHF/SHF radio connections and international link
via Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Martin; 2,400 telephones; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, no FM, 4 TV

@Saint Kitts and Nevis, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Police Force, Coast Guard
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Saint Lucia, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about two-thirds of the way
between Puerto Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
620 sq km
land area:
610 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
158 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January
to April, rainy season from May to August
Terrain:
volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys
Natural resources:
forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral springs, geothermal
potential
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
20%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
13%
other:
54%
Irrigated land:
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion
natural hazards:
subject to hurricanes and volcanic activity
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Whaling

@Saint Lucia, People

Population:
145,090 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.52% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
23.12 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.84 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-12.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.36 years
male:
67.06 years
female:
71.83 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.5 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Saint Lucian(s)
adjective:
Saint Lucian
Ethnic divisions:
African descent 90.3%, mixed 5.5%, East Indian 3.2%, Caucasian 0.8%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 7%, Anglican 3%
Languages:
English (official), French patois
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1980)
total population:
67%
male:
65%
female:
69%
Labor force:
43,800
by occupation:
agriculture 43.4%, services 38.9%, industry and commerce 17.7% (1983
est.)

@Saint Lucia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Saint Lucia
Digraph:
ST
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Castries
Administrative divisions:
11 quarters; Anse La Raye, Castries, Choiseul, Dauphin, Dennery, Gros
Islet, Laborie, Micoud, Praslin, Soufriere, Vieux Fort
Independence:
22 February 1979 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 22 February (1979)
Constitution:
22 February 1979
Legal system:
based on English common law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Sir Stanislaus Anthony JAMES (since 10 October 1988)
head of government:
Prime Minister John George Melvin COMPTON (since 3 May 1982); Vice
President George MALLET (since NA)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the prime
minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
Senate:
consists of an 11-member body, 6 appointed on the advice of the prime
minister, 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 2 after
consultation with religious, economic, and social groups
House of Assembly:
elections last held 27 April 1992 (next to be held by April 1997);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) UWP 11, SLP
6
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
United Workers' Party (UWP), John COMPTON; Saint Lucia Labor Party
(SLP), Julian HUNTE; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), George ODLUM
Member of:
ACCT (associate), ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), INTERPOL, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dr. Joseph Edsel EDMUNDS
chancery:
Suite 309, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, DC 30037
telephone:
(202) 463-7378 or 7379
FAX:
(202) 887-5746
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados)
Flag:
blue with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead; the upper
edges of the arrowhead have a white border

@Saint Lucia, Economy

Overview:
Since 1983 the economy has shown an impressive average annual growth
rate of almost 5% because of strong agricultural and tourist sectors.
Saint Lucia also possesses an expanding industrial base supported by
foreign investment in manufacturing and other activities, such as data
processing. The economy, however, remains vulnerable because the
important agricultural sector is dominated by banana production, which
is subject to periodic droughts and tropical storms. The economy
exhibited relatively strong growth in 1992-93 based on a recovery of
the agricultural and manufacturing sectors and continued growth in
construction and tourism.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $433 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6.6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.1% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$121 million
expenditures:
$127 million, including capital expenditures of $104 million (1992
est.)
Exports:
$122.8 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
bananas 60%, clothing, cocoa, vegetables, fruits, coconut oil
partners:
UK 56%, US 22%, CARICOM 19% (1991)
Imports:
$276 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
manufactured goods 21%, machinery and transportation equipment 21%,
food and live animals, chemicals, fuels
partners:
US 34%, CARICOM 17%, UK 14%, Japan 7%, Canada 4% (1991)
External debt:
$96.4 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.5% (1990 est.); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
32,500 kW
production:
112 million kWh
consumption per capita:
740 kWh (1992)
Industries:
clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages, corrugated
cardboard boxes, tourism, lime processing, coconut processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 14% of GDP and 43% of labor force; crops - bananas,
coconuts, vegetables, citrus fruit, root crops, cocoa; imports food
for the tourist industry
Illicit drugs:
transit country for South American drugs destined for the US and
Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $120 million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

@Saint Lucia, Communications

Highways:
total:
760 km
paved:
500 km
unpaved:
otherwise improved 260 km
Ports:
Castries, Vieux Fort
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
fully automatic telephone system; 9,500 telephones; direct microwave
link with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; interisland
troposcatter link to Barbados; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV
(cable)

@Saint Lucia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Saint Lucia Police Force, Coast Guard
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Header
Affiliation:
(territorial collectivity of France)

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Geography

Location:
Northern North America, in the North Atlantic Ocean, 25 km south of
Newfoundland (Canada)
Map references:
North America
Area:
total area:
242 sq km
land area:
242 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon
groups
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
120 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France
Climate:
cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy
Terrain:
mostly barren rock
Natural resources:
fish, deepwater ports
Land use:
arable land:
13%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
83%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
vegetation scanty

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon, People

Population:
6,704 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.78% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.23 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.98 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
11.72 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.6 years
male:
73.99 years
female:
77.55 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.7 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective:
French
Ethnic divisions:
Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 98%
Languages:
French
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population:
99%
male:
99%
female:
99%
Labor force:
2,850 (1988)
by occupation:
NA

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
conventional short form:
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
local long form:
Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
local short form:
Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
Digraph:
SB
Type:
territorial collectivity of France
Capital:
Saint-Pierre
Administrative divisions:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Independence:
none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French
control since 1763)
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government:
Commissioner of the Republic Yves HENRY (since NA December 1993);
President of the General Council Marc PLANTE-GENEST (since NA)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral
General Council:
elections last held September-October 1988 (next to be held NA
September 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (19
total) Socialist and other left-wing parties 13, UDF and right-wing
parties 6
French Senate:
elections last held NA September 1986 (next to be held NA September
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PS 1
French National Assembly:
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA June
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) UDF 1;
note - Saint Pierre and Miquelon elects 1 member each to the French
Senate and the French National Assembly who are voting members
Judicial branch:
Superior Tribunal of Appeals (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)
Political parties and leaders:
Socialist Party (PS), Albert PEN; Union for French Democracy
(UDF/CDS), Gerard GRIGNON
Member of:
FZ, WFTU
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Economy

Overview:
The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing
and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of
Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because the
number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre has dropped steadily over the
years. In March 1989, an agreement between France and Canada set fish
quotas for Saint Pierre's trawlers fishing in Canadian and
Canadian-claimed waters for three years. The agreement settles a
longstanding dispute that had virtually brought fish exports to a
halt. The islands are heavily subsidized by France. Imports come
primarily from Canada and France.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $65 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$10,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
9.6% (1990)
Budget:
revenues:
$18.3 million
expenditures:
$18.3 million, including capital expenditures of $5.5 million (1989
est.)
Exports:
$30 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
fish and fish products, fox and mink pelts
partners:
US 58%, France 17%, UK 11%, Canada, Portugal (1990)
Imports:
$82 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building
materials
partners:
Canada, France, US, Netherlands, UK
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
10,000 kW
production:
25 million kWh
consumption per capita:
3,840 kWh (1992)
Industries:
fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism
Agriculture:
vegetables, cattle, sheep, pigs for local consumption; fish catch of
20,500 metric tons (1989)
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $500 million
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Communications

Highways:
total:
120 km
paved:
60 km
unpaved:
earth 60 km (1985)
Ports:
Saint Pierre
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
3,601 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 3 FM, no TV; radio
communication with most countries in the world; 1 earth station in
French domestic satellite system

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea about three-fourths of the way
between Puerto Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
340 sq km
land area:
340 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
84 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to
November)
Terrain:
volcanic, mountainous; Soufriere volcano on the island of Saint
Vincent
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
38%
permanent crops:
12%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
41%
other:
3%
Irrigated land:
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
pollution of coastal waters and shorelines from discharges by pleasure
yachts and other effluents
natural hazards:
subject to hurricanes; Soufriere volcano is a constant threat
international agreements:
party to - Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution, Whaling
Note:
some islands of the Grenadines group are administered by Grenada

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, People

Population:
115,437 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.77% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
20.27 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
17.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.28 years
male:
70.77 years
female:
73.84 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.08 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s)
adjective:
Saint Vincentian or Vincentian
Ethnic divisions:
black African descent, white, East Indian, Carib Indian
Religions:
Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
English, French patois
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
96%
male:
96%
female:
96%
Labor force:
67,000 (1984 est.)
by occupation:
NA

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Digraph:
VC
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Kingstown
Administrative divisions:
6 parishes; Charlotte, Grenadines, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint
George, Saint Patrick
Independence:
27 October 1979 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 October (1979)
Constitution:
27 October 1979
Legal system:
based on English common law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General David JACK (since 29 September 1989)
head of government:
Prime Minister James F. MITCHELL (since 30 July 1984); Deputy Prime
Minister Allan C. CRUICKSHANK (since NA); note - governor general
appoints leader of the majority party to position of prime minister
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime
minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of Assembly:
elections last held 21 February 1994 (next to be held NA July 1999);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total; 15 elected
representatives and 6 appointed senators) NDP 10, MNU 2, SVLP 3
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
New Democratic Party (NDP), James (Son) MITCHELL; Saint Vincent Labor
Party (SVLP), Stanley JOHN; United People's Movement (UPM), Adrian
SAUNDERS; Movement for National Unity (MNU), Ralph GONSALVES; National
Reform Party (NRP), Joel MIGUEL
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kingsley C.A. LAYNE
chancery:
1717 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 102, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 462-7806 or 7846
FAX:
(202) 462-7807
US diplomatic representation:
no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados)
Flag:
three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold (double width), and
green; the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a V
pattern

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture, dominated by banana production, is the most important
sector of the economy. The services sector, based mostly on a growing
tourist industry, is also important. The government has been
relatively unsuccessful at introducing new industries, and high
unemployment rates of 35%-40% continue.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $215 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
35%-40% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$62 million
expenditures:
$67 million, including capital expenditures of $21 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$77.5 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
bananas, eddoes and dasheen (taro), arrowroot starch, tennis racquets
partners:
UK 54%, CARICOM 34%, US 10%
Imports:
$118.6 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals and fertilizers,
minerals and fuels
partners:
US 36%, CARICOM 21%, UK 18%, Trinidad and Tobago 13%
External debt:
$62.6 million (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1989); accounts for 8% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
16,600 kW
production:
64 million kWh
consumption per capita:
555 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, starch
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP and 60% of labor force; provides bulk of
exports; products - bananas, coconuts, sweet potatoes, spices; small
numbers of cattle, sheep, hogs, goats; small fish catch used locally
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and
Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $11 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $81
million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Communications

Highways:
total:
1,000 km
paved:
300 km
unpaved:
improved earth 400 km; unimproved earth 300 km
Ports:
Kingstown
Merchant marine:
555 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,575,652 GRT/9,262,250 DWT,
bulk 96, cargo 280, chemical tanker 13, combination bulk 12,
combination ore/oil 2, container 31, liquefied gas 7, livestock
carrier 1, multi-function large load carrier 1, oil tanker 56,
passenger 2, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 19,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 26, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker
1, vehicle carrier 1
note:
China owns 5 ships, Croatia owns 58, Russia owns 16; a flag of
convenience registry
Airports:
total:
6
usable:
6
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
islandwide fully automatic telephone system; 6,500 telephones; VHF/UHF
interisland links from Saint Vincent to the other islands of the

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