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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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167
with permanent-surface runways:
70
with runway over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
47
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
78
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
severely underdeveloped and outmoded system; cable, open wire and
microwave; phone density is 10.5 phones per 100 residents (October
1990); 3.6 million telephone subscribers; exchanges are 86% automatic
(1991); broadcast stations - 27 AM, 27 FM, 40 (5 Soviet repeaters) TV;
9.6 million TVs; 1 satellite earth station using INTELSAT, EUTELSAT,
INMARSAT and Intersputnik

@Poland, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 10,046,993; fit for military service 7,856,680; reach
military age (19) annually 316,339 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
30.8 trillion zlotych, 1.8% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of
defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results

@Portugal, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean west of Spain
Map references:
Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
92,080 sq km
land area:
91,640 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Indiana
note:
includes Azores and Madeira Islands
Land boundaries:
total 1,214 km, Spain 1,214 km
Coastline:
1,793 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with
Indonesia
Climate:
maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Terrain:
mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south
Natural resources:
fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble
Land use:
arable land:
32%
permanent crops:
6%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
40%
other:
16%
Irrigated land:
6,340 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle
emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
natural hazards:
Azores subject to severe earthquakes
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note:
Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western
sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

@Portugal, People

Population:
10,524,210 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.36% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
11.66 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.7 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
9.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.2 years
male:
71.77 years
female:
78.86 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.46 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Portuguese
Ethnic divisions:
homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira Islands;
citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during
decolonization number less than 100,000
Religions:
Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant denominations 1%, other 2%
Languages:
Portuguese
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
85%
male:
89%
female:
82%
Labor force:
4,605,700
by occupation:
services 45%, industry 35%, agriculture 20% (1988)

@Portugal, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Portuguese Republic
conventional short form:
Portugal
local long form:
Republica Portuguesa
local short form:
Portugal
Digraph:
PO
Type:
republic
Capital:
Lisbon
Administrative divisions:
18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous
regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro,
Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra,
Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto,
Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Dependent areas:
Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China on
20 December 1999)
Independence:
1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)
National holiday:
Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)
Constitution:
25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982 and 1 June 1989
Legal system:
civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the
constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Dr. Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES (since 9 March 1986);
election last held 13 February 1991 (next to be held NA February
1996); results - Dr. Mario Lopes SOARES 70%, Basilio HORTA 14%, Carlos
CARVALHAS 13%, Carlos MARQUES 3%
head of government:
Prime Minister Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 6 November 1985)
Council of State:
acts as a consultative body to the president
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on recommendation of
the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da Republica):
elections last held 6 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1995);
results - PSD 50.4%, PS 29.3%, CDU 8.8%, Center Democrats 4.4%,
National Solidarity Party 1.7%, PRD 0.6%, other 4.8%; seats - (230
total) PSD 136, PS 71, CDU 17, Center Democrats 5, National Solidarity
Party 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justica)
Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Anibal CAVACO Silva; Portuguese
Socialist Party (PS), Antonio GUTERRES; Party of Democratic Renewal
(PRD), Pedro CANAVARRO; Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), Carlos
CARVALHAS; Social Democratic Center (CDS), Manuel MONTEIRO; National
Solidarity Party (PSN), Manuel SERGIO; Center Democratic Party (CDS);
United Democratic Coalition (CDU; Communists)
Member of:
AfDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC,
ECE, ECLAC, EIB, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA,
NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ,
UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Francisco Jose Laco Treichler KNOPFLI
chancery:
2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 328-8610
FAX:
(202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general:
Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San Francisco
consulate(s):
Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), and Providence (Rhode
Island)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Sharon P. WILKINSON
embassy:
Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon
mailing address:
PSC 83, Lisbon; APO AE 09726
telephone:
[351] (1) 726-6600 or 6659, 8670, 8880
FAX:
[351] (1) 726-9109
consulate(s):
Ponta Delgada (Azores)
Flag:
two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red
(three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the
dividing line

@Portugal, Economy

Overview:
Portugal's economy registered only 1.1% growth in 1992 and contracted
by 0.4% in 1993, in contrast to the 4.5% average of the fast-paced
1986-90 period. Recession in the European Union, which accounts for
75% of Portugal's international trade, is the key factor in the
downturn. The government's long-run economic goal is the modernization
of Portuguese markets, industry, infrastructure, and workforce in
order to catch up with productivity and income levels of the more
advanced EU countries. Per capita income now equals only 55% of the EU
average. The government's medium-term economic objective is to be in
the first tier of EU countries eligible to join the economic and
monetary union (EMU) as early as 1997. Economic policy in 1993 focused
on reducing inflationary pressures by lowering the fiscal deficit,
maintaining a stable escudo, moderating wage increases, and
encouraging increased competition. Resumption of growth in the short
run depends on the revival of growth in Europe as a whole, not a
likely prospect in the immediate future.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $91.5 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
-0.4% (1993)
National product per capita:
$8,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$27.3 billion
expenditures:
$33.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.5 billion (1991
est.)
Exports:
$17.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
cotton textiles, cork and paper products, canned fish, wine, timber
and timber products, resin, machinery, appliances
partners:
EC 75.4%, other developed countries 12.4%, US 3.8% (1992)
Imports:
$28 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products, chemicals,
petroleum, textiles
partners:
EC 72%, other developed countries 10.9% less developed countries
12.9%, US 3.4%
External debt:
$20 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 9.1% (1990); accounts for 40% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
6,624,000 kW
production:
26.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,520 kWh (1992)
Industries:
textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil
refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 6.1% of GDP and 20% of labor force; small, inefficient
farms; imports more than half of food needs; major crops - grain,
potatoes, olives, grapes; livestock sector - sheep, cattle, goats,
poultry, meat, dairy products
Illicit drugs:
increasingly important gateway country for Latin American cocaine
entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from
North Africa to Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.8 billion
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.2 billion
Currency:
1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1 - 176.16 (January 1994), 160.80
(1993), 135.00 (1992), 144.48 (1991), 142.55 (1990), 157.46 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Portugal, Communications

Railroads:
3,625 km total; state-owned Portuguese Railroad Co. (CP) operates
2,858 km 1.665-meter gauge (434 km electrified and 426 km double
track), 755 km 1.000-meter gauge; 12 km (1.435-meter gauge)
electrified, double track, privately owned
Highways:
total:
73,661 km
paved and gravel:
61,599 km (including 453 km of expressways)
unpaved:
earth 12,062 km
Inland waterways:
820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national economy, used by
shallow-draft craft limited to 300-metric-ton cargo capacity
Pipelines:
crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km
Ports:
Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Velas (Azores),
Setubal, Sines
Merchant marine:
61 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 962,293 GRT/1,779,855 DWT, bulk
3, cargo 25, chemical tanker 4, container 3, liquified gas 2, oil
tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea
passenger 2
note:
Portugal has created a captive register on Madeira (MAR) for
Portuguese-owned ships that will have the taxation and crewing
benefits of a flag of convenience; although only one ship currently is
known to fly the Portuguese flag on the MAR register, it is likely
that a majority of Portuguese flag ships will transfer to this
subregister in a few years
Airports:
total:
65
usable:
63
with permanent-surface runways:
37
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
11
Telecommunications:
generally adequate integrated network of coaxial cables, open wire and
microwave radio relay; 2,690,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 57
AM, 66 (22 repeaters) FM, 66 (23 repeaters) TV; 6 submarine cables; 3
INTELSAT earth stations (2 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT,
domestic satellite systems (mainland and Azores); tropospheric link to
Azores

@Portugal, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Republican Guard,
Fiscal Guard, Public Security Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,723,987; fit for military service 2,207,637; reach
military age (20) annually 89,380 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.1 billion, 2.9% of GDP (1993)

@Puerto Rico

Header
Affiliation:
(commonwealth associated with the US)

@Puerto Rico, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the North Caribbean Sea, between the Dominican Republic
and the Virgin Islands group
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
9,104 sq km
land area:
8,959 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
501 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine, mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains
precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal
areas
Natural resources:
some copper and nickel, potential for onshore and offshore crude oil
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
9%
meadows and pastures:
41%
forest and woodland:
20%
other:
22%
Irrigated land:
390 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the
Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors
in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure
land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal
plain belt in north

@Puerto Rico, People

Population:
3,801,977 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.13% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
16.5 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.93 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
13.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.95 years
male:
70.42 years
female:
77.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.04 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Puerto Rican(s)
adjective:
Puerto Rican
Ethnic divisions:
Hispanic
Religions:
Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant denominations and other 15%
Languages:
Spanish (official), English widely understood
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
89%
male:
90%
female:
88%
Labor force:
1.17 million (1992)
by occupation:
government 20%, manufacturing 14%, trade 17%, construction 5%,
communications and transportation 5%, other 39% (1992)

@Puerto Rico, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
conventional short form:
Puerto Rico
Digraph:
RQ
Type:
commonwealth associated with the US
Capital:
San Juan
Administrative divisions:
none (commonwealth associated with the US), note: there are 78
municipalities
Independence:
none (commonwealth associated with the US)
National holiday:
US Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Constitution:
ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective
25 July 1952
Legal system:
based on Spanish civil code
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but
do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
head of government:
Governor Pedro ROSSELLO (since NA January 1993); election last held 3
November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - Pedro
ROSSELLO (PND) 50%, Victoria MUNOZ (PPD) 46%, Fernando MARTIN (PIP) 4%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Legislative Assembly
Senate:
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) seats
by party NA
House of Representatives:
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (53 total) seats
by party NA
US House of Representatives:
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) seats
by party NA; note - Puerto Rico elects one representative to the US
House of Representatives, Carlos Romero BARCELO
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
National Republican Party of Puerto Rico, Freddy VALENTIN; Popular
Democratic Party (PPD), Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon; New Progressive Party
(PNP), Carlos ROMERO Barcelo; Puerto Rican Socialist Party (PSP), Juan
MARI Bras and Carlos GALLISA; Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP),
Ruben BERRIOS Martinez; Puerto Rican Communist Party (PCP), leader(s)
unknown
Other political or pressure groups:
all have engaged in terrorist activities - Armed Forces for National
Liberation (FALN); Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution; Boricua
Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Armed Forces of Popular
Resistance
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), ECLAC (associate), FAO (associate), ICFTU,
INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, WCL, WFTU, WHO (associate), WTO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (commonwealth associated with the US)
US diplomatic representation:
none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Flag:
five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with
white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large
white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the US flag

@Puerto Rico, Economy

Overview:
Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean
region. Industry has surpassed agriculture as the primary sector of
economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty free access to the US
and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico
since the 1950s. US minimum wage laws apply. Important industries
include pharmaceuticals, electronics, textiles, petrochemicals, and
processed foods. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and
other livestock products as the main source of income in the
agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important
source of income for the island, with estimated arrivals of nearly 3
million tourists in 1989. Unemployment remains a severe problem at
18%.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $26.8 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$7,100 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.1% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
18% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$5.8 billion
expenditures:
$5.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $258 million (1989
est.)
Exports:
$21.8 billion (1992)
commodities:
pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum, beverage
concentrates, medical equipment, instruments
partners:
US 88.3% (1990)
Imports:
$14.8 billion (1992)
commodities:
chemicals, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products
partners:
US 68.8% (1990)
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.2% (FY92)
Electricity:
capacity:
5,040,000 kW
production:
16.1 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
4,260 kWh (1992)
Industries:
manufacturing accounts for 55.5% of GDP: manufacturing of
pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products, instruments;
tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for only 3% of labor force and less than 2% of GDP: crops -
sugarcane, coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas; livestock - cattle,
chickens; imports a large share of food needs (1992)
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Puerto Rico, Communications

Railroads:
96 km rural narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane; no passenger
railroads
Highways:
total:
13,762 km
paved:
13,762 km (1982)
Ports:
San Juan, Ponce, Mayaguez, Arecibo
Airports:
total:
30
usable:
23
with permanent-surface runways:
19
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
modern system, integrated with that of the US by high capacity
submarine cable and INTELSAT with high-speed data capability; digital
telephone system with about 1 million lines; cellular telephone
service; broadcast stations - 50 AM, 63 FM, 9 TV; cable television
available with US programs (1990)

@Puerto Rico, Defense Forces

Branches:
paramilitary National Guard, Police Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

@Qatar, Geography

Location:
Middle East, peninsula jutting into the central Persian Gulf, between
Iran and Saudi Arabia
Map references:
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
11,000 sq km
land area:
11,000 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total 60 km, Saudi Arabia 60 km
Coastline:
563 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
territorial dispute with Bahrain over the Hawar Islands; maritime
boundary with Bahrain
Climate:
desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer
Terrain:
mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
95%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
limited freshwater resources are increasing dependence on large-scale
desalination facilities
natural hazards:
haze, dust storms, sandstorms common
international agreements:
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea
Note:
strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum
deposits

@Qatar, People

Population:
512,779 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.56% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
18.83 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
3.53 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
10.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
21.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.64 years
male:
70.08 years
female:
75.09 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.74 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Qatari(s)
adjective:
Qatari
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%
Religions:
Muslim 95%
Languages:
Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population:
76%
male:
77%
female:
72%
Labor force:
104,000 (85% non-Qatari in private sector) (1983)

@Qatar, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
State of Qatar
conventional short form:
Qatar
local long form:
Dawlat Qatar
local short form:
Qatar
Digraph:
QA
Type:
traditional monarchy
Capital:
Doha
Administrative divisions:
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 9 municipalities (baladiyat, singular -
baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al
Rayyan, Al Wakrah, Ash Shamal, Jarayan al Batnah, Umm Salal
Independence:
3 September 1971 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 September (1971)
Constitution:
provisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970
Legal system:
discretionary system of law controlled by the amir, although civil
codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant in personal
matters
Suffrage:
none
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
Amir and Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani (since 22 February
1972); Crown Prince HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (appointed 31 May 1977;
son of Amir and Minister of Defense)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the amir
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura):
constitution calls for elections for part of this consultative body,
but no elections have been held; seats - (30 total)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
none
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador ABD AL-RAHMAN bin Saud bin Faud Al Thani
chancery:
Suite 1180, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 338-0111
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kenton W. KEITH
embassy:
149 Ali Bin Ahmed St., Farig Bin Omran (opposite the television
station), Doha
mailing address:
P. O. Box 2399, Doha
telephone:
(0974) 864701 through 864703
FAX:
(0974) 861669
Flag:
maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the
hoist side

@Qatar, Economy

Overview:
Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts for roughly 85% of
export earnings and 75% of government revenues. Proved oil reserves of
3.3 billion barrels should ensure continued output at current levels
for about 25 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita GDP comparable to
the leading industrial countries. Production and export of natural gas
are becoming increasingly important.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-0.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$17,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$2.5 billion
expenditures:
$3 billion, including capital expenditures of $440 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
$3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
petroleum products 85%, steel, fertilizers
partners:
Japan 61%, Brazil 6%, South Korea 5%, UAE 4%, Singapore 3% (1991)
Imports:
$1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemicals
partners:
Japan 14%, UK 12%, US 12%, Germany 9%, France 5% (1991)
External debt:
$1.5 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for 64% of GDP, including oil
Electricity:
capacity:
1,596,000 kW
production:
4.818 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
9,655 kWh (1992)
Industries:
crude oil production and refining, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel
(rolls reinforcing bars for concrete construction), cement
Agriculture:
farming and grazing on small scale, less than 2% of GDP; agricultural
area is small and government-owned; commercial fishing increasing in
importance; most food imported
Economic aid:
donor:
pledged in ODA to less developed countries (1979-88), $2.7 billion
Currency:
1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams
Exchange rates:
Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1 - 3.6400 riyals (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Qatar, Communications

Highways:
total:
1,500 km
paved:
1,000 km
unpaved:
gravel, natural surface 500 km (est.)
Pipelines:
crude oil 235 km; natural gas 400 km
Ports:
Doha, Umm Sa'id, Halul Island
Merchant marine:
18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 373,491 GRT/567,294 DWT,
container 4, cargo 11, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1
Airports:
total:
5
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
modern system centered in Doha; 110,000 telephones; tropospheric
scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE;
submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV

@Qatar, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Public Security
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 217,538; fit for military service 114,468; reach
military age (18) annually 3,737 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA%, of GDP

@Reunion

Header

Affiliation:
(overseas department of France)

@Reunion, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the western Indian Ocean, 750 km east of
Madagascar
Map references:
World
Area:
total area:
2,510 sq km
land area:
2,500 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
201 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but moderates with elevation; cool and dry from May to
November, hot and rainy from November to April
Terrain:
mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast
Natural resources:
fish, arable land
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
35%
other:
39%
Irrigated land:
60 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
periodic, devastating cyclones
international agreements:
NA

@Reunion, People

Population:
652,857 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.03% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
25.14 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.07 years
male:
71 years
female:
77.29 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.78 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Reunionese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Reunionese
Ethnic divisions:
French, African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, Indian
Religions:
Roman Catholic 94%
Languages:
French (official), Creole widely used
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population:
69%
male:
67%
female:
74%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture 30%, industry 21%, services 49% (1981)
note:
63% of population of working age (1983)

@Reunion, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Department of Reunion
conventional short form:
Reunion
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ile de la Reunion
Digraph:
RE
Type:
overseas department of France
Capital:
Saint-Denis
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
none (overseas department of France)
National holiday:
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government:
Prefect of Reunion Island Hubert FOURNIER (since NA)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional Council
General Council:
elections last held 22 March 1991 (next to be held March 1997);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (44 total) seats by
party NA
Regional Council:
elections last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held by NA March 1998);
results - UPF 25.6%, PCR 17.9%, PS 10.5%, Independent 33.4%, other
12.6%; seats - (45 total) Sudre 17, UPF 14, PCR 9, PS 5
French Senate:
elections last held 24 September 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (3 total) RPR 1, FRA 1,
independent 1
French National Assembly:
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (5 total) PS 1, PCR 1,
UPF 1, RPR 1, UDF-CDS 1; note - 5 members to the French National
Assembly who are voting members
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeals (Cour d'Appel)
Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Francois MAS; Union for French Democracy
(UDF), Gilbert GERARD; Communist Party of Reunion (PCR), Elie HOARAU;;
France-Reunion Future (FRA), Andre THIEN AH KOON; Reunion Communist
Party (PCR); Socialist Party (PS), Jean-Claude FRUTEAU; Social
Democrats (CDS); other small parties
Member of:
FZ, WFTU
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (overseas department of France)
US diplomatic representation:
none (overseas department of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

@Reunion, Economy

Overview:
The economy has traditionally been based on agriculture. Sugarcane has
been the primary crop for more than a century, and in some years it
accounts for 85% of exports. The government has been pushing the
development of a tourist industry to relieve high unemployment, which
recently amounted to one-third of the labor force. The gap in Reunion
between the well-off and the poor is extraordinary and accounts for
the persistent social tensions. The white and Indian communities are
substantially better off than other segments of the population, often
approaching European standards, whereas indigenous groups suffer the
poverty and unemployment typical of the poorer nations of the African
continent. The outbreak of severe rioting in February 1991 illustrates
the seriousness of socioeconomic tensions. The economic well-being of
Reunion depends heavily on continued financial assistance from France.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$3,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
35% (February 1991)
Budget:
revenues:
$358 million
expenditures:
$914 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1986 est.)
Exports:
$166 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
sugar 75%, rum and molasses 4%, perfume essences 4%, lobster 3%,
vanilla and tea 1%
partners:
France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy
Imports:
$1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
manufactured goods, food, beverages, tobacco, machinery and
transportation equipment, raw materials, and petroleum products
partners:
France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
245,000 kW
production:
750 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,230 kWh (1991)
Industries:
sugar, rum, cigarettes, several small shops producing handicraft items
Agriculture:
accounts for 30% of labor force; dominant sector of economy; cash
crops - sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco; food crops - tropical fruits,
vegetables, corn; imports large share of food needs
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $14.8 billion
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Reunion, Communications

Highways:
total:
2,800 km
paved:
2,200 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 600 km
Ports:
Pointe des Galets
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
adequate system; modern open-wire and microwave network; principal
center Saint-Denis; radiocommunication to Comoros, France, Madagascar;
new microwave route to Mauritius; 85,900 telephones; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 13 FM, 1 (18 repeaters) TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

@Reunion, Defense Forces

Branches:
French Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 170,810; fit for military service 88,108; reach
military age (18) annually 5,867 (1994 est.)
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@Romania, Geography

Location:
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea between
Bulgaria and Ukraine
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
237,500 sq km
land area:
230,340 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total 2,508 km, Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362
km, Ukraine (south) 169 km
Coastline:
225 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
no official territorial claim by either Moldova or Romania, but
nationalists in Romania seek the merger of Moldova with Romania;
potential future dispute by Moldova and Romania against Ukraine over
former southern and northern Bessarabian areas
Climate:
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny
summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain:
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on
the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian
Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Natural resources:
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore,
salt
Land use:
arable land:
43%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
19%
forest and woodland:
28%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
34,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south
from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
natural hazards:
earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and
climate promote landslides
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of
the Sea
Note:
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans,
Moldova, and Ukraine

@Romania, People

Population:
23,181,415 (July 1994 est.)
note:
the Romanian census of January 1992 gives the population for that date
as 22.749 million; the government estimates that population declined
in 1993 by 0.3%
Population growth rate:
0.06% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.66 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.02 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
19.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.74 years
male:
68.81 years
female:
74.84 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.82 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Romanian(s)
adjective:
Romanian
Ethnic divisions:
Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%, Ukrainian, Serb, Croat,
Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%
Religions:
Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are Uniate),
Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%
Languages:
Romanian, Hungarian, German
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1978 est.)
total population:
98%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
10,945,700
by occupation:
industry 38%, agriculture 28%, other 34% (1989)

@Romania, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Romania
local long form:
none
local short form:
Romania
Digraph:
RO
Type:
republic
Capital:
Bucharest
Administrative divisions:
40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality*
(municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud,
Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin,
Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu,
Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures,
Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman,
Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Independence:
1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)
National holiday:
National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)
Constitution:
8 December 1991
Legal system:
former mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory is being
revised to conform with European norms
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990, previously President of
Provisional Council of National Unity since 23 December 1989);
election last held 27 September 1992 - with runoff between top two
candidates on 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Ion
ILIESCU 61.4%, Emil CONSTANTINESCU 38.6%
head of government:
Prime Minister Nicolae VACAROIU (since November 1992)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
Senate (Senat):
elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996);
results - PDSR 27.5%, CDR 22.5%, PP-(FSN) 11%, others 39%; seats -
(143 total) PDSR 49, CDR 34, PP-(FSN) 18, PUNR 14, UDMR 12, PRM 6,
PDAR 5, PSM 5
House of Deputies (Adunarea Deputatilor):
elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996);
results - PDSR 27.5%, CDR 22.5%, PP-(FSN) 11%, others 39%; seats -
(341 total) PDSR 117, CDR 82, PP-(FSN) 43, PUNR 30, UDMR 27, PRM 16,
PSM 13, other 13
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice, Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party (PD-(FSN)), Petre ROMAN; Party of Social Democracy in
Romania (PDSR), Adrian NASTASE; Democratic Union of Hungarians in
Romania (UDMR), Bela MARKO; National Liberal Party (PNL), Mircea
IONESCU-QUINTUS; National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party
(PNTCD), Corneliu COPOSU; Romanian National Unity Party (PUNR),
Gheorghe FUNAR; Socialist Labor Party (PSM), Ilie VERDET; Agrarian
Democratic Party of Romania (PDAR), Victor SURDU; The Democratic
Convention (CDR), Emil CONSTANTINESCU; Romania Mare Party (PRM),
Corneliu Vadim TUDOR
note:
numerous other samll parties exist but almost all failed to gain
representation in the most recent election
Other political or pressure groups:
various human rights and professional associations
Member of:
ACCT (observer), BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI (participating), CSCE, EBRD,
ECE, FAO, G-9, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
chancery:
1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
FAX:
(202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John R. DAVIS, Jr.
embassy:
Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address:
AmEmbassy (Buch), Unit 1315, Bucharest; APO AE 09213-1315
telephone:
[40] (1) 210-4042
FAX:
[40] (1) 210-0395
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the
national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has
been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

@Romania, Economy

Overview:
Despite the continuing difficulties in moving away from the former
command system, the Romanian economy seems to have bottomed out in
1993. Market oriented reforms have been introduced fitfully since the
downfall of CEAUSESCU in December 1989, with the result a growing
private sector, especially in services. The slow pace of structural
reform, however, has exacerbated Romania's high inflation rate and
eroded real wages. Agricultural production rebounded in 1993 from the
previous year's drought-reduced harvest; food supplies are adequate,
but expensive. Bucharest resisted pressure to devalue its currency
despite a $638 million trade deficit in the first half of 1993 and the
emergence of a black market for hard currency. Unable to support the
currency, the national bank, nonetheless, was forced to depreciate the
currency 65% over the course of the year. The return of winter
revealed that much of Romania's infrastructure had deteriorated over
the last four years due to reduced levels of public investment.
Residents of the capital reported frequent disruptions of heating and
water services.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $63.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1993)
National product per capita:
$2,700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6% per month (March 1994)
Unemployment rate:
11% (March 1994)
Budget:
revenues:
$19 billion
expenditures:
$20 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.1 billion (1991
est.)
Exports:
$4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
metals and metal products 24%, mineral products 14%, textiles 10.7%,
electric machines and equipment 9.3%, transport materials 9.2% (1993)
partners:
EC 36.1%, developing countries 27.4%, East and Central Europe 14.9%,
EFTA 5.1%, Russia 5%, Japan 1.4%, US 1.3% (1993)
Imports:
$5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
minerals 29%, machinery and equipment 17.2%, textiles 10%,
agricultural goods 9% (1993)
partners:
EC 45.8%, East and Central Europe 8.6%, developing countries 22.6%,
Russia 11%, EFTA 6.2%, US 5.0%, Japan 0.8% (1993)
External debt:
$4 billion (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1% (1993 est.); accounts for 45% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
22,500,000 kW
production:
59 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,540 kWh (1992)
Industries:
mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, machine
building, food processing, petroleum production and refining
Agriculture:
accounts for 18% of GDP and 28% of labor force; major wheat and corn
producer; other products - sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes,
milk, eggs, meat, grapes
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin and Latin American
cocaine transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 leu (L) = 100 bani
Exchange rates:
lei (L) per US$1 - 1,387.16 (January 1994), 760.05 (1993), 307.95
(1992), 76.39 (1991), 22.432 (1990), 14.922 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Romania, Communications

Railroads:
11,275 km total; 10,860 km 1.435-meter gauge, 370 km narrow gauge, 45
km broad gauge; 3,411 km electrified, 3,060 km double track;
government owned (1987)
Highways:
total:
72,799 km
paved:
35,970 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 27,729 km; unsurfaced earth
9,100 km (1985)
Inland waterways:
1,724 km (1984)
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km
(1992)
Ports:
Constanta, Galati, Braila, Mangalia; inland ports are Giurgiu,
Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Orsova
Merchant marine:
241 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,626,421 GRT/4,017,380 DWT,
bulk 49, cargo 167, container 2, oil tanker 14, passenger-cargo 1,
rail-car carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7
Airports:
total:
234
usable:
74
with permanent-surface runways:
26
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
21
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
24
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
poor service; about 2.3 million telephone customers; 89% of phone
network is automatic; cable and open wire; trunk network is microwave;
present phone density is 9.85 per 100 residents; roughly 3,300
villages with no service (February 1990); new digital international
direct dial exchanges are in Bucharest (1993); broadcast stations - 12
AM, 5 FM, 13 TV (1990); 1 satellite ground station using INTELSAT

@Romania, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Paramilitary Forces, Civil
Defense
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 5,888,452; fit for military service 4,972,834; reach
military age (20) annually 193,901 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
137 billion lei, 3% of GDP (1993); note - conversion of defense
expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

@Russia, Geography

Location:
Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included with
Europe), between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Standard Time
Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
17,075,200 sq km
land area:
16,995,800 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than 1.8 times the size of the US
Land boundaries:
total 20,139 km, Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast)
3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 290 km, Finland 1,313 km,
Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km,
Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 167
km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Ukraine 1,576 km
Coastline:
37,653 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
inherited disputes from former USSR including: sections of the
boundary with China; islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan and
the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, administered
by Russia, claimed by Japan; maritime dispute with Norway over portion
of the Barents Sea; Russia may dispute current de facto maritime
border of midpoint of Caspian Sea from shore; potential dispute with
Ukraine over Crimea; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but
has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of
any other nation
Climate:
ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of
European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar
north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in
Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic
coast
Terrain:
broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and
tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Natural resources:
wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural
gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber
note:
formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder
exploitation of natural resources
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
note:
agricultural land accounts for 13% of the total land area
Irrigated land:
56,000 sq km (1992)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric
plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial and
agricultural pollution of inland waterways and sea coasts;
deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper
application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes
intense radioactive contamination
natural hazards:
permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Environmental Modification,
Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea
Note:
largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located
in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of
the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too
dry) for agriculture

@Russia, People

Population:
149,608,953 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.2% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
12.67 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
11.34 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
27 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.89 years
male:
63.85 years
female:
74.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Russian(s)
adjective:
Russian
Ethnic divisions:
Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%,
Byelorussian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1%
Religions:
Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other
Languages:
Russian, other
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
75 million (1993 est.)
by occupation:
production and economic services 83.9%, government 16.1%

@Russia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Russian Federation
conventional short form:
Russia
local long form:
Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
local short form:
Rossiya
former:
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Digraph:
RS
Type:
federation
Capital:
Moscow
Administrative divisions:
21 autonomous republics (avtomnykh respublik, singular - avtomnaya
respublika); Adygea (Maykop), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatia
(Ulan-Ude), Chechenia (Groznyy), Chuvashia (Cheboksary), Dagestan
(Makhachkala), Gorno-Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Ingushetia (Nazran'),
Kabardino-Balkaria (Nal'chik), Kalmykia (Elista), Karachay-Cherkessia
(Cherkessk), Karelia (Petrozavodsk), Khakassia (Abakan), Komi
(Syktyvkar), Mari El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordovia (Saransk), North Ossetia
(Vladikavkaz), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tuva (Kyzyl), Udmurtia (Izhevsk),
Yakutia (Yakutsk); 49 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast'); Amur
(Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk,
Chelyabinsk, Chita, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka
(Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk,
Leningrad (St. Petersburg), Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk,
Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orel, Orenburg, Penza,
Perm', Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara,
Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula,
Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh,
Yaroslavl'; 6 krays (krayev, singular - kray); Altay (Barnaul),
Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Primorskiy (Vladivostok),
Stavropol'
note:
the autonomous republics of Chechenia and Ingushetia were formerly the
automous republic of Checheno-Ingushetia (the boundary between
Chechenia and Ingushetia has yet to be determined); the cities of
Moscow and St. Petersburg are federal cities; an administrative
division has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions
have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence:
24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, June 12 (1990)
Constitution:
adopted 12 December 1993
Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Boris Nikolayevich YEL'TSIN (since 12 June 1991) election
last held 12 June 1991 (next to be held 1996); results - percent of
vote by party NA%; note - no vice president; if the president dies in
office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is
impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him; the premier serves as
acting president until a new presidential election, which must be held
within three months
head of government:
Premier and Chairman of the Council of Ministers Viktor Stepanovich
CHERNOMYRDIN (since 14 December 1992); First Deputy Chairman of the
Council of Ministers Oleg SOSKOVETS (since 30 April 1993)
Security Council:
(originally established as a presidential advisory body in June 1991,
but restructured in March 1992 with responsibility for managing
individual and state security)
Presidential Administration:
(drafts presidential edicts and provides staff and policy support to
the entire executive branch)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Group of Assistants:
(schedules president's appointments, processes presidential edicts and
other official documents, and houses the president's press service and
primary speechwriters)
Council of Heads of Republics:
(includes the leaders of the 21 ethnic-based Republics)
Council of Heads of Administrations:
(includes the leaders of the 68 autonomous territories and regions,
and the mayors of Moscow and St. Petersburg)
Presidential Council:
(prepares policy papers for the president)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Assembly
Federation Council:
elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); note - two
members elected from each of Russia's 89 territorial units for a total
of 176 deputies; 2 seats unfilled as of 15 May 1994 (Chechenia did not
participate in the election); Speaker Vladimir SHUMEYKO (Russia's
Choice)
State Duma:
elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA December
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (450 total)
Russia's Choice 78, New Regional Policy 66, Liberal Democrats 63,
Agrarian Party 55, Communist Party of the Russian Federation 45, Unity
and Accord 30, Yavlinskiy Bloc 27, Women of Russia 23, Democratic
Party of Russia 15, Russia's Path 12, other parties 23, affiliation
unknown 12, unfilled (as of 13 March 1994; Chechnya did not
participate in the election) 1; Speaker Ivan RYBKIN (Agrarian Party)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (highest court for criminal,
civil, and administrative cases), Superior Court of Arbitration
(highest court that resolves economic disputes)
Political parties and leaders:
pro-market democrats:
Party of Russian Unity and Accord, Sergey SHAKHRAY; Russia's Choice
electoral association, Yegor GAYDAR; Russian Movement for Democratic
Reforms electoral association, Anatoliy SOBCHAK;
Yavlinskiy-Boldyrev-Lukin Bloc electoral association, Grigoriy
YAVLINSKIY
centrists/special interest parties:
Civic Union for Stability, Justice, and Progress, Arkadiy VOL'SKIY;
Constructive-Ecological Movement of Russia, Anatoliy PANFILOV;
Democratic Party of Russia, Nikolay TRAVKIN; Dignity and Charity
Federal Political Movement, Konstantin FROLOV; Russia's Future-New
Names electoral association, Vyacheslav LASHCHEVSKIY; Women of Russia
Party, Alevtina FEDULOVA
anti-market and/or ultranationalist parties:
Agrarian Party, Mikhail LAPSHIN; Communist Party of the Russian
Federation, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV; Liberal Democratic Party of Russia,
Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY
note:
more than 20 political parties and associations tried to gather enough
signatures to run slates of candidates in the 12 December 1993
legislative elections, but only 13 succeeded
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
BSEC, CBSS, CCC, CE (guest), CERN (observer), CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE,
ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NACC, NSG,
OAS (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ,
UNPROFOR, UN Security Council, UNTAC, UN Trusteeship Council, UNTSO,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Vladimir Petrovich LUKIN
chancery:
1125 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 628-7551 and 8548
consulate(s) general:
New York, San Francisco, and Seattle
consulate(s):
Washington
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Thomas R. PICKERING
embassy:
Novinskiy Bul'var 19/23, Moscow
mailing address:
APO AE 09721
telephone:
[7] (095) 252-2451 through 2459
FAX:
[7] (095)-4261/4270
consulate(s):
St. Petersburg, Vladivostok
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red

@Russia, Economy

Overview:
Russia, a vast country with a wealth of natural resources, a

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