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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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head of government:
Prime Minister Paias WINGTI (since 17 July 1992); Deputy Prime
Minister Sir Julius CHAN (since July 1992)
cabinet:
National Executive Council; appointed by the governor on
recommendation of the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Parliament:
(sometimes referred to as the House of Assembly) elections last held
13-26 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - percent by party
NA; seats - (109 total) Pangu Party 24, PDM 17, PPP 10, PAP 10,
independents 30, others 18 (association with political parties is
fluid)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Papua New Guinea United Party (Pangu Party), Jack GENIA; People's
Democratic Movement (PDM), Paias WINGTI; People's Action Party (PAP),
Akoka DOI; People's Progress Party (PPP), Sir Julius CHAN; United
Party (UP), Paul TORATO; Papua Party (PP), Galeva KWARARA; National
Party (NP), Paul PORA; Melanesian Alliance (MA), Fr. John MOMIS
Member of:
ACP, APEC, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate Kepas WATANGIA
chancery:
3rd floor, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 745-3680
FAX:
(202) 745-3679
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard TEARE
embassy:
Armit Street, Port Moresby
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby, or APO AE 96553
telephone:
[675] 211-455 or 594, 654
FAX:
[675] 213-423
Flag:
divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is
red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower
triangle is black with five white five-pointed stars of the Southern
Cross constellation centered

@Papua New Guinea, Economy

Overview:
Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, but
exploitation has been hampered by the rugged terrain and the high cost
of developing an infrastructure. Agriculture provides a subsistence
livelihood for 85% of the population. Mining of numerous deposits,
including copper and gold, accounts for about 60% of export earnings.
Budgetary support from Australia and development aid under World Bank
auspices have helped sustain the economy. Robust growth in 1991-92 was
led by the mining sector; the opening of a large new gold mine helped
the advance. The economy remained strong in 1993, primarily because of
continued growth in the mining and oil sectors.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (1992-93)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$1.33 billion
expenditures:
$1.49 billion, including capital expenditures of $225 million (1993
est.)
Exports:
$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
gold, copper ore, oil, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, lobster
partners:
Australia, Japan, South Korea, UK, US
Imports:
$1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels,
chemicals
partners:
Australia, Japan, US, Singapore, New Zealand, UK
External debt:
$2.2 billion (April 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 21% (1992); accounts for 31% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
400,000 kW
production:
1.6 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
400 kWh (1992)
Industries:
copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip
production, mining of gold, silver, and copper, construction, tourism
Agriculture:
Accounts for 28% of GDP; livelihood for 85% of population; fertile
soils and favorable climate permits cultivating a wide variety of
crops; cash crops - coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels; other
products - tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, poultry,
pork; net importer of food for urban centers
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $40.6 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $6.5
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $17 million
Currency:
1 kina (K) = 100 toea
Exchange rates:
kina (K) per US$1 - 1.0281 (January 1994), 1.0221 (1993), 1.0367
(1992), 1.0504 (1991), 1.0467 (1990), 1.1685 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Papua New Guinea, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
total:
19,200 km
paved:
640 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 10,960 km; unimproved earth
7,600 km
Inland waterways:
10,940 km
Ports:
Anewa Bay, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul
Merchant marine:
11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,337 GRT/25,669 DWT, bulk 2,
cargo 3, combination ore/oil 5, container 1
Airports:
total:
504
usable:
462
with permanent-surface runways:
18
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
39
Telecommunications:
services are adequate and being improved; facilities provide
radiobroadcast, radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio,
aeronautical radio, and international radiocommunication services;
submarine cables extend to Australia and Guam; more than 70,000
telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 31 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV (1987); 1
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Papua New Guinea, Defense Forces

Branches:
Papua New Guinea Defense Force (including Army, Navy, Air Force)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,080,316; fit for military service 601,369
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 1.8% of GDP (1993 est.)

@Paracel Islands, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, 400 km east of Vietnam in the South China Sea,
about one-third of the way between Vietnam and the Philippines
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total area:
NA sq km
land area:
NA sq km
comparative area:
NA
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
518 km
Maritime claims:
NA
International disputes:
occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
NA
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to typhoons
international agreements:
NA

@Paracel Islands, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are scattered Chinese
garrisons

@Paracel Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Paracel Islands
Digraph:
PF

@Paracel Islands, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Paracel Islands, Communications

Ports:
small Chinese port facilities on Woody Island and Duncan Island
currently under expansion
Airports:
1 on Woody Island

@Paracel Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
occupied by China

@Paraguay, Geography

Location:
Central South America, between Argentina and Brazil
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
406,750 sq km
land area:
397,300 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than California
Land boundaries:
total 3,920 km, Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
short section of the boundary with Brazil, just west of Salto del
Guaira (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana, has not been determined
Climate:
varies from temperate in east to semiarid in far west
Terrain:
grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region
west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry
forest and thorny scrub elsewhere
Natural resources:
hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
39%
forest and woodland:
35%
other:
5%
Irrigated land:
670 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal
present health hazards for many urban residents
natural hazards:
local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained
plains may become boggy (early October to June)
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea; signed, but not ratified - Nuclear Test Ban
Note:
landlocked; buffer between Argentina and Brazil

@Paraguay, People

Population:
5,213,772 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.76% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
32.03 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.48 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
25.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.28 years
male:
71.74 years
female:
74.9 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.29 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Paraguayan(s)
adjective:
Paraguayan
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (Spanish and Indian) 95%, white and Indian 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite and other Protestant denominations
Languages:
Spanish (official), Guarani
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
90%
male:
92%
female:
88%
Labor force:
1.692 million (1993 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture, industry and commerce, services, government (1986)

@Paraguay, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Paraguay
conventional short form:
Paraguay
local long form:
Republica del Paraguay
local short form:
Paraguay
Digraph:
PA
Type:
republic
Capital:
Asuncion
Administrative divisions:
19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alto
Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa,
Canindeyu, Central, Chaco, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua,
Misiones, Neembucu, Nueva Asuncion, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San
Pedro
Independence:
14 May 1811 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811)
Constitution:
25 August 1967; Constituent Assembly rewrote the Constitution that was
promulgated on 20 June 1992
Legal system:
based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review
of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 60
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Juan Carlos WASMOSY (since 15 August 1993); Vice President
Roberto Angel SEIFART (since 15 August 1993); election last held 9 May
1993 (next to be held May 1998); results - Juan Carlos WASMOSY 40.09%,
Domingo LAINO 32.06%, Guillermo CABALLERO VARGAS 23.04%
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; nominated by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress (Congreso)
Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores):
elections last held 9 May 1993 (next to be held May 1998); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (45 total) Colorado Party 20,
PLRA 17, EN 8
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados):
elections last held on 9 May 1993 (next to be held by May 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (80 total) Colorado
Party 38, PLRA 33, EN 9
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Political parties and leaders:
Colorado Party, Eugenio SANABRIA CANTERO, president; Authentic Radical
Liberal Party (PLRA), Domingo LAINO; National Encounter (EN),
Guillermo CABALLERO VARGAS (the EN party includes the following minor
parties: Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jose Angel BURRO;
Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF), Euclides ACEVEDO; Popular
Democratic Party (PDP), Hugo RICHER)
Other political or pressure groups:
Confederation of Workers (CUT); Roman Catholic Church
Member of:
AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Juan Esteban AGUIRRE Martinez
chancery:
2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-6960 through 6962
FAX:
(202) 234-4508
consulate(s) general:
New Orleans and New York
consulate(s):
Miami
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge D'Affaires Gerald McCOLLOCH
embassy:
1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Asuncion
mailing address:
C. P. 402, Asuncion, or APO AA 34036-0001
telephone:
[595] (21) 213-715
FAX:
[595] (21) 213-728
Flag:
three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an
emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is
different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the
national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green
wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two
circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the
treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y
Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL
PARAGUAY, all within two circles)

@Paraguay, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture, including forestry, accounts for about 25% of GDP,
employs about 45% of the labor force, and provides the bulk of
exports, led by soybeans and cotton. Paraguay lacks substantial
mineral or petroleum resources but possesses a large hydropower
potential. Since 1981 economic performance has declined compared with
the boom period of 1976-81, when real GDP grew at an average annual
rate of nearly 11%. During the period 1982-86 real GDP fell in three
of five years, inflation jumped to an annual rate of 32%, and foreign
debt rose. Factors responsible for the erratic behavior of the economy
were the completion of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam, bad weather for
crops, and weak export prices for agricultural commodities. In 1987
the economy experienced a minor recovery because of improved weather
conditions and stronger international prices for key agricultural
exports. The recovery continued through 1990, on the strength of
bumper crops in 1988-89. In a major step to increase its economic
activity in the region, Paraguay in March 1991 joined the Southern
Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), which includes Brazil, Argentina, and
Uruguay. In 1992, the government, through an unorthodox approach,
reduced external debt with both commercial and official creditors by
purchasing a sizable amount of the delinquent commercial debt in the
secondary market at a substantial discount. The government had paid
100% of remaining official debt arrears to the US, Germany, France,
and Spain. All commercial debt arrears have been rescheduled. For the
long run, the government must press forward with general,
market-oriented economic reforms. Growth of 3.5% in 1993 was spurred
by higher-than-expected agricultural output and rising international
commodity prices. Inflation picked up steam in fourth quarter 1993
because of rises in public sector salaries and utility rates.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $15.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20.4% (1993 )
Unemployment rate:
11% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.2 billion
expenditures:
$1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $487 million (1992
est.)
Exports:
$728 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
cotton, soybean, timber, vegetable oils, meat products, coffee, tung
oil
partners:
EC 37%, Brazil 25%, Argentina 10%, Chile 6%, US 6%
Imports:
$1.38 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, raw materials, fuels
partners:
Brazil 30%, EC 20%, US 18%, Argentina 8%, Japan 7%
External debt:
$1.2 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.2% (1991 est.); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
5,257,000 kW
production:
16.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
3,280 kWh (1992)
Industries:
meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing, textiles, other
light consumer goods, cement, construction
Agriculture:
accounts for 26% of GDP and 44% of labor force; cash crops - cotton,
sugarcane, soybeans; other crops - corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava,
fruits, vegetables; animal products - beef, pork, eggs, milk; surplus
producer of timber; self-sufficient in most foods
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade;
important transshipment point for Bolivian cocaine headed for the US
and Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $172 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1
billion
Currency:
1 guarani (G) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
guaranies (G) per US$ - 1,861.3 (January 1994), 1,744.3 (1993),
1,500.3 (1992), 447.5 (March 1992), 1,325.2 (1991), 1,229.8 (1990),
1,056.2 (1989), 550.00 (fixed rate 1986-February 1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Paraguay, Communications

Railroads:
970 km total; 440 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 60 km 1.000-meter
gauge, 470 km various narrow gauge (privately owned)
Highways:
total:
28,300 km
paved:
2,600 km
unpaved:
gravel 500 km; earth 25,200 km
Inland waterways:
3,100 km
Ports:
Asuncion, Villeta, Ciudad del Este
Merchant marine:
13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,747 GRT/19,513 DWT, cargo 11,
oil tanker 2
note:
1 naval cargo ship is sometimes used commercially
Airports:
total:
969
usable:
827
with permanent-surface runways:
7
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
5
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
93
Telecommunications:
meager telephone service; principal switching center in Asuncion; fair
intercity microwave net; 78,300 telephones; telephone density - 16
telephones per 1,000 persons; broadcast stations - 40 AM, no FM, 5 TV,
7 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Paraguay, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Naval Air and Marines), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,249,470; fit for military service 907,533; reach
military age (17) annually 53,126 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 1.6% of GDP (1994 est.)

@Peru, Geography

Location:
Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean between Chile
and Ecuador
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,285,220 sq km
land area:
1.28 million sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total 6,940 km, Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km,
Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline:
2,414 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
three sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute
Climate:
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west
Terrain:
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center
(sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Natural resources:
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal,
phosphate, potash
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
21%
forest and woodland:
55%
other:
21%
Irrigated land:
12,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; air
pollution in Lima
natural hazards:
subject to earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, mild volcanic activity
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Tropical Timber
Note:
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with
Bolivia

@Peru, People

Population:
23,650,671 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.86% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
25.55 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
54.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.62 years
male:
63.44 years
female:
67.9 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.11 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Peruvian(s)
adjective:
Peruvian
Ethnic divisions:
Indian 45%, mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 37%, white
15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic
Languages:
Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
85%
male:
92%
female:
29%
Labor force:
8 million (1992)
by occupation:
government and other services 44%, agriculture 37%, industry 19% (1988
est.)

@Peru, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Peru
conventional short form:
Peru
local long form:
Republica del Peru
local short form:
Peru
Digraph:
PE
Type:
republic
Capital:
Lima
Administrative divisions:
24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1
constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash,
Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica,
Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de
Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note:
the 1979 Constitution and legislation enacted from 1987 to 1990
mandate the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) intended
to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative
entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 existing
departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from
Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from
Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios,
Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari
(from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna,
Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca,
Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali);
formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the
constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of
Lima. Because of inadequate funding from the central government and
organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to
assume major responsibilities. The 1993 Constitution maintains the
regionalization process with some modifications that will limit the
powers of the regional governments. The new constitution also
reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments.
Independence:
28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution:
31 December 1993
Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990);
election last held on 10 June 1990 (next to be held NA April 1995);
results - Alberto FUJIMORI 56.53%, Mario VARGAS Llosa 33.92%, other
9.55%
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
note:
Prime Minister Efrain GOLDENBERG Schreiber (since February 1994) does
not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the
president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Democratic Constituent Congress (CCD):
elections last held 25 November 1992 (next to be held April 1995);
seats - (80 total) New Majority/Change 90 44, Popular Christian Party
8, Independent Moralization Front 7, Renewal 6, Movement of the
Democratic Left 4, Democratic Coordinator 4, others 7; note - several
major parties (American Popular Revolutionary Alliance, Popular
Action) did not participate; with the next election the congress will
be expanded to 100 seats
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Political parties and leaders:
note:
Peru's political party system has become fragmented in recent years
with independent movements proliferating; key parties are listed
New Majority/Change 90 (Cambio 90), Alberto FUJIMORI; Popular
Christian Party (PPC), Luis BEDOYA Reyes; Popular Action Party (AP),
Raul DIEZ CANSECO; American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA),
Armando VILLANUEVA del CAMPO; Independent Moralizing Front (FIM),
Fernando OLIVERA Vega; National Renewal, Rafael REY Rey; Democratic
Coordinator, Jose BARBA Caballero; Democratic Left Movement, Henry
PEASE; Solidarity and Democracy (SODE), Manuel MOREYRA; National Front
of Workers and Peasants (FRENATRACA), Roger CACARES
Other political or pressure groups:
leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path, Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso
(imprisoned); Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, Nestor SERPA and
Victor POLAY (imprisoned)
Member of:
AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM,
OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG (suspended), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ricardo LUNA Mendoza
chancery:
1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX:
(202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey),
and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Alvin P. ADAMS, Jr.
embassy:
corner of Avenida Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida Espana, Lima
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1991, Lima 1, Unit 3822, or APO AA 34031
telephone:
[51] (14) 33-8000
FAX:
[51] (14) 31-6682
Flag:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with
the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features
a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a
yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green
wreath

@Peru, Economy

Overview:
The Peruvian economy is becoming increasingly market oriented, with
major privatizations scheduled for 1994 in the mining and
telecommunications industries. In the 1980s the economy suffered from
hyperinflation, declining per capita output, and mounting external
debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank support in the
mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An austerity program
implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government took office in July
1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly contraction of economic
activity, but the slide halted late that year, and output rose 2.4% in
1991. After a burst of inflation as the austerity program eliminated
government price subsidies, monthly price increases eased to the
single-digit level and by December 1991 dropped to the lowest increase
since mid-1987. Lima obtained a financial rescue package from
multilateral lenders in September 1991, although it faced $14 billion
in arrears on its external debt. By working with the IMF and World
Bank on new financial conditions and arrangements, the government
succeeded in ending its arrears by March 1993. In 1992, GDP fell by
2.8%, in part because a warmer-than-usual El Nino current resulted in
a 30% drop in the fish catch. In 1993 the economy rebounded as strong
foreign investment helped push growth to 6%.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $70 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
39% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15%; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$2 billion
expenditures:
$1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $300 million (1992
est.)
Exports:
$3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, refined
silver, coffee, cotton
partners:
US 25%, Japan 9%, Italy, Germany
Imports:
$4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel,
chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners:
US 30%, Colombia, Argentina, Japan, Germany, Brazil
External debt:
$22 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -5% (1992 est.); accounts for 32% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
5,042,000 kW
production:
17.434 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
760 kWh (1992)
Industries:
mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food
processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal
fabrication
Agriculture:
accounts for 13% of GDP, about 35% of labor force; commercial crops -
coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops - rice, wheat, potatoes,
plantains, coca; animal products - poultry, red meats, dairy, wool;
not self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of 6.9
million metric tons (1990)
Illicit drugs:
world's largest coca leaf producer with about 108,800 hectares under
cultivation in 1993; source of supply for most of the world's coca
paste and cocaine base; at least 85% of coca cultivation is for
illicit production; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug
dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.3
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $577 million
Currency:
1 nuevo sol (S/.) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1 - 2.180 (January 1994), 1.988 (1993), 1.245
(1992), 0.772 (1991), 0.187 (1990), 0.0027 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Peru, Communications

Railroads:
1,801 km total; 1,501 km 1.435-meter gauge, 300 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
total:
69,942 km
paved:
7,459 km
unpaved:
improved earth 13,538 km; unimproved earth 48,945 km
Inland waterways:
8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km Lago
Titicaca
Pipelines:
crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km
Ports:
Callao, Ilo, Iquitos, Matarani, Talara
Merchant marine:
17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 142,425 GRT/229,746 DWT, bulk 3,
cargo 10, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
note:
in addition, 6 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes used
commercially
Airports:
total:
252
usable:
222
with permanent-surface runways:
37
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
24
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
54
Telecommunications:
fairly adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave system;
544,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 273 AM, no FM, 140 TV, 144
shortwave; satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 12
domestic

@Peru, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru), Air Force
(Fuerza Aerea del Peru), National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,199,785; fit for military service 4,188,706; reach
military age (20) annually 246,427 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $500 million, about 2% of GDP (1991)

@Philippines, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, between Indonesia and China
Map references:
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
300,000 sq km
land area:
298,170 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
36,289 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf:
to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by
1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area
in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
International disputes:
involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; claims Malaysian state
of Sabah
Climate:
tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest
monsoon (May to October)
Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Natural resources:
timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Land use:
arable land:
26%
permanent crops:
11%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
40%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
16,200 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; air pollution in Manila
natural hazards:
astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six
cyclonic storms per year; subject to landslides, active volcanoes,
destructive earthquakes, tsunamis
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Tropical Timber

@Philippines, People

Population:
69,808,930 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.92% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
27.34 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.94 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
50.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.39 years
male:
62.88 years
female:
68.02 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.35 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Filipino(s)
adjective:
Philippine
Ethnic divisions:
Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%
Languages:
Pilipino (official; based on Tagalog), English (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
90%
male:
90%
female:
90%
Labor force:
24.12 million
by occupation:
agriculture 46%, industry and commerce 16%, services 18.5%, government
10%, other 9.5% (1989)

@Philippines, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form:
Philippines
local long form:
Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form:
Pilipinas
Digraph:
RP
Type:
republic
Capital:
Manila
Administrative divisions:
72 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan
del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*,
Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas,
Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*,
Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*,
Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz,
Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*,
Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao
Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*,
Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo
City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del
Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte,
Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque,
Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental,
Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental,
North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*,
Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga,
Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino,
Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San
Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor,
Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu,
Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*,
Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*,
Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur
Independence:
4 July 1946 (from US)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 June (1898) (from Spain)
Constitution:
2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Legal system:
based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
15 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Fidel Valdes RAMOS (since 30 June 1992); Vice President
Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30 June 1992); election last held 11
May 1992 (next election to be held NA May 1998); results - Fidel
Valdes RAMOS won 23.6% of votes, a narrow plurality
cabinet:
Executive Secretary; appointed by the president with the consent of
the Commission of Appointments
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress (Kongreso)
Senate (Senado):
elections last held 11 May 1992 (next election to be held NA May
1995); results - LDP 66%, NPC 20%, Lakas-NUCD 8%, Liberal 6%; seats -
(24 total) LDP 15, NPC 5, Lakas-NUCD 2, Liberal 1, Independent 1
House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan):
elections last held 11 May 1992 (next election to be held NA May
1995); results - LDP 43.5%; Lakas-NUCD 25%, NPC 23.5%, Liberal 5%, KBL
3%; seats - (200 total) LDP 87, NPC 45, Lakas-NUCD 41, Liberal 15, NP
6, KBL 3, Independent 3
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Filipino Struggle (Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipinas,
Laban), Edgardo ESPIRITU; People Power-National Union of Christian
Democrats (Lakas ng Edsa, NUCD and Partido Lakas Tao, Lakas/NUCD);
Fidel V. RAMOS, President of the Republic, Raul MANGLAPUS, Jose de
VENECIA, secretary general; Nationalist People's Coalition (NPC),
Eduardo COJUANGCO; Liberal Party, Jovito SALONGA; People's Reform
Party (PRP), Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO; New Society Movement (Kilusan
Bagong Lipunan; KBL), Imelda MARCOS; Nacionalista Party (NP), Salvador
H. LAUREL, president
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Raul Chaves RABE
chancery:
1617 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 483-1414
FAX:
(202) 328-7614
consulate(s) general:
Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San
Francisco, and Seattle
consulate(s):
San Diego and San Jose (Saipan)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE
embassy:
1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita Manila 1000
mailing address:
APO AP 96440
telephone:
[632] 521-7116
FAX:
[632] 522-4361
consulate(s) general:
Cebu
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white
equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the
triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing
three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small
yellow five-pointed star

@Philippines, Economy

Overview:
Domestic output in this primarily agricultural economy failed to grow
in 1992 and rose only slightly in 1993. Drought and power supply
problems hampered production, while inadequate revenues prevented
government pump priming. Worker remittances helped to supplement GDP.
A marked increase in capital goods imports, particularly power
generating equipment, telecommunications equipment, and electronic
data processors, contributed to 20% import growth in both 1992 and
1993.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $171 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.6% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
9.2% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$11.5 billion
expenditures:
$13 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7 billion (1994
est.)
Exports:
$11.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
electronics, textiles, coconut products, cooper, fish
partners:
US 39%, Japan 18%, Germany 5%, UK 5%, Hong Kong 5% (1992)
Imports:
$17.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
raw materials 40%, capital goods 25%, petroleum products 10%
partners:
Japan 21%, US 18%, Taiwan 7%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Hong Kong 5%, South
Korea 5% (1992)
External debt:
$34.1 billion (September 1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1% (1992 est.); accounts for 34% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
7,850,000 kW
production:
28 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
420 kWh (1992)
Industries:
textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing,
electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for about 20% of GDP and about 45% of labor force; major
crops - rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangos;
animal products - pork, eggs, beef; net exporter of farm products;
fish catch of 2 million metric tons annually
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; growers
are producing more and better quality cannabis despite government
eradication efforts; transit point for Southwest Asian heroin bound
for the US
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.6 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $7.9
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries
(1975-89), $123 million
Currency:
1 Philippine peso (P) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Philippine pesos (P) per US$1 - 27.725 (January 1994), 22.120 (1993),
25.512 (1992), 27.479 (1991), 24.311 (1990), 21.737 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Philippines, Communications

Railroads:
378 km operable on Luzon, 34% government owned (1982)
Highways:
total:
157,450 km
paved:
22,400 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 85,050 km; unimproved earth
50,000 km (1988)
Inland waterways:
3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m) vessels
Pipelines:
petroleum products 357 km
Ports:
Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras, Iloilo, Legaspi, Manila, Subic
Bay
Merchant marine:
553 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,451,047 GRT/13,934,255 DWT,
bulk 241, cargo 145, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 10,
combination ore/oil 1, container 8, liquefied gas 3, livestock carrier
9, oil tanker 33, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 13, refrigerated cargo
27, roll-on/roll-off cargo 14, short-sea passenger 12, vehicle carrier
35
note:
many Philippine flag ships are foreign owned and are on the register
for the purpose of long-term bare-boat charter back to their original
owners who are principally in Japan and Germany
Airports:
total:
270
usable:
238
with permanent-surface runways:
74
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
9
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
57
Telecommunications:
good international radio and submarine cable services; domestic and
interisland service adequate; 872,900 telephones; broadcast stations -
267 AM (including 6 US), 55 FM, 33 TV (including 4 US); submarine
cables extended to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT, and 11 domestic

@Philippines, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 17,668,781; fit for military service 12,479,312; reach
military age (20) annually 733,880 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $731 million, 1.4% of GNP (1992)

@Pitcairn Islands

Header
Affiliation: (dependent territory of the UK)

@Pitcairn Islands, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway between
Peru and New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
47 sq km
land area:
47 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
51 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, hot, humid, modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season
(November to March)
Terrain:
rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs
Natural resources:
miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to typhoons (especially November to March)
international agreements:
NA

@Pitcairn Islands, People

Population:
71 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.93% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
NA
Death rate:
NA
Net migration rate:
NA
Infant mortality rate:
NA
Life expectancy at birth:
NA
Total fertility rate:
NA
Nationality:
noun:
Pitcairn Islander(s)
adjective:
Pitcairn Islander
Ethnic divisions:
descendants of the Bounty mutineers
Religions:
Seventh-Day Adventist 100%
Languages:
English (official), Tahitian/English dialect
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
no business community in the usual sense; some public works;
subsistence farming and fishing

@Pitcairn Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands
conventional short form:
Pitcairn Islands
Digraph:
PC
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Adamstown
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday in June)
Constitution:
Local Government Ordinance of 1964
Legal system:
local island by-laws
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal with three years residency
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by UK High
Commissioner to New Zealand and Governor (non-resident) of the
Pitcairn Islands David Joseph MOSS (since NA September 1990);
Commissioner (non-resident) G.D. HARRAWAY (since NA; is the liason
person between the governor and the Island Council)
head of government:
Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island Council Jay WARREN (since
NA)
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Island Council:
elections last held NA (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (11 total, 5 elected) number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch:
Island Court
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
SPC
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag;
the coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue with a shield
featuring a yellow anchor

@Pitcairn Islands, Economy

Overview:
The inhabitants exist on fishing and subsistence farming. The fertile
soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and vegetables,
including citrus, sugar cane, watermelons, bananas, yams, and beans.
Bartering is an important part of the economy. The major sources of
revenue are the sale of postage stamps to collectors and the sale of
handicrafts to passing ships.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$430,000
expenditures:
$429,000, including capital expenditures of $NA (1987 est.)
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
fruits, vegetables, curios
partners:
NA
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
fuel oil, machinery, building materials, flour, sugar, other
foodstuffs
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
110 kW
production:
300,000 kWh
consumption per capita:
5,360 kWh (1990)
Industries:
postage stamp sales, handicrafts
Agriculture:
based on subsistence fishing and farming; wide variety of fruits and
vegetables grown; must import grain products
Economic aid:
recipient:
ODA bilateral commitments (1992-93), $84,000
Currency:
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.7771 (January 1994), 1.8495
(1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Pitcairn Islands, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
total:
6.4 km
unpaved:
earth 6.4 km
Ports:
Bounty Bay
Airports:
none
Telecommunications:
24 telephones; party line telephone service on the island; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; diesel generator provides electricity

@Pitcairn Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Poland, Geography

Location:
Central Europe, between Germany and Belarus
Map references:
Asia, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of
the World
Area:
total area:
312,680 sq km
land area:
304,510 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 3,114 km, Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456 km,
Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Slovakia 444 km,
Ukraine 428 km
Coastline:
491 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent
precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
Terrain:
mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
Natural resources:
coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt
Land use:
arable land:
46%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
13%
forest and woodland:
28%
other:
12%
Irrigated land:
1,000 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
forest damage due to air pollution; improper means for disposal of
large amounts of hazardous and industrial waste; severe water
pollution from industrial and municipal sources; severe air pollution
results from emissions of sulfur dioxide from coal-fired power plants
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed,
but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of
the Sea
Note:
historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack
of natural barriers on the North European Plain

@Poland, People

Population:
38,654,561 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.35% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.44 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
13.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.66 years
male:
68.64 years
female:
76.91 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.94 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Pole(s)
adjective:
Polish
Ethnic divisions:
Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%, Byelorussian 0.5% (1990
est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox,
Protestant, and other 5%
Languages:
Polish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1978)
total population:
98%
male:
99%
female:
98%
Labor force:
17.329 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 32.0%, agriculture 27.6%, trade, transport,
and communications 14.7%, government and other 24.6% (1992)

@Poland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Poland
conventional short form:
Poland
local long form:
Rzeczpospolita Polska
local short form:
Polska
Digraph:
PL
Type:
democratic state
Capital:
Warsaw
Administrative divisions:
49 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Biala Podlaska,
Bialystok, Bielsko Biala, Bydgoszcz, Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa,
Elblag, Gdansk, Gorzow, Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin,
Koszalin, Krakow, Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin, Nowy
Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroleka, Pila, Piotrkow, Plock, Poznan,
Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz, Skierniewice, Slupsk,
Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow, Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa,
Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc, Zielona Gora
Independence:
11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)
Constitution:
interim "small constitution" came into effect in December 1992
replacing the Communist-imposed Constitution of 22 July 1952; new
democratic Constitution being drafted
Legal system:
mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and holdover Communist
legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as part of broader
democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Lech WALESA (since 22 December 1990); election first round
held 25 November 1990, second round held 9 December 1990 (next to be
held NA November 1995); results - second round Lech WALESA 74.7%,
Stanislaw TYMINSKI 25.3%
head of government:
Prime Minister Waldemar PAWLAK (since 26 October 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; responsible to the president and the Sejm
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe)
Senate (Senat):
elections last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held no later than
NA October 1997); seats - (100 total)
post-Solidarity bloc:
UW 6, NSZZ 12, BBWR 2
non-Communist, non-Solidarity:
independents 7, unaffiliated 1, vacant 1 (to be filled in a 19 June
election)
Communist origin or linked:
PSL 34, SLD 37
Diet (Sejm):
elections last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held no later than
NA October 1997); seats - (460 total)
post-Solidarity bloc:
UW 74, UP 41, BBWR 16
non-Communist, non-Solidarity:
KPN 22
Communist origin or linked:
SLD 171, PSL 132
note:
4 seats were won by ethnic Germans
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
post-Solidarity parties:
Freedom Union (WD; UD and Liberal Democratic Congress merged to form
Freedom Union), Tadeusz MAZOWIECKI; Christian-National Union (ZCHN),
Wieslaw CHRZANOWSKI; Centrum (PC), Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI; Peasant
Alliance (PL), Gabriel JANOWSKI; Solidarity Trade Union (NSZZ), Marian
KRZAKLEWSKI; Union of Labor (UP), Ryszard BUGAJ; Christian-Democratic
Party (PCHD), Pawel LACZKOWSKI; Conservative Party, Alexander HALL;
Nonparty Bloc for the Support of the Reforms (BBWR)
non-Communist, non-Solidarity:
Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN), Leszek MOCZULSKI;
Polish Economic Program (PPG), Janusz REWINSKI; Christian Democrats
(CHD), Andrzej OWSINSKI; German Minority (MN), Henryk KROL; Union of
Real Politics (UPR), Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE; Democratic Party (SD),
Antoni MACKIEWICZ; Party X, Stanislaw Tyminski
Communist origin or linked:
Social Democracy (SDRP, party of Poland), Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI;
Polish Peasants' Party (PSL), Waldemar PAWLAK; Democratic Left
Alliance, Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI
Other political or pressure groups:
powerful Roman Catholic Church; Solidarity (trade union); All Poland
Trade Union Alliance (OPZZ), populist program
Member of:
BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, COCOM (cooperating),
CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNDOF, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR,
UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jerzy KOZMINSKI
chancery:
2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 234-3800 through 3802
FAX:
(202) 328-6271
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Nicholas A. REY
embassy:
Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw
mailing address:
American Embassy Warsaw, Unit 1340, or APO AE 09213-1340
telephone:
[48] (2) 628-3041
FAX:
[48] (2) 628-8298
consulate(s) general:
Krakow, Poznan
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the
flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white

@Poland, Economy

Overview:
Poland is continuing the difficult transition to a market economy that
began on 1 January 1990, when the new democratic government instituted
"shock therapy" by decontrolling prices, slashing subsidies, and
drastically reducing import barriers. The economy contracted sharply
in 1990 and 1991, but in 1992 real GDP grew 1% despite a severe
drought. Real GDP expanded about 4% in 1993, the highest rate in
Europe except for Albania. About half of GDP now comes from the
private sector even though privatization of the large state-owned
enterprises is proceeding slowly and most industry remains in state
hands. The pattern of industrial production is changing rapidly;
output of textiles and construction materials is well above 1990
levels, while output of basic metals remains depressed. Inflation,
which had exceeded 50% monthly in late 1989, was down to about 37% for
all of 1993, as the government held the budget deficit below 3% of
GDP. Unemployment has risen steadily, however, to about 16%. The trade
deficit is also a problem, in part due to recession in Western Europe,
Poland's main customer. The new government elected in September 1993
is politically to the left of its predecessor but is continuing the
reform process.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $180.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,680 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
37% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
15.7% (December 1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$24.3 billion
expenditures:
$27.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (1993
est.)
Exports:
$13.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery 24%, metals 17%, chemicals 12%, fuels and power 11%, food
10% (1992)
partners:
Germany 31.4%, Netherlands 6.0%, Italy 5.6%, Russia 5.5% (1992)
Imports:
$15.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
fuels and power 17%, machinery 36%, chemicals 17%, food 8% (1992)
partners:
Germany 23.9%, Russia 8.5%, Italy 6.9%, UK 6.7% (1992)
External debt:
$47 billion (1993); note - Poland's Western government creditors
promised in 1991 to forgive 30% of Warsaw's $35 billion official debt
immediately and to forgive another 20% in 1994; foreign banks agreed
in early 1994 to forgive 45% of their $12 billion debt claim
Industrial production:
growth rate 7% (1993)
Electricity:
capacity:
31,530,000 kW
production:
137 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
3,570 kWh (1992)
Industries:
machine building, iron and steel, extractive industries, chemicals,
shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
Agriculture:
accounts for 7% of GDP and a much larger share of labor force; 75% of
output from private farms, 25% from state farms; productivity remains
low by European standards; leading European producer of rye, rapeseed,
and potatoes; wide variety of other crops and livestock; major
exporter of pork products; normally self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
illicit producers of opium for domestic consumption and amphetamines
for the international market; transshipment point for Asian and Latin
American illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
donor:
bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed countries (1954-89),
$2.2 billion
recipient:
Western governments and institutions have pledged $8 billion in grants
and loans since 1989, but most of the money has not been disbursed
Currency:
1 zloty (Zl) = 100 groszy
Exchange rates:
zlotych (Zl) per US$1 - 21,080 (January 1994), 18,115 (1993), 13,626
(1992), 10,576 (1991), 9,500 (1990), 1,439.18 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Poland, Communications

Railroads:
26,250 km total; 23,857 km 1.435-meter gauge, 397 km 1.520-meter
gauge, 1,996 km narrow gauge; 8,987 km double track; 11,510 km
electrified; government owned (1991)
Highways:
total:
360,629 km (excluding farm, factory and forest roads)
paved:
220,000 km (220 km of which are limited access expressways)
unpaved:
140,629 km (1988)
Inland waterways:
3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1991)
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,986 km; petroleum products 360 km; natural gas 4,600 km
(1992)
Ports:
Gdansk, Gdynia, Szczecin, Swinoujscie; principal inland ports are
Gliwice on Kanal Gliwicki, Wrocaw on the Oder, and Warsaw on the
Vistula
Merchant marine:
173 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,327,855 GRT/3,458,445 DWT,
bulk 89, cargo 57, chemical tanker 4, container 8, oil tanker 1,
passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8, short-sea passenger 5
note:
Poland owns 3 ships operating under Liberian registry
Airports:
total:
209
usable:

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