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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool
partners:
US 12%, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Netherlands
Imports:
$16 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and lubricants,
agricultural products
partners:
US 22%, Brazil, Germany, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands
External debt:
$73 billion (April 1994)
Industrial production:
growth rate 10% (1992 est.); accounts for 31% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
17,911,000 kW
production:
51.305 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,559 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles,
chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Agriculture:
accounts for 8% of GDP (including fishing); produces abundant food for
both domestic consumption and exports; among world's top five
exporters of grain and beef; principal crops - wheat, corn, sorghum,
soybeans, sugar beets
Illicit drugs:
increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for the
US and Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.4
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million
Currency:
1 nuevo peso argentino = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
pesos per US$1 - 0.99850 (January 1994), 0.99895 (1993), 0.99064
(1992), 0.95355 (1991), 0.48759 (1990), 0.04233 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Argentina, Communications

Railroads:
34,172 km total (includes 209 km electrified); includes a mixture of
1.435-meter standard gauge, 1.676-meter broad gauge, 1.000-meter
narrow gauge, and 0.750-meter narrow gauge
Highways:
total:
208,350 km
paved:
57,000 km
unpaved:
gravel 39,500 km; improved/unimproved earth 111,850 km
Inland waterways:
11,000 km navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural gas 9,918 km
Ports:
Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, La Plata, Rosario,
Santa Fe
Merchant marine:
57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 656,289 GRT/1,008,792 DWT, bulk
3, cargo 29, container 4, oil tanker 14, railcar carrier 1,
refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
Airports:
total:
1,649
usable:
1,394
with permanent-surface runways:
139
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
31
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
332
Telecommunications:
extensive modern system but many families do not have telephones;
2,650,000 telephones (12,000 public telephones); telephone density 78
per 1000 persons; microwave widely used; broadcast stations - 171 AM,
no FM, 231 TV, 13 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations;
domestic satellite network has 40 earth stations

@Argentina, Defense Forces

Branches:
Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast Guard only),
National Aeronautical Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 8,417,880; fit for military service 6,825,795; reach
military age (20) annually 292,725 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Armenia, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Asia, between Turkey and Azerbaijan
Map references:
Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States,
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
29,800 sq km
land area:
28,400 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 1,254 km, Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan (south) 221 km,
Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
violent and longstanding dispute with Azerbaijan over ethnically
Armenian exclave of Nagorno-Karabakh; traditional demands on former
Armenian lands in Turkey have greatly subsided
Climate:
highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Terrain:
high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing
rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Natural resources:
small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
Land use:
arable land:
17%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
60%
Irrigated land:
3,050 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; energy blockade, the
result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to deforestation as
citizens scavenge for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras
Rivers; the draining of Lake Sevan, a result of its use as a source
for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; air pollution in
Yerevan
natural hazards:
occasionally severe earthquakes (25,000 people killed in major quake
in 1988); subject to drought
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
landlocked

@Armenia, People

Population:
3,521,517 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.08% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
24.21 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.72 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
27.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.07 years
male:
68.65 years
female:
75.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.19 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Armenian(s)
adjective:
Armenian
Ethnic divisions:
Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Religions:
Armenian Orthodox 94%
Languages:
Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
1.578 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 34%, agriculture and forestry 31%, other 35%
(1992)

@Armenia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Armenia
conventional short form:
Armenia
local long form:
Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form:
Hayastan
former:
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic
Digraph:
AM
Type:
republic
Capital:
Yerevan
Administrative divisions:
none (all rayons are under direct republic jurisdiction)
Independence:
28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic); 23 September 1991 (from Soviet
Union)
National holiday:
Referendum Day, 21 September
Constitution:
adopted NA April 1978; post-Soviet constitution not yet adopted
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN (since 16 October 1991), Vice
President Gagik ARUTYUNYAN (since 16 October 1991); election last held
16 October 1991 (next to be held NA); results - Levon Akopovich
TER-PETROSYAN 86%; radical nationalists about 7%; note - Levon
Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN was elected Chairman of the Armenian Supreme
Soviet 4 August 1990 before becoming president
head of government:
Prime Minister Hrant BAGRATYAN (since 16 February 1993); First Deputy
Prime Minister Vigen CHITECHYAN (since 16 February 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Supreme Soviet:
elections last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (260 total) non-aligned 125, ANM
52, DPA 23, Democratic Liberal Party 17, ARF 17, NDU 9, Christian
Democratic Party 1, Constitutional Rights Union 1, UNSD 1, Republican
Party 1, Nagorno-Karabakh representatives 13
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Armenian National Movement (ANM), Ter-Husik LAZARYAN, chairman;
National Democratic Union (NDU), David VARTANYAN, chairman; Armenian
Revolutionary Federation (ARF, Dashnaktsutyun), Arutyun ALISTAKESYAN,
chairman; Democratic Party of Armenia (DPA; Communist Party), Aram
SARKISYAN, chairman; Christian Democratic Party, Azat ARSHAKYAN,
chairman; Greens Party, Hakob SANASARIAN, chairman; Democratic Liberal
Party, Rouben MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman; Republican Party, Ashot
NAVARSARDYAN, chairman; Union for Self-Determination (UNSD), Paruir
AIRIKYAN, chairman
Member of:
BSEC, CCC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO,
IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NACC, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Rouben Robert SHUGARIAN
chancery:
Suite 210, 1660 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 628-5766
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Harry J. GILMORE
embassy:
18 Gen Bagramian, Yerevan
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
7-8852-151-144 or 8852-524-661
FAX:
7-8852-151-138
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold

@Armenia, Economy

Overview:
Under the old central planning system, Armenia had built up a
developed industrial sector, supplying machine building equipment,
textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange
for raw materials and energy resources. Armenia is a large food
importer and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The
economic decline in the past three years (1991-93) has been
particularly severe due to the ongoing conflict over the Armenian
enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan and Turkey have
blockaded pipeline and railroad traffic to Armenia for its support of
the Karabakh Armenians. This has left Armenia with only sporadic
deliveries of natural gas through unstable Georgia, while other fuel
and raw materials are in critical short supply. Inflation, roughly 14%
per month in the first nine months of 1993, surged even higher in the
fourth quarter. In late 1993, most industrial enterprises were either
shut down or operating at drastically reduced levels. Only small
quantities of food were available (mostly humanitarian aid), heat was
nonexistent, and electricity strictly rationed. An economic recovery
cannot be expected until the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is settled and
until transportation through Georgia improves.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7.1 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Armenian statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-9.9% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,040 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
14% per month average (first 9 months, 1993)
Unemployment rate:
6.5% of officially registered unemployed but large numbers of
underemployed (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$31 million to countries outside the FSU (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, light industrial products,
processed food items, alcoholic products (1991)
partners:
NA
Imports:
$87 million from countries outside the FSU (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
grain, other foods, fuel, other energy (1991)
partners:
Russia, US, EC
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -11% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
2,875,000 kW
production:
9 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,585 kWh (1992)
Industries:
traditionally diverse, including (as a percent of output of former
USSR) metalcutting machine tools (5.5%), forging-pressing machines
(1.9%), electric motors (9%), tires (1.5%), knitted wear (4.4%),
hosiery (3.0%), shoes (2.2%), silk fabric (0.8%), washing machines
(2.0%), chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments, and microelectronics
(1990); currently, much of industry is shut down
Agriculture:
accounts for about 45% of GDP; only 17% of land area is arable;
employs 20%-30% of labor force as residents increasingly turn to
subsistence agriculture; fruits (especially grapes) and vegetable
farming, minor livestock sector; vineyards near Yerevan are famous for
brandy and other liqueurs
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; used
as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
considerable humanitarian aid, mostly food and energy products, from
US and EC; Russia has granted 60 billion rubles in technical credits
Currency:
1 dram = 100 luma; introduced separate currency in November 1993
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Armenia, Communications

Railroads:
840 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
total:
11,300 km
paved:
10,500 km
unpaved:
earth 800 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
natural gas 900 km (1991)
Ports:
none; landlocked
Airports:
total:
12
usable:
10
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
2
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
progress on installation of fiber optic cable and construction of
facilities for mobile cellular phone service remains in the
negotiation phase for joint venture agreement; Armenia has about
650,000 telephones; average telephone density is 17.7 per 100 persons;
international connections to other former republics of the USSR are by
landline or microwave and to other countries by satellite and by
leased connection through the Moscow international gateway switch;
broadcast stations - 100% of population receives Armenian and Russian
TV programs; satellite earth station - INTELSAT

@Armenia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border
troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 862,921; fit for military service 690,113; reach
military age (18) annually 28,458 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
250 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

@Aruba

Header
Affiliation:
(part of the Dutch realm)

@Aruba, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the southern Caribbean Sea, 28 km north of Venezuela and
125 km east of Colombia
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
193 sq km
land area:
193 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
68.5 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Natural resources:
negligible; white sandy beaches
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt
international agreements:
NA

@Aruba, People

Population:
65,545 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.65% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
14.95 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.12 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.43 years
male:
72.77 years
female:
80.27 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.82 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Aruban(s)
adjective:
Aruban
Ethnic divisions:
mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish
Languages:
Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
most employment is in the tourist industry (1986)

@Aruba, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Aruba
Digraph:
AA
Type:
part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in
1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles
Capital:
Oranjestad
Administrative divisions:
none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Independence:
none (part of the Dutch realm; in 1990, Aruba requested and received
from the Netherlands cancellation of the agreement to automatically
give independence to the island in 1996)
National holiday:
Flag Day, 18 March
Constitution:
1 January 1986
Legal system:
based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law
influence
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980), represented by
Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992)
head of government:
Prime Minister Nelson ODUBER (since 6 February 1989)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed with the advice and approval of the
legislature
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislature (Staten):
elections last held 8 January 1993 (next to be held by NA January
1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total) MEP
9, AVP 8, ADN 1, PPA 1, OLA 1, other 1
Judicial branch:
Joint High Court of Justice
Political parties and leaders:
Electoral Movement Party (MEP), Nelson ODUBER; Aruban People's Party
(AVP), Henny EMAN; National Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro
KELLY; New Patriotic Party (PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN; Aruban Patriotic
Party (PPA), Benny NISBET; Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo
BERLINSKI; Democratic Action '86 (AD '86), Arturo ODUBER; Organization
for Aruban Liberty (OLA), Glenbert CROES
note:
governing coalition includes the MEP, PPA, and ADN
Member of:
ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WTO
(associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
US diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Flag:
blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower
portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
hoist-side corner

@Aruba, Economy

Overview:
Tourism is the mainstay of the economy, although offshore banking and
oil refining and storage are also important. Hotel capacity expanded
rapidly between 1985 and 1989 and nearly doubled in 1990 alone.
Unemployment has steadily declined from about 20% in 1986 to about 3%
in 1991 and to less than 1% in 1992. The reopening of the local oil
refinery, once a major source of employment and foreign exchange
earnings, promises to give the economy an additional boost.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5% (1993)
National product per capita:
$17,400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.5% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
0.6% (1992)
Budget:
revenues:
$145 million
expenditures:
$185 million, including capital expenditures of $42 million (1988)
Exports:
$1.3 billion (including oil re-exports) (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
mostly petroleum products
partners:
US 64%, EC
Imports:
$1.6 billion including oil for processing and re-export (f.o.b., 1993
est.)
commodities:
food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products
partners:
US 8%, EC
External debt:
$81 million (1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
90,000 kW
production:
375 million kWh
consumption per capita:
6,000 kWh (1990 est.)
Industries:
tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining
Agriculture:
poor quality soils and low rainfall limit agricultural activity to the
cultivation of aloes, some livestock, and fishing
Illicit drugs:
drug money laundering center and transit point for narcotics bound for
the US and Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-89), $220 million
Currency:
1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate since 1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Aruba, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
note:
government-owned airport east of Oranjestad accepts transatlantic
flights
Telecommunications:
more than adequate; telephone density - 1,100 telephones per 1,000
persons; extensive interisland microwave radio relay links; 72,168
telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 1 submarine cable
to Saint Maarten

@Aruba, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of Australia)

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, in the Indian Ocean, 320 km off the northwest coast
of Australia, between Australia and Indonesia
Map references:
Oceania, Southeast Asia
Area:
total area:
5 sq km
land area:
5 sq km
comparative area:
about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
note:
includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier
Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
74.1 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploration
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
low with sand and coral
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (all grass and sand)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
surrounded by shoals and reefs
international agreements:
NA
Note:
Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are only seasonal caretakers

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
conventional short form:
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Digraph:
AT
Type:
territory of Australia administered by the Australian Ministry for the
Environment, Sport, and Territories
Capital:
none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
Legal system:
relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of Australia)

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the
Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

@Atlantic Ocean, Geography

Location:
body of water between the Western Hemisphere and Europe/Africa
Map references:
Africa, Antarctic Region, Arctic Region, Central America and the
Caribbean, Europe, North America, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
82.217 million sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than nine times the size of the US; second-largest of
the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than
Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)
note:
includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark
Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea,
Norwegian Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary water
bodies
Coastline:
111,866 km
International disputes:
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near
Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can
occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to
November
Terrain:
surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait,
and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre (broad,
circular system of currents) in the north Atlantic, counterclockwise
warm water gyre in the south Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by
the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire
Atlantic basin; maximum depth is 8,605 meters in the Puerto Rico
Trench
Natural resources:
oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and
gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious
stones
Environment:
current issues:
endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions,
turtles, and whales; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US,
southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean
Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea;
industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North
Sea, and Mediterranean Sea
natural hazards:
icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern
Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far
south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica
occur in the extreme southern Atlantic Ocean
international agreements:
NA
Note:
ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north Atlantic from
October to May and extreme south Atlantic from May to October;
persistent fog can be a hazard to shipping from May to September;
major choke points include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar,
access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the
Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound
(Oresund), and Windward Passage; north Atlantic shipping lanes subject
to icebergs from February to August; the Equator divides the Atlantic
Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

@Atlantic Ocean, Government

Digraph:
ZH

@Atlantic Ocean, Economy

Overview:
The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily
trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western
Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of
natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands (The
Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean Sea,
Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

@Atlantic Ocean, Communications

Ports:
Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona
(Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon
(Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland),
Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands,
Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille
(France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy), New
Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway), Piraeus
(Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam (Netherlands), Saint
Petersburg (formerly Leningrad; Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)
Telecommunications:
numerous submarine cables with most between continental Europe and the
UK, North America and the UK, and in the Mediterranean; numerous
direct links across Atlantic via INTELSAT satellite network
Note:
Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways

@Australia, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Oceania, between Indonesia and New Zealand
Map references:
Southeast Asia, Oceania, Antarctic Region, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
7,686,850 sq km
land area:
7,617,930 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than the US
note:
includes Macquarie Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
25,760 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)
Climate:
generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in
north
Terrain:
mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel,
tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
Land use:
arable land:
6%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
58%
forest and woodland:
14%
other:
22%
Irrigated land:
18,800 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization,
and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of
poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural
purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant
species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest
coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its
popularity as a tourist site; limited freshwater availability
natural hazards:
cyclones along the coast; subject to severe droughts
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Law of the Sea
Note:
world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population
concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular,
tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along
the west coast in the summer

@Australia, People

Population:
18,077,419 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.38% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
14.29 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
6.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.57 years
male:
74.45 years
female:
80.84 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Australian(s)
adjective:
Australian
Ethnic divisions:
Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, aboriginal and other 1%
Religions:
Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%
Languages:
English, native languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
8.63 million (September 1991)
by occupation:
finance and services 33.8%, public and community services 22.3%,
wholesale and retail trade 20.1%, manufacturing and industry 16.2%,
agriculture 6.1% (1987)

@Australia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Commonwealth of Australia
conventional short form:
Australia
Digraph:
AS
Type:
federal parliamentary state
Capital:
Canberra
Administrative divisions:
6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South
Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania,
Victoria, Western Australia
Dependent areas:
Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk
Island
Independence:
1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
National holiday:
Australia Day, 26 January (1788)
Constitution:
9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901
Legal system:
based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General William George HAYDEN (since 16 February 1989)
head of government:
Prime Minister Paul John KEATING (since 20 December 1991); Deputy
Prime Minister Brian HOWE (since 4 June 1991)
cabinet:
Cabinet; prime minister selects his cabinet from members of the House
and Senate
Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Parliament
Senate:
elections last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total)
Liberal-National 36, Labor 30, Australian Democrats 7, Greens 2,
independents 1
House of Representatives:
elections last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (147 total) Labor 80,
Liberal-National 65, independent 2
Judicial branch:
High Court
Political parties and leaders:
government:
Australian Labor Party, Paul John KEATING
opposition:
Liberal Party, John HEWSON; National Party, Timothy FISCHER;
Australian Democratic Party, Cheryl KERNOT; Green Party, leader NA
Other political or pressure groups:
Australian Democratic Labor Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter
group); Peace and Nuclear Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament
Party splinter group)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC,
COCOM, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, G-8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA,
SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM,
UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Donald RUSSELL
chancery:
1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 797-3000
FAX:
(202) 797-3168
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Pago Pago (American
Samoa), and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward PERKINS
embassy:
Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600
mailing address:
APO AP 96549
telephone:
[61] (6) 270-5000
FAX:
[61] (6) 270-5970
consulate(s) general:
Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney
consulate(s):
Brisbane
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the
remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation
in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger,
seven-pointed stars

@Australia, Economy

Overview:
Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a
per capita GDP comparable to levels in industrialized West European
countries. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of
agricultural products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. Primary
products account for more than 60% of the value of total exports, so
that, as in 1983-84, a downturn in world commodity prices can have a
big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased
exports of manufactured goods, but competition in international
markets continues to be severe. Australia has suffered from the low
growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD countries in the
early 1990s. In 1992-93 the economy recovered slowly from the
prolonged recession of 1990-91, a major restraining factor being weak
world demand for Australia's exports. Unemployment has hovered around
10% and probably will remain at that level in 1994 as productivity
gains rather than more jobs account for growth.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $339.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
4% (1993)
National product per capita:
$19,100 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.1% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
10% (December 1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$71.9 billion
expenditures:
$83.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93)
Exports:
$44.1 billion (1992)
commodities:
coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport
equipment
partners:
Japan 25%, US 11%, South Korea 6%, NZ 5.7%, UK, Taiwan, Singapore,
Hong Kong (1992)
Imports:
$43.6 billion (1992)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines,
crude oil and petroleum products
partners:
US 23%, Japan 18%, UK 6%, Germany 5.7%, NZ 4% (1992)
External debt:
$141.1 billion (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.9% (FY93); accounts for 32% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
40,000,000 kW
production:
150 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
8,475 kWh (1992)
Industries:
mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing,
chemicals, steel
Agriculture:
accounts for 5% of GDP and over 30% of export revenues; world's
largest exporter of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton, and
among top wheat exporters; major crops - wheat, barley, sugarcane,
fruit; livestock - cattle, sheep, poultry
Illicit drugs:
Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate
products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium
poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.4 billion
Currency:
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704
(1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Australia, Communications

Railroads:
40,478 km total; 7,970 km 1.600-meter gauge, 16,201 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 16,307 km 1.067-meter gauge; 183 km dual gauge; 1,130
km electrified; government owned (except for a few hundred kilometers
of privately owned track) (1985)
Highways:
total:
837,872 km
paved:
243,750 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 228,396 km; unimproved earth
365,726 km
Inland waterways:
8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km
Ports:
Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle, Geelong,
Hobart, Launceston, Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville
Merchant marine:
83 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,517,538 GRT/3,711,549 DWT,
bulk 30, cargo 8, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 2, container 7,
liquefied gas 5, oil tanker 18, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea
passenger 2, vehicle carrier 1
Airports:
total:
481
usable:
440
with permanent-surface runways:
241
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
268
Telecommunications:
good international and domestic service; 8.7 million telephones;
broadcast stations - 258 AM, 67 FM, 134 TV; submarine cables to New
Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; domestic satellite service;
satellite stations - 4 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 6 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations

@Australia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,885,574; fit for military service 4,239,459; reach
military age (17) annually 133,337 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $7.1 billion, 2.4% of GDP (FY92/93)

@Austria, Geography

Location:
Central Europe, between Germany and Hungary
Map references:
Africa, Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
83,850 sq km
land area:
82,730 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
total 2,496 km, Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km,
Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 262 km,
Switzerland 164 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in
lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers
Terrain:
in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and
northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Natural resources:
iron ore, petroleum, timber, magnesite, aluminum, lead, coal, lignite,
copper, hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
17%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
24%
forest and woodland:
39%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
40 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil
pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air
pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations
and industrial plants
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber,
Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the
Sea
Note:
landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe
with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is
the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of
steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

@Austria, People

Population:
7,954,974 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.45% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
11.38 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.34 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.65 years
male:
73.44 years
female:
80.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.48 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Austrian(s)
adjective:
Austrian
Ethnic divisions:
German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9%
Languages:
German
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1974 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
3.47 million (1989)
by occupation:
services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture and forestry
8.1%
note:
an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European
countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 6% of
labor force (1988)

@Austria, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Austria
conventional short form:
Austria
local long form:
Republik Oesterreich
local short form:
Oesterreich
Digraph:
AU
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
Vienna
Administrative divisions:
9 states (bundeslander, singular - bundesland); Burgenland, Karnten,
Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol,
Vorarlberg, Wien
Independence:
12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)
National holiday:
National Day, 26 October (1955)
Constitution:
1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)
Legal system:
civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative
acts by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative and
civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
19 years of age, universal; compulsory for presidential elections
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992); election last held 24
May 1992 (next to be held 1996); results of second ballot - Thomas
KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%
head of government:
Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986); Vice Chancellor
Erhard BUSEK (since 2 July 1991)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; chosen by the president on the advice of the
chancellor
Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung)
Federal Council (Bundesrat):
consists of 63 members representing each of the provinces on the basis
of population, but with each province having at least 3
representatives
National Council (Nationalrat):
elections last held 7 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994);
results - SPOE 43%, OEVP 32.1%, FPOE 16.6%, GAL 4.5%, KPOE 0.7%, other
3.1%; seats - (183 total) SPOE 80, OEVP 60, FPOE 33, GAL 10
Judicial branch:
Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for civil and criminal
cases, Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for bureaucratic
cases, Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for
constitutional cases
Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPOE), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman;
Austrian People's Party (OEVP), Erhard BUSEK, chairman; Freedom Party
of Austria (FPOE), Joerg HAIDER, chairman; Communist Party (KPOE),
Walter SILBERMAYER, chairman; Green Alternative List (GAL), Peter
PILZ, chairman; Liberal Forum (LF), Heidi SCHMIDT
Other political or pressure groups:
Federal Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Austrian Trade Union
Federation (primarily Socialist); three composite leagues of the
Austrian People's Party (OEVP) representing business, labor, and
farmers; OEVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists; Roman
Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN,
COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM
(guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNDOF, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNTAC, UNTSO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Helmut TUERK
chancery:
3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone:
(202) 895-6700
FAX:
(202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Swanee G. HUNT
chancery:
Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna
mailing address:
Unit 27937, Vienna
telephone:
[43] (1) 313-39
FAX:
[43] (1) 513-43-51
consulate(s) general:
Salzburg
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

@Austria, Economy

Overview:
Austria boasts a prosperous and stable socialist market economy with a
sizable but falling proportion of nationalized industry and extensive
welfare benefits. Thanks to its raw material endowment, a technically
skilled labor force, and strong links to German industrial firms,
Austria occupies specialized niches in European industry and services
(tourism, banking) and produces almost enough food to feed itself with
only 8% of the labor force in agriculture. Increased export sales
resulting from German unification, boosted Austria's economy through
1991, but Austria's GDP growth slowed to 2% in 1992 and -0.5% in 1993
due to the weak international economy, particularly in Germany - its
largest trading partner. GDP growth will resume slowly in 1994, with
estimates ranging from a 0.5% to a 1% increase. Unemployment has risen
to 7% as a result of the slowdown and will continue to rise in 1994.
Problems for the l990s include an aging population, the high level of
subsidies, and the struggle to keep welfare benefits within budgetary
capabilities. Austria's government has taken measures to make the
economy more liberal and open by introducing a major tax reform,
privatizing state-owned firms, and liberalizing cross-border capital
movements. Although it will face increased competition, Austria should
benefit from the continued opening of eastern European markets, as
well as the 1 January 1994 start of the European Economic Area which
extends the European Union rules on the free movement of people,
capital, and goods and services to four members (including Austria) of
the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Austria has concluded
membership negotiations with the European Union and is expected to
join in early 1995, thus broadening European economic unity. The
government, however, plans to hold a national referendum on the matter
on 12 June 1994; support for and opposition to membership appears
about equal.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $134.4 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
-0.5% (1993)
National product per capita:
$17,000 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.7% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$52.2 billion
expenditures:
$60.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$39.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber, textiles, paper
products, chemicals
partners:
EC 63.5% (Germany 38.9%), EFTA 9.0%, Eastern Europe/FSU 12.3%, Japan
1.5%, US 3.35% (1993)
Imports:
$48.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals,
textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
partners:
EC 66.8% (Germany 41.3%), EFTA 6.7%, Eastern Europe/FSU 7.5%, Japan
4.4%, US 4.4% (1993)
External debt:
$16.2 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -4.5% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
17,600,000 kW
production:
49.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
6,300 kWh (1992)
Industries:
foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals, electrical,
paper and pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles
Agriculture:
accounts for 3.2% of GDP (including forestry); principal crops and
animals - grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets, sawn wood, cattle,
pigs, poultry; 80%-90% self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan
route and Eastern Europe
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.4 billion
Currency:
1 Austrian schilling (S) = 100 groschen
Exchange rates:
Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 12.255 (January 1994), 11.632
(1993), 10.989 (1992), 11.676 (1991), 11.370 (1990), 13.231 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Austria, Communications

Railroads:
5,749 km total; 5,652 km government owned and 97 km privately owned
(0.760-, 1.435- and 1.000-meter gauge); 5,394 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge of which 3,154 km is electrified and 1,520 km is double tracked;
339 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge of which 84 km is electrified
Highways:
total:
95,412 km
paved:
21,812 km (including 1,012 km of autobahn)
unpaved:
mostly gravel and earth 73,600 km
Inland waterways:
446 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 554 km; petroleum products 171 km; natural gas 2,611 km
Ports:
Vienna, Linz (Danube river ports)
Merchant marine:
29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 158,724 GRT/259,594 DWT, bulk 3,
cargo 23, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2
Airports:
total:
55
usable:
55
with permanent-surface runways:
20
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
highly developed and efficient; 4,014,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 6 AM, 21 (545 repeaters) FM, 47 (870 repeaters) TV;
satellite ground stations for Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, and EUTELSAT systems

@Austria, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Flying Division)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,018,954; fit for military service 1,693,341; reach
military age (19) annually 48,710 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, 0.9% of GDP (1993)

@Azerbaijan, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Asia, between Armenia and Turkmenistan, bordering the
Caspian Sea
Map references:
Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian
States, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Middle
East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
86,600 sq km
land area:
86,100 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maine
note:
includes the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh
regions; regions' autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet
on 26 November 1991
Land boundaries:
total 2,013 km, Armenia (west) 566 km, Armenia (southwest) 221 km,
Georgia 322 km, Iran (south) 432 km, Iran (southwest) 179 km, Russia
284 km, Turkey 9 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
note:
Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)
Maritime claims:
NA
note:
Azerbaijani claims in Caspian Sea unknown; 10-nm fishing zone provided
for in 1940 treaty regarding trade and navigation between Soviet Union
and Iran
International disputes:
violent and longstanding dispute with ethnic Armenians of
Nagorno-Karabakh over its status, lesser dispute concerns Nakhichevan;
some Azerbaijanis desire absorption of and/or unification with the
ethnic Azeri portion of Iran
Climate:
dry, semiarid steppe
Terrain:
large, flat Kur-Araz Lowland (much of it below sea level) with Great
Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag (Karabakh) Upland in west;
Baku lies on Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula that juts into Caspian Sea
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Land use:
arable land:
18%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
25%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
53%
Irrigated land:
14,010 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
local scientists consider the Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula (including
Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most
devastated area in the world because of severe air, water, and soil
pollution; soil pollution results from the use of DDT as a pesticide
and also from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
natural hazards:
subject to drought; some coastal areas threatened by rising levels of
the Caspian Sea
international agreements:
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
landlocked

@Azerbaijan, People

Population:
7,684,456 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.41% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
23.04 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.58 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
34.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.85 years
male:
67.08 years
female:
74.8 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.7 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Azerbaijani(s)
adjective:
Azerbaijani
Ethnic divisions:
Azeri 82.7%, Russian 5.6%, Armenian 5.6%, Dagestani 3.2%, other 2.9%
(1989)
note:
Armenian share is now approximately 0.3% because most Armenians have
fled the ethnic violence since 1989 census; Russian percentage is
probably half what it was for the same reason
Religions:
Muslim 87%, Russian Orthodox 5.6%, Armenian Orthodox 5.6%, other 1.8%
Languages:
Azeri 82%, Russian 7%, Armenian 5%, other 6%
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
2.789 million
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction 26%, other 42%
(1990)

@Azerbaijan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Azerbaijani Republic
conventional short form:
Azerbaijan
local long form:
Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form:
none
former:
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
AJ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Baku (Baky)
Administrative divisions:
1 autonomous republic (avtomnaya respublika); Nakhichevan
(administrative center at Nakhichevan)
note:
all rayons except for the exclave of Nakhichevan are under direct
republic jurisdiction
Independence:
30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Novruz Bayram, 21-22 March
Constitution:
adopted NA April 1978; writing a new constitution mid-1993
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993 after President ELCIBEY
left Baku for Nakhichevan); election last held 3 October 1993 (next to
be held NA); results - Heydar ALIYEV won 97% of vote
head of government:
Prime Minister Surat HUSEYNOV (since 30 June 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and confirmed by the
Mejlas
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Milli Mejlis):
elections last held 30 September and 14 October 1990 for the Supreme
Soviet (next expected to be held NA 1994 for the National Assembly);
seats for Supreme Soviet - (360 total) Communists 280, Democratic Bloc
45 (grouping of opposition parties), other 15, vacant 20; note - on 19
May 1992 the Supreme Soviet was prorogued in favor of a Popular
Front-dominated National Council; seats - (50 total) Popular Front 25,
opposition elements 25
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Azerbaijan Popular Front (APF), Ebulfez ELCIBEY, chairman; Musavat
Party, Isa GAMBAR, chairman; National Independence Party, Etibar
MAMEDOV, chairman; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Araz ALIZADE,
chairman; Communist Party, Ramiz AKHMEDOV, chairman; People's Freedom
Party, Yunus OGUZ, chairman; Independent Social Democratic Party, Arif
YUNUSOV and Leila YUNOSOVA, cochairmen; New Azerbaijan Party, Heydar
ALIYEV, chairman; Boz Gurd Party, Iskander HAMIDOV, chairman;
Azerbaijan Democratic Party, Sardar MAMEDOV, chairman; Azerbaijan
Democratic Independence Party, Qabil HUSELNLI, chairman; Islamic Party
of Azerbaijan, Ali Akram, chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh
independence movement
Member of:
BSEC, CCC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO,
IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal Ogly PASHAYEV
chancery:
Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone:
(202) 842-0001
FAX:
(202) 842-0004
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard KAZLAURICH
embassy:
Hotel Intourist, Baku
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
7-8922-92-63-06 through 09, extension 441, 442, 446, 447, 448, 450
FAX:
Telex 142110 AMEMB SU
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent
and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

@Azerbaijan, Economy

Overview:
Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either Armenia or
Georgia, the other Transcaucasian states. It resembles the Central
Asian states in its majority Muslim population, high structural
unemployment, and low standard of living. The economy's most prominent
products are oil, cotton, and gas. Production from the Caspian oil and
gas field has been in decline for several years. With foreign
assistance, the oil industry might generate the funds needed to spur
industrial development. However, civil unrest, marked by armed
conflict in the Nagorno-Karabakh region between Muslim Azeris and
Christian Armenians, makes foreign investors wary. Azerbaijan
accounted for 1.5% to 2% of the capital stock and output of the former
Soviet Union. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the
ex-Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a
market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its
prospects somewhat. Old economic ties and structures have yet to be
replaced. A particularly galling constraint on economic revival is the
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, said to consume 25% of Azerbaijan's
economic resources.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $15.5 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Azerbaijani statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-13.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,040 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20% per month (average 1993); above 50% per month (February 1994)
Unemployment rate:
0.7% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of
underemployed workers (December 1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$355 million to outside the FSU countries (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles, cotton (1991)
partners:
mostly CIS and European countries
Imports:
$240 million from outside the FSU countries (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs, textiles (1991)
partners:
European countries
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -7% (1993)
Electricity:
capacity:
6,025,000 kW
production:
22,300 kWh
consumption per capita:
2,990 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment;
steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
iculture:
cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle,
pigs, sheep and goats
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
consumption; limited government eradication program; transshipment
point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
wheat from Turkey
Currency:
1 manat = 100 gopik
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:

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