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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Storting)
Storting:
elections last held on 13 September 1993 (next to be held September
1997); results - Labor 37.1%, Center Party 18.5%, Conservatives 15.6%,
Christian Peoples' 8.4%, Socialist Left 7.9%, Progress 6%, Left Party
3.6%, Red Electoral Alliance 1.2%; seats - (165 total) Labor 67,
Center Party 32, Consevatives 18, Christian Peoples' 13, Socialist
Left 13, Progress 10, Left Party 1, Red Electoral Alliance 1,
unawarded 10
Lagting:
Storting elects one-fourth of its member to upper house
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Hoyesterett)
Political parties and leaders:
Labor Party, Thorbjorn JAGLUND; Conservative Party, Jan PETERSEN;
Center Party, Anne ENGER LAHNSTEIN; Christian People's Party, Kjell
Magne BONDEVIK; Socialist Left, Eric SOLHEIM; Norwegian Communist,
Ingre IVERSEN; Progress Party, Carl I. HAGEN; Liberal, Odd Einar
DORUM; Finnmark List, leader NA; Left Party; Red Electoral Alliance
Member of:
AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE,
EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB,
NSG, OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WEU
(associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kjeld VIBE
chancery:
2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 333-6000
FAX:
(202) 337-0870
consulate(s) general:
Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco
consulate(s):
Miami
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Thomas A. LOFTUS
embassy:
Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo 2
mailing address:
PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone:
[47] 22-44-85-50
FAX:
[47] 22-43-07-77
Flag:
red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Norway, Economy

Overview:
Norway has a mixed economy involving a combination of free market
activity and government intervention. The government controls key
areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state
enterprises) and extensively subsidizes agriculture, fishing, and
areas with sparse resources. Norway also maintains an extensive
welfare system that helps propel public sector expenditures to
slightly more than 50% of the GDP and results in one of the highest
average tax burdens in the world (54%). A small country with a high
dependence on international trade, Norway is basically an exporter of
raw materials and semiprocessed goods, with an abundance of small- and
medium-sized firms, and is ranked among the major shipping nations.
The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum,
hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on
its oil sector to keep its economy afloat. Although one of the
government's main priorities is to reduce this dependency, this
situation is not likely to improve for years to come. The government
also hopes to reduce unemployment and strengthen and diversify the
economy through tax reform and a series of expansionary budgets. The
budget deficit is expected to hit a record 8% of GDP because of
welfare spending and bail-outs of the banking system. Unemployment
continues at record levels of over 10% - including those in job
programs - because of the weakness of the economy outside the oil
sector. Economic growth was only 1.6% in 1993, while inflation was a
moderate 2.3%. Oslo, a member of the European Free Trade Area, has
applied for membership in the European Union and continues to
deregulate and harmonize with EU regulations. Membership is expected
in early 1995.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $89.5 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
1.6% (1993)
National product per capita:
$20,800 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5.5% (excluding people in job-training programs; 1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$45.3 billion
expenditures:
$51.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)
Exports:
$32.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 40%, metals and products 10.6%, fish
and fish products 6.9%, chemicals 6.4%, natural gas 6.0%, ships 5.4%
partners:
EC 66.3%, Nordic countries 16.3%, developing countries 8.4%, US 6.0%,
Japan 1.8% (1993)
Imports:
$24.8 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
machinery and equipment 38.9%, chemicals and other industrial inputs
26.6%, manufactured consumer goods 17.8%, foodstuffs 6.4%
partners:
EC 48.6%, Nordic countries 25.1%, developing countries 9.6%, US 8.1%,
Japan 8.0% (1993)
External debt:
$6.5 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.2% (1992); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
26,900,000 kW
production:
111 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
25,850 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper
products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 3% of GDP and about 6% of labor force; among world's top
10 fishing nations; livestock output exceeds value of crops; over half
of food needs imported; fish catch of 1.76 million metric tons in 1989
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for drugs shipped via the CIS and Baltic states
for the European market
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion
Currency:
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates:
Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 7.4840 (January 1994), 7.0941
(1993), 6.2145 (1992), 6.4829 (1991), 6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Norway, Communications

Railroads:
4,223 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Norwegian State Railways (NSB)
operates 4,219 km (2,450 km electrified and 96 km double track); 4 km
other
Highways:
total:
88,800 km
paved:
38,580 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, earth 50,220 km
Inland waterways:
1,577 km along west coast; 2.4 m draft vessels maximum
Pipelines:
refined products 53 km
Ports:
Oslo, Bergen, Fredrikstad, Kristiansand, Stavanger, Trondheim
Merchant marine:
764 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,793,968 GRT/35,409,472 DWT,
bulk 159, cargo 92, chemical tanker 85, combination bulk 8,
combination ore/oil 28, container 17, liquefied gas 81, oil tanker
162, passenger 13, passenger-cargo 2, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated
cargo 13, roll-on/roll-off cargo 54, short-sea passenger 21, vehicle
carrier 28
note:
the government has created a captive register, the Norwegian
International Ship Register (NIS), as a subset of the Norwegian
register; ships on the NIS enjoy many benefits of flags of convenience
and do not have to be crewed by Norwegians; the majority of ships
(761) under the Norwegian flag are now registered with the NIS
Airports:
total:
103
usable:
102
with permanent-surface runways:
65
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
13
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
15
Telecommunications:
high-quality domestic and international telephone, telegraph, and
telex services; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 3,102,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 46 AM, 350 private and 143 government FM, 54
(2,100 repeaters) TV; 4 coaxial submarine cables; 3 communications
satellite earth stations operating in the EUTELSAT, INTELSAT (1
Atlantic Ocean), MARISAT, and domestic systems

@Norway, Defense Forces

Branches:
Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy, Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home
Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,119,405; fit for military service 932,438; reach
military age (20) annually 30,557 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $3.1 billion, 3.2% of GDP (1993)

@Oman, Geography

Location:
Middle East, along the Arabian Sea, between Yemen and the United Arab
Emirates
Map references:
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
212,460 sq km
land area:
212,460 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries:
total 1,374 km, Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km
Coastline:
2,092 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
to be defined
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
no defined boundary with most of UAE; Administrative Line with UAE in
far north; a treaty with Yemen defining the Omani-Yemeni boundary was
ratified in December 1992
Climate:
dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong
southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Terrain:
vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Natural resources:
petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum,
natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
less than 2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
93%
Irrigated land:
410 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; sparse natural
freshwater resources
natural hazards:
summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior
international agreements:
party to - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
strategic location with small foothold on Musandam Peninsula
controlling Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude
oil

@Oman, People

Population:
1,701,470 (July 1994 est.)
note:
Oman's first census was concluded in December 1993; preliminary
figures give a population of 2,000,000, of whom about 500,000 are
expatriate workers; final evaluative figures are not yet available
Population growth rate:
3.46% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
40.38 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.77 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
36.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.79 years
male:
65.9 years
female:
69.77 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.53 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Omani(s)
adjective:
Omani
Ethnic divisions:
Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan,
Bangladeshi)
Religions:
Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu
Languages:
Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
430,000 (est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 40% (est.)

@Oman, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Sultanate of Oman
conventional short form:
Oman
local long form:
Saltanat Uman
local short form:
Uman
Digraph:
MU
Type:
monarchy
Capital:
Muscat
Administrative divisions:
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 3 governorates (muhafazah, singular -
muhafazat); Masqat, Musandam, Zufar
Independence:
1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
National holiday:
National Day, 18 November (1940)
Constitution:
none
Legal system:
based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the
sultan; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
none
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970)
cabinet:
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Consultative Council
Judicial branch:
none; traditional Islamic judges and a nascent civil court system
Political parties and leaders:
none
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate Ahmad bin Muhammad al-RASBI
chancery:
2342 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 387-1980 through 1982
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador David J. DUNFORD
embassy:
address NA, Muscat
mailing address:
P. O. Box 202 Code No. 115, Muscat
telephone:
[968] 698-989
FAX:
[968] 604-316
Flag:
three horizontal bands of white (top, double width), red, and green
(double width) with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the
national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two
crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the
vertical band

@Oman, Economy

Overview:
Economic performance is closely tied to the fortunes of the oil
industry, including trends in international oil prices and the ability
of OPEC producers to agree on output quotas. Petroleum accounts for
more than 85% of export earnings, about 80% of government revenues,
and roughly 40% of GDP. Oman has proved oil reserves of 4 billion
barrels, equivalent to about 20 years' supply at the current rate of
extraction. Agriculture is carried on at a subsistence level and the
general population depends on imported food. The government is
encouraging private investment, both domestic and foreign, as a prime
force for further economic development.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $16.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$10,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$4.4 billion
expenditures:
$5.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1 billion (1994 est.)
Exports:
$5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
petroleum 87%, re-exports, fish, processed copper, textiles
partners:
UAE 30%, Japan 27%, South Korea 10%, Singapore 5% (1991)
Imports:
$3.7 billion (f.o.b, 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food,
livestock, lubricants
partners:
Japan 20%, UAE 14%, UK 19%, US 7% (1991)
External debt:
$3 billion (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 8.6% (1991); accounts for almost 60% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
1,142,400 kW
production:
5.1 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
3,200 kWh (1992)
Industries:
crude oil production and refining, natural gas production,
construction, cement, copper
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP and 40% of the labor force (including fishing);
less than 2% of land cultivated; largely subsistence farming (dates,
limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables, camels, cattle); not
self-sufficient in food; annual fish catch averages 100,000 metric
tons
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $137 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $148
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $797 million
Currency:
1 Omani rial (RO) = 1,000 baiza
Exchange rates:
Omani rials (RO) per US$1 - 0.3845 (fixed rate since 1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Oman, Communications

Highways:
total:
26,000 km
paved:
6,000 km
unpaved:
motorable track 20,000 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km
Ports:
Mina' Qabus, Mina' Raysut, Mina' al Fahl
Merchant marine:
1 passenger ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,442 GRT/1,320 DWT
Airports:
total:
138
usable:
130
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
9
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
74
Telecommunications:
modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radio
communications stations; limited coaxial cable; 50,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 7 TV; satellite earth stations - 2
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT, and 8 domestic

@Oman, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Royal Oman Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 382,793; fit for military service 217,755; reach
military age (14) annually 22,118 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.6 billion, 16% of GDP (1993 est.)

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the

Header
Affiliation:
(UN trusteeship administered by the US)

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 850 km southeast of
the Philippines
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
458 sq km
land area:
458 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,519 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
wet season May to November; hot and humid
Terrain:
about 200 islands varying geologically from the high, mountainous main
island of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large
barrier reefs
Natural resources:
forests, minerals (especially gold), marine products, deep-seabed
minerals
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to typhoons (June to December)
international agreements:
NA
Note:
includes World War II battleground of Peleliu and world-famous rock
islands; archipelago of six island groups totaling over 200 islands in
the Caroline chain

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the, People

Population:
16,366 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.81% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
22.54 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.61 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
25.07 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.01 years
male:
69.14 years
female:
73.02 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.91 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Palauan(s)
adjective:
Palauan
Ethnic divisions:
Palauans are a composite of Polynesian, Malayan, and Melanesian races
Religions:
Christian (Catholics, Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, the
Assembly of God, the Liebenzell Mission, and Latter-Day Saints),
Modekngei religion (one-third of the population observes this religion
which is indigenous to Palau)
Languages:
English (official in all of Palau's 16 states), Sonsorolese (official
in the state of Sonsoral), Angaur and Japanese (in the state of
Anguar), Tobi (in the state of Tobi), Palauan (in the other 13 states)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
92%
male:
93%
female:
91%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
NA

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
conventional short form:
none
note:
may change to Republic of Palau after independence; the native form of
Palau is Belau and is sometimes used incorrectly in English and other
languages
Digraph:
PS
Type:
UN trusteeship administered by the US
note:
constitutional government signed a Compact of Free Association with
the US on 10 January 1986, which was never approved in a series of
UN-observed plebiscites; until the UN trusteeship is terminated with
entry into force of the Compact, Palau remains under US administration
as the Palau District of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands;
administrative authority resides in the Department of the Interior and
is exercised by the Assistant Secretary for Territorial and
International Affairs through the Palau Office, Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands, J. Victor HOBSON Jr., Director (since 16 December
1990)
Capital:
Koror
note:
a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast in eastern
Babelthuap
Administrative divisions:
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 16 states: Aimeliik, Airai, Angaur,
Kayangel, Koror, Melekeok, Ngaraard, Ngardmau, Ngaremlengui, Ngatpang,
Ngchesar, Ngerchelong, Ngiwal, Peleliu, Sonsorol, Tobi
Independence:
the last polity remaining under the US-administered UN trusteeship
following the departure of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the
Federated States of Micronesia, and the Commonwealth of the Northern
Marianas from the trusteeship; administered by the Office of
Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of Interior
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 9 July (1979)
Constitution:
1 January 1981
Legal system:
based on Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal,
common, and customary laws
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Kuniwo NAKAMURA (since 1 January 1993), Vice-President Tommy
E. REMENGESAU Jr. (since 1 January 1993); election last held on 4
November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - Kuniwo
NAKAMURA 50.7%, Johnson TORIBIONG 49.3%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Olbiil Era Kelulau or OEK)
Senate:
elections last held 4 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (14 total);
number of seats by party NA
House of Delegates:
elections last held 4 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (16 total);
number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, National Court, Court of Common Pleas
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), SPC, SPF (observer)
Diplomatic representation in US:
trust territory of the UN administered by the US: Administrative
Officer Charles UONG, Palau Liaison Office, 444 North Capitol Street
NW, Suite 308, Washington, DC 20001
US diplomatic representation:
director:
US Liaison Officer Lloyd W. MOSS
liaison office:
US Liaison Office at Top Side, Neeriyas, Koror
mailing address:
P.O. Box 6028, Koror, PW 96940
telephone:
(680) 488-2920; (680) 488-2911
Flag:
light blue with a large yellow disk (representing the moon) shifted
slightly to the hoist side

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the, Economy

Overview:
The economy consists primarily of subsistence agriculture and fishing.
Tourism provides some foreign exchange, although the remote location
of Palau and a shortage of suitable facilities has hindered
development. The government is the major employer of the work force,
relying heavily on financial assistance from the US.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $31.6 million (1986)
note:
GDP numbers reflect US spending
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$2,260 (1986)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
20% (1986)
Budget:
revenues:
$6 million
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1986 est.)
Exports:
$500,000 (f.o.b., 1986)
commodities:
trochus (type of shellfish), tuna, copra, handicrafts
partners:
US, Japan
Imports:
$27.2 million (c.i.f., 1986)
commodities:
NA
partners:
US
External debt:
about $100 million (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
16,000 kW
production:
22 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,540 kWh (1990)
Industries:
tourism, craft items (shell, wood, pearl), some commercial fishing and
agriculture
Agriculture:
subsistence-level production of coconut, copra, cassava, sweet
potatoes
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.56 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $92
million
Currency:
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the, Communications

Highways:
total:
61 km
paved:
36 km
unpaved:
gravel 25 km
Ports:
Koror
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US and that will not change when
the UN trusteeship terminates if the Compact of Free Association with
the US goes into effect

@Pacific Ocean, Geography

Location:
body of water between the Western Hemisphere, Asia, and Australia
Map references:
Asia, North America, Oceania, South America, Standard Time Zones of
the World
Area:
total area:
165.384 million sq km
comparative area:
about 18 times the size of the US; the largest ocean (followed by the
Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean); covers about
one-third of the global surface; larger than the total land area of
the world
note:
includes Bali Sea, Bellingshausen Sea, Bering Sea, Bering Strait,
Coral Sea, East China Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of Tonkin, Java Sea,
Philippine Sea, Ross Sea, Savu Sea, Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk,
South China Sea, Tasman Sea, Timor Sea, and other tributary water
bodies
Coastline:
135,663 km
International disputes:
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the
summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the
land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow
from the Asian land mass back to the ocean
Terrain:
surface currents in the northern Pacific are dominated by a clockwise,
warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) and in the
southern Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool-water gyre; in the
northern Pacific sea ice forms in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk in
winter; in the southern Pacific sea ice from Antarctica reaches its
northernmost extent in October; the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific
is dominated by the East Pacific Rise, while the western Pacific is
dissected by deep trenches, including the world's deepest, the 10,924
meter Marianas Trench
Natural resources:
oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand and gravel aggregates,
placer deposits, fish
Environment:
current issues:
endangered marine species include the dugong, sea lion, sea otter,
seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in Philippine Sea and South
China Sea
natural hazards:
surrounded by a zone of violent volcanic and earthquake activity
sometimes referred to as the Pacific Ring of Fire; subject to tropical
cyclones (typhoons) in southeast and east Asia from May to December
(most frequent from July to October); tropical cyclones (hurricanes)
may form south of Mexico and strike Central America and Mexico from
June to October (most common in August and September); southern
shipping lanes subject to icebergs from Antarctica; occasional El Nino
phenomenon occurs off the coast of Peru when the trade winds slacken
and the warm Equatorial Countercurrent moves south, killing the
plankton that is the primary food source for anchovies; consequently,
the anchovies move to better feeding grounds, causing resident marine
birds to starve by the thousands because of their lost food source
international agreements:
NA
Note:
the major choke points are the Bering Strait, Panama Canal, Luzon
Strait, and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the Pacific
Ocean into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean; ships
subject to superstructure icing in extreme north from October to May
and in extreme south from May to October; persistent fog in the
northern Pacific from June to December is a hazard to shipping; dotted
with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in the southwestern
Pacific Ocean

@Pacific Ocean, Government

Digraph:
ZN

@Pacific Ocean, Economy

Overview:
The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the world economy and
particularly to those nations its waters directly touch. It provides
low-cost sea transportation between East and West, extensive fishing
grounds, offshore oil and gas fields, minerals, and sand and gravel
for the construction industry. In 1985 over half (54%) of the world's
fish catch came from the Pacific Ocean, which is the only ocean where
the fish catch has increased every year since 1978. Exploitation of
offshore oil and gas reserves is playing an ever-increasing role in
the energy supplies of Australia, NZ, China, US, and Peru. The high
cost of recovering offshore oil and gas, combined with the wide swings
in world prices for oil since 1985, has slowed but not stopped new
drillings.
Industries:
fishing, oil and gas production

@Pacific Ocean, Communications

Ports:
Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong, Los Angeles (US), Manila (Philippines),
Pusan (South Korea), San Francisco (US), Seattle (US), Shanghai
(China), Singapore, Sydney (Australia), Vladivostok (Russia),
Wellington (NZ), Yokohama (Japan)
Telecommunications:
several submarine cables with network nodal points on Guam and Hawaii

@Pakistan, Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, along the Arabian Sea, between India and Afghanistan
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
803,940 sq km
land area:
778,720 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total 6,774 km, Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km,
Iran 909 km
Coastline:
1,046 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
status of Kashmir with India; border question with Afghanistan (Durand
Line); water-sharing problems (Wular Barrage) over the Indus with
upstream riparian India
Climate:
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Terrain:
flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest;
Balochistan plateau in west
Natural resources:
land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality
coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use:
arable land:
26%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
64%
Irrigated land:
162,200 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution from untreated sewage, industrial wastes, and
agricultural runoff; water scarcity; a majority of the population does
not have access to safe drinking water; deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification
natural hazards:
frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and
west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear
Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note:
controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes
between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

@Pakistan, People

Population:
128,855,965 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.86% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
42.22 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
101.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
57.41 years
male:
56.79 years
female:
58.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.43 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Pakistani(s)
adjective:
Pakistani
Ethnic divisions:
Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from
India and their descendents)
Religions:
Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
Languages:
Urdu (official), English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite
and most government ministries), Punjabi 64%, Sindhi 12%, Pashtu 8%,
Urdu 7%, Balochi and other 9%
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
35%
male:
47%
female:
21%
Labor force:
28.9 million
by occupation:
agriculture 54%, mining and manufacturing 13%, services 33%, extensive
export of labor (1987 est.)

@Pakistan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form:
Pakistan
former:
West Pakistan
Digraph:
PK
Type:
republic
Capital:
Islamabad
Administrative divisions:
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan,
Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**,
North-West Frontier, Punjab, Sindh
note:
the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir
region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas
Independence:
14 August 1947 (from UK)
National holiday:
Pakistan Day, 23 March (1956) (proclamation of the republic)
Constitution:
10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977 restored with amendments, 30
December 1985
Legal system:
based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's
stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal; separate electorates and reserved
parliamentary seats for non-Muslims
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Sardar Farooq LEGHARI election last held on 13 November 1993
(next to be held no later than 14 October 1998); results - LEGHARI was
elected by Parliament and the four provincial assemblies
head of government:
Prime Minister Benazir BHUTTO
cabinet:
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora)
Senate:
elections last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1997);
results - seats (87 total) Pakistan People's Party (PPP) 22, Pakistan
Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction (PML/N) 17; Tribal Area
Representatives (nonparty) 8, Awami National Party (ANP) 6, Pakistan
Muslim League, Junejo faction (PML/J) 5, Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP) 5,
Mohajir Quami Movement, Altaf faction (MQM/A) 5, Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam,
Fazlur Rehman group (JUI/F) 2, Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party (PKMAP)
2, Jamaat-i-Islami (JI) 2, National People's Party (NPP) 2,
Balochistan National Movement, Hayee Group (BNM/H) 1, Balochistan
National Movement, Mengal Group (BNM/M) 1, Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan,
Niazi faction (JUP/NI) 1, Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction
(JUP/NO) 1, Jamiat-al-Hadith (JAH) 1, Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam,
Sami-ul-Haq faction (JUI/S) 1, Pakistan Muslim League, Functional
Group (PML/F) 1, Pakistan National Party (PNP) 1, independents 2,
vacant 1
National Assembly:
elections last held 6 October 1993 (next to be held by October 1998);
results - seats (217 total); Pakistan People's Party (PPP) 92;
Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction (PML/N) 75; Pakistan
Muslim League, Junejo faction (PML/J) 6; Islami-Jamhoori-Mahaz
(IJM-Islamic Democratic Front) 4; Awami National Party (ANP) 3;
Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party (PKMAP) 4; Pakistan Islamic Front (PIF)
3; Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP) 2; Mutaheda Deeni Mahaz (MDM) 2;
Balochistan National Movement, Hayee Group (BNM/H) 1; Balochistan
National Movement, Mengal Group (BNM/M) 1; National Democratic
Alliance (NDA) 1; National People's Party (NPP) 1; Pakhtun Quami Party
(PKQP) 1; Religious minorities 10 reserved seats; independents, 9;
results pending, 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Federal Islamic (Shari'at) Court
Political parties and leaders:
government:
Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Benazir BHUTTO; Pakistan Muslim League,
Junejo faction (PML/J), Hamid Nasir CHATTHA; National People's Party
(NPP), Ghulam Mustapha JATOI; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party (PKMAP),
Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI; Balochistan National Movement, Hayee Group
(BNM/H), Dr. HAYEE Baluch; National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Maulana
Kausar NIAZI; Pakhtun Quami Party (PKQP), Mohammed AFZAL Khan;
Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP), Akbar Khan BUGTI
opposition:
Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction (PML/N), Nawaz SHARIF;
Awami National Party (ANP), Khan Abdul WALI KHAN; Pakistan Islamic
Front (PIF), Qazi Hussain AHMED; Balochistan National Movement, Mengal
Group (BNM/M), Sardar Akhtar MENGAL; Mohajir Quami Movement, Altaf
faction (MQM/A); Jamaat-i-Islami (JI); Jamiat-al-Hadith (JAH)
frequently shifting:
Mutaheda Deeni Mahaz (MDM), Maulana Sami-ul-HAQ, the MDM includes
Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction (JUP/NI) and Anjuman
Sepah-i-Sahaba Pakistan (ASSP); Islami-Jamhoori-Mahaz (IJM-Islamic
Democratic Party), the IJM includes Jamiat Ulema-i-Islami, Fazlur
Rehman group (JUI/F); Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction
(JUP/NO); Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction (JUI/S); Pakistan
Muslim League, Functional Group (PML/F); Pakistan National Party (PNP)
note:
most Pakistani political groups are motivated primarily by opportunism
and political alliances can shift frequently
Other political or pressure groups:
military remains important political force; ulema (clergy),
landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
Member of:
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAS
(observer), OIC, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Maleeha LODHI
chancery:
2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-6205
FAX:
(202) 387-0484
consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John MONJO
embassy:
Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1048, PSC 1212, Box 2000, Unit 6220,Islamabad or APO AE
09812-2000
telephone:
[92] (51) 826161 through 79
FAX:
[92] (51) 214222
consulate(s) general:
Karachi, Lahore
consulate(s):
Peshawar
Flag:
green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious
minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are
centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are
traditional symbols of Islam

@Pakistan, Economy

Overview:
Pakistan is a poor Third World country faced with the usual problems
of rapidly increasing population, sizable government deficits, and
heavy dependence on foreign aid. In addition, the economy must support
a large military establishment. Rapid economic growth, averaging 5%-6%
over the past decade has helped Pakistan cope with these problems.
However, growth slumped to 3% in FY93 because of severe flooding,
which damaged the key export crop, cotton. Almost all agriculture and
small-scale industry is in private hands. In 1990, Pakistan embarked
on a sweeping economic liberalization program to boost foreign and
domestic private investment and lower foreign aid dependence. The
SHARIF government denationalized several state-owned firms and
attracted some foreign investment. Pakistan likely will have
difficulty raising living standards because of its rapidly expanding
population. At the current rate of growth, population would double in
25 years.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $239 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (FY93 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.7% (FY91)
Unemployment rate:
10% (FY91 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$9.4 billion
expenditures:
$10.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (1993
est.)
Exports:
$6.8 billion (f.o.b., FY92)
commodities:
cotton, textiles, clothing, rice, leather, carpets
partners:
US, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, UK
Imports:
$9.1 billion (f.o.b., FY92)
commodities:
petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, transportation equipment,
vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals
partners:
Japan, US, Germany, UK, Saudi Arabia
External debt:
$24 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.3% (FY92); accounts for 23% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
10,000,000 kW
production:
43 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
350 kWh (1992)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials,
clothing, paper products, shrimp
Agriculture:
22% of GDP, over 50% of labor force; world's largest contiguous
irrigation system; major crops - cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane,
fruits, vegetables; livestock products - milk, beef, mutton, eggs;
self-sufficient in food grain
Illicit drugs:
major illicit producer of opium and hashish for the international drug
trade; despite some success in reducing cultivation, remains world's
fourth largest opium producer (140 metric tons in 1993)
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.5 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $91
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.3 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $3.2 billion
note:
including Bangladesh prior to 1972
Currency:
1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa
Exchange rates:
Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1 - 30.214 (January 1994), 28.107
(1993), 25.083 (1992), 23.801 (1991), 21.707 (1990), 20.541 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Pakistan, Communications

Railroads:
8,773 km total; 7,718 km broad gauge, 445 km 1-meter gauge, and 610 km
less than 1-meter gauge; 1,037 km broad-gauge double track; 286 km
electrified; all government owned (1985)
Highways:
total:
110,677 km
paved:
58,677 km
unpaved:
gravel 23,000 km; improved earth 29,000 km (1988)
Pipelines:
crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 885 km; natural gas 4,044 km
(1987)
Ports:
Gwadar, Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim
Merchant marine:
30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 352,189 GRT/532,782 DWT, bulk 1,
cargo 25, oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 3
Airports:
total:
110
usable:
104
with permanent-surface runways:
75
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
30
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
43
Telecommunications:
the domestic telephone system is poor, adequate only for government
and business use; about 7 telephones per 1,000 persons; the system for
international traffic is better and employs both microwave radio relay
and satellites; satellite ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; broadcast stations - 19 AM, 8 FM, 29 TV

@Pakistan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard,
paramilitary/security forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 29,548,746; fit for military service 18,134,013; reach
military age (17) annually 1,391,258 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $3.0 billion, 5.7% of GNP (FY93/94)

@Palmyra Atoll

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

@Palmyra Atoll, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,600 km
south-southwest of Honolulu, almost halfway between Hawaii and
American Samoa
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
11.9 sq km
land area:
11.9 sq km
comparative area:
about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
14.5 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
equatorial, hot, and very rainy
Terrain:
low, with maximum elevations of about 2 meters
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
100%
other:
0%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation, coconut trees, and
balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall

@Palmyra Atoll, People

Population:
uninhabited

@Palmyra Atoll, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Palmyra Atoll
Digraph:
LQ
Type:
incorporated territory of the US; privately owned, but administered by
the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of
the Interior
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

@Palmyra Atoll, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Palmyra Atoll, Communications

Ports:
the main harbor is West Lagoon, which is entered by a channel on the
southwest side of the atoll; both the channel and harbor will
accommodate vessels drawing 6 meters of water; much of the road and
many causeways built during the war are unserviceable and overgrown
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1

@Palmyra Atoll, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

@Panama, Geography

Location:
Middle America, between Colombia and Costa Rica
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
78,200 sq km
land area:
75,990 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
total 555 km, Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km
Coastline:
2,490 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January),
short dry season (January to May)
Terrain:
interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains;
coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills
Natural resources:
copper, mahogany forests, shrimp
Land use:
arable land:
6%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
15%
forest and woodland:
54%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
320 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources;
deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note:
strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge
connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links
North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean

@Panama, People

Population:
2.63 million (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.94% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
24.61 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
16.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.88 years
male:
72.28 years
female:
77.62 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.85 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Panamanian(s)
adjective:
Panamanian
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 70%, West Indian 14%,
white 10%, Indian 6%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%
Languages:
Spanish (official), English 14%
note:
many Panamanians bilingual
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
88%
male:
88%
female:
88%
Labor force:
921,000 (1992 est.)
by occupation:
government and community services 31.8%, agriculture, hunting, and
fishing 26.8%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels 16.4%, manufacturing
and mining 9.4%, construction 3.2%, transportation and communications
6.2%, finance, insurance, and real estate 4.3%
note:
shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor

@Panama, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Panama
conventional short form:
Panama
local long form:
Republica de Panama
local short form:
Panama
Digraph:
PM
Type:
constitutional republic
Capital:
Panama
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 territory*
(comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera,
Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, Veraguas
Independence:
3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28
November 1821)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 November (1903)
Constitution:
11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983
Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the
Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Guillermo ENDARA (since 20 December 1989, elected 7 May
1989); First Vice President Guillermo FORD Boyd (since 24 December
1992); Second Vice President (vacant); election last held on 7 May
1989, annulled but later upheld; results - anti-NORIEGA coalition
believed to have won about 75% of the total votes cast
note:
a presidential election was held 8 May 1994 (next election to held on
9 May 1999) with inauguration of the successful candidates to take
place on 1 September 1994; results - President Ernesto PEREZ
BALLADARES Gonzales, First Vice President Tomas Altamirano DUQUE, and
Second Vice President Felipe VIRZI were elected; percent of vote for
president - BALLADARES 33%, DE GRUBER 29%, BLADES 17%
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional):
elections held on 27 January 1991; results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (67 total)
progovernment parties:
PDC 28, MOLIRENA 15, PA 8, PLA 4
opposition parties:
PRD 10, PALA 1, PL 1; note - the PDC went into opposition after
President Guillermo ENDARA ousted the PDC from the coalition
government in April 1991; an election of members of the National
Assembly was held on 8 May 1994 (next election to be held on 9 May
1999) and they will take their seats on 1 September 1994; results -
percent of vote and seats won by party NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia), 5 superior
courts, 3 courts of appeal
Political parties and leaders:
government alliance:
Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA), Alfredo RAMIREZ;
Authentic Liberal Party (PLA), Arnulfo ESCALONA; Arnulfista Party
(PA), Mireya MOSCOSO DE GRUBER
other parties:
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Raul OSSA; Democratic Revolutionary
Party (PRD), Gerardo GONZALEZ; Agrarian Labor Party (PALA), Nestor
Tomas GUERRA; Liberal Party (PL), Roberto ALEMAN Zubieta; Doctrinaire
Panamenista Party (PPD), Jose Salvador MUNOZ; Papa Egoro Movement,
Ruben BLADES; Civic Renewal Party (PRC), Tomas HERRERA; National
Integration Movement (MINA), Arrigo GUARDIA; National Unity Mission
Party (MUN), Jose Manuel PAREDES; Solidarity Party (CPS), Samuel LEWIS
GALINDO
note:
following the elections of 8 May 1994 the following realignment of
political parties took place
governing coalition:
Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), Gerardo GONZALEZ; Liberal
Republican Party (PLR), Rodolfo CHIARI; Labor Party (PALA), Carlos
Lopez GUEVARA; Solidarity Party (PS),Samuel LEWIS GALINDO
other parties:
Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA), Alfredo RAMIREZ;
Authentic Liberal Party (PLA), Arnulfo ESCOLONA; Arnulfista Party
(PA), Mireya Moscoso DE GRUBER; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Raul
OSSA; Liberal Party (PL), Roberto ALEMAN Zubieta; Papa Egoro Movement,
Ruben BLADES; Civic Renewal Party (PRC), Tomas HERRERA; National Unity
Mission Party (MUN), Jose Manuel PAREDES
Other political or pressure groups:
National Council of Organized Workers (CONATO); National Council of
Private Enterprise (CONEP); Panamanian Association of Business
Executives (APEDE); National Civic Crusade; Chamber of Commerce;
Panamanian Industrialists Society (SIP); Workers Confederation of the
Republic of Panama (CTRP)
Member of:
AG (associate), CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jaime FORD Boyd (to be replaced by Ambassador Ricardo
Alberto ARIAS on 1 September 1994)
chancery:
2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-1407
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San
Juan (Puerto Rico), Tampa,
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
Avenida Balboa and Calle 38, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5
mailing address:
American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945; APO AA 34002
telephone:
(507) 27-1777
FAX:
(507) 27-1964
Flag:
divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white
(hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain
red, the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a
red five-pointed star in the center

@Panama, Economy

Overview:
GDP expanded by roughly 5.9% in 1993, following growth of 8% in 1992;
banking and financial services led the way in 1993. The economy thus
continues to recover from the crisis that preceded the ouster of
Manuel NORIEGA, even though the government's structural adjustment
program has been hampered by a lack of popular support and a passive
administration. Public investment has been limited as the
administration has kept the fiscal deficit below 2% of GDP.
Unemployment and economic reform are the two major issues the new
government must face in 1994-95.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $11.6 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5.9% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
12.5% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.8 billion
expenditures:
$1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $200 million (1992
est.)
Exports:
$545 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
bananas 43%, shrimp 11%, sugar 4%, clothing 5%, coffee 2%
partners:
US 38%, EC, Central America and Caribbean
Imports:
$2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
capital goods 21%, crude oil 11%, foodstuffs 9%, consumer goods,
chemicals
partners:
US 35%, EC, Central America and Caribbean, Japan
External debt:
$6.1 billion (year-end 1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7% (1993 est.); accounts for about 9% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
1,584,000 kW
production:
4.36 trillion kWh
consumption per capita:
720 kWh (1992)
Industries:
manufacturing and construction activities, petroleum refining,
brewing, cement and other construction material, sugar milling
Agriculture:
accounts for 10% of GDP (1992 est.), 27% of labor force (1992); crops
- bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane; livestock; fishing; importer
of food grain, vegetables
Illicit drugs:
major cocaine transshipment point and drug money laundering center
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $516 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $582
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4 million
Currency:
1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos
Exchange rates:
balboas (B) per US$1 - 1.000 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Panama, Communications

Railroads:
238 km total; 78 km 1.524-meter gauge, 160 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
total:
8,530 km
paved:
2,745 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 3,270 km; improved, unimproved earth 2,515 km
Inland waterways:
800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama Canal
Pipelines:
crude oil 130 km
Ports:
Cristobal, Balboa, Colon
Merchant marine:
3,405 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 56,011,824 GRT/89,516,566
DWT, barge carrier 1, bulk 717, cargo 1,110, chemical tanker 181,
combination bulk 31, combination ore/oil 24, container 215, liquefied
gas 127, livestock carrier 9, multifunction large-load carrier 5, oil
tanker 437, passenger 22, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 287,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 67, short-sea passenger 30, specialized tanker
10, vehicle carrier 129
note:
all but 30 are foreign owned and operated; the top 4 foreign owners
are Japan 34%, Greece 8%, Hong Kong 7%, and Taiwan 5%; other foreign
owners include China at least 144 ships, Vietnam 3, Croatia 6, Cuba 4,
Cyprus 4, and Russia 41
Airports:
total:
118
usable:
109
with permanent-surface runways:
38
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
15
Telecommunications:
domestic and international facilities well developed; connection into
Central American Microwave System; 220,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 91 AM, no FM, 23 TV; 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite
ground stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

@Panama, Defense Forces

Branches:
Panamanian Public Forces (PPF) includes the National Police, Maritime
Service, National Air Service, Institutional Protective Service;
Judicial Technical Police operate under the control of Panama's
judicial branch
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 686,479; fit for military service 471,780
Defense expenditures:
expenditures for the Panamanian security forces amounted to $138.5
million, 1.0% of GDP (1993 est.)

@Papua New Guinea, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, just north of Australia, between Indonesia and the
Solomon Islands
Map references:
Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
461,690 sq km
land area:
451,710 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total 820 km, Indonesia 820 km
Coastline:
5,152 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon
(May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Natural resources:
gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil potential
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
71%
other:
28%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; pollution from mining projects
natural hazards:
some active volcanoes; frequent earthquakes
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber; signed, but
not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note:
shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest
swamps along southwest coast

@Papua New Guinea, People

Population:
4,196,806 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.31% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
33.5 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
63.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
56.43 years
male:
55.6 years
female:
57.31 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.65 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective:
Papua New Guinean
Ethnic divisions:
Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
Religions:
Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London
Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant sects 10%, indigenous
beliefs 34%
Languages:
English spoken by 1-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu spoken in
Papua region
note:
715 indigenous languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
52%
male:
65%
female:
38%
Labor force:
NA

@Papua New Guinea, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Independent State of Papua New Guinea
conventional short form:
Papua New Guinea
Digraph:
PP
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Port Moresby
Administrative divisions:
20 provinces; Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain,
East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National
Capital, New Ireland, Northern, North Solomons, Sandaun, Southern
Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain
Independence:
16 September 1975 (from UN trusteeship under Australian
administration)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
Constitution:
16 September 1975
Legal system:
based on English common law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Wiwa KOROWI (since NA November 1991)

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