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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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slightly larger than New York State
Land boundaries:
total 1,231 km, Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km
Coastline:
910 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
25-nm security zone (status of claim uncertain)
continental shelf:
not specified
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
territorial disputes with Colombia over the Archipelago de San Andres
y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; International Court of Justice
(ICJ) referred the maritime boundary question in the Golfo de Fonseca
to an earlier agreement in this century and advised that some
tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua
likely would be required
Climate:
tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands
Terrain:
extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior
mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes
Natural resources:
gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish
Land use:
arable land:
9%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
43%
forest and woodland:
35%
other:
12%
Irrigated land:
850 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
natural hazards:
subject to destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and
occasionally severe hurricanes
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

@Nicaragua, People

Population:
4,096,689 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.68% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
34.66 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.69 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
52.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
64.02 years
male:
61.18 years
female:
66.96 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.33 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Nicaraguan(s)
adjective:
Nicaraguan
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Indian 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant 5%
Languages:
Spanish (official)
note:
English- and Indian-speaking minorities on Atlantic coast
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population:
57%
male:
57%
female:
57%
Labor force:
1.086 million
by occupation:
services 43%, agriculture 44%, industry 13% (1986)

@Nicaragua, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Nicaragua
conventional short form:
Nicaragua
local long form:
Republica de Nicaragua
local short form:
Nicaragua
Digraph:
NU
Type:
republic
Capital:
Managua
Administrative divisions:
17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Boaco,
Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon,
Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, North Atlantic Coast Autonomous
Zone (RAAN), Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas, South Atlantic Coast
Autonomous Zone (RAAS)
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution:
9 January 1987
Legal system:
civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts
Suffrage:
16 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (since 25 April 1990); Vice
President Virgilio GODOY Reyes (since 25 April 1990); election last
held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held November 1996); results -
Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (UNO) 54.7%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN)
40.8%, other 4.5%
cabinet:
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional):
elections last held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held November
1996); results - UNO 53.9%, FSLN 40.8%, PSC 1.6%, MUR 1.0%; seats -
(92 total) UNO 41, FSLN 39, "Centrist" (Dissident UNO) 12
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling coalition:
National Opposition Union (UNO) is a 10-party alliance - moderate
parties: National Conservative Party (PNC), Silviano MATAMOROS Lacayo,
president; Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC), Jose Ernesto
SOMARRIBA, Arnold ALEMAN; Christian Democratic Union (UDC), Luis
Humberto GUZMAN, Agustin JARQUIN, Azucena FERREY, Roger MIRANDA,
Francisco MAYORGA; National Democratic Movement (MDN), Roberto URROZ;
National Action Party (PAN), Duilio BALTODANO; UNO - hardline parties:
Independent Liberal Party (PLI), Wilfredo NAVARRO,Virgilio GODOY
Reyes; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Guillermo POTOY, Alfredo CESAR
Aguirre, secretary general; Conservative Popular Alliance Party
(PAPC), Myriam ARGUELLO; Communist Party of Nicaragua (PCdeN), Eli
ALTIMIRANO Perez; Neo-Liberal Party (PALI), Adolfo GARCIA Esquivel
opposition parties:
Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), Daniel ORTEGA; Central
American Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca ROJAS; Democratic Conservative
Party of Nicaragua (PCDN), Jose BRENES; Liberal Party of National
Unity (PLUIN), Eduardo CORONADO; Movement of Revolutionary Unity
(MUR), Francisco SAMPER; Social Christian Party (PSC), Erick RAMIREZ;
Revolutionary Workers' Party (PRT), Bonifacio MIRANDA; Social
Conservative Party (PSOC), Fernando AGUERRO; Popular Action Movement -
Marxist-Leninist (MAP-ML), Isidro TELLEZ; Popular Social Christian
Party (PPSC), Mauricio DIAZ
Other political or pressure groups:
National Workers Front (FNT) is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight
labor unions: Sandinista Workers' Central (CST); Farm Workers
Association (ATC); Health Workers Federation (FETASALUD); National
Union of Employees (UNE); National Association of Educators of
Nicaragua (ANDEN); Union of Journalists of Nicaragua (UPN); Heroes and
Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations (CONAPRO); and the
National Union of Farmers and Ranchers (UNAG); Permanent Congress of
Workers (CPT) is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor
unions: Confederation of Labor Unification (CUS); Autonomous
Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN-A); Independent General Confederation
of Labor (CGT-I); and Labor Action and Unity Central (CAUS);
Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN) is an independent labor union;
Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is a confederation of
business groups
Member of:
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU,
LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roberto MAYORGA Cortes
chancery:
1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 939-6570
consulate(s) general:
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John MAISTO
embassy:
Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur., Managua
mailing address:
APO AA 34021
telephone:
[505] (2) 666010 or 666013, 666015 through 18, 666026, 666027, 666032
through 34
FAX:
[505] (2) 666046
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on
the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El
Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words
REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white
band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars
arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

@Nicaragua, Economy

Overview:
Since March 1991, when President CHAMORRO began an ambitious economic
stabilization program, Nicaragua has had considerable success in
reducing inflation and obtaining substantial economic aid from abroad.
Annual inflation fell from more than 750% in 1991 to less than 5% in
1992. Inflation rose again to an estimated 20% in 1993, although this
increase was due almost entirely to a large currency devaluation in
January. As of early 1994, the government was close to finalizing an
enhanced structural adjustment facility with the IMF, after the
previous standby facility expired in early 1993. Despite these
successes, achieving overall economic growth in an economy scarred by
misguided economic values and civil war during the 1980s has proved
elusive. Economic growth was flat in 1992 and slightly negative in
1993. Nicaragua's per capita foreign debt is one of the highest in the
world; nonetheless, as of late 1993, Nicaragua was current on its
post-1988 debt as well as on payments to the international financial
institutions. Definition of property rights remains a problem;
ownership disputes over large tracts of land, businesses, and homes
confiscated by the previous government have yet to be resolved.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-0.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
13%; underemployment 50% (1991)
Budget:
revenues:
$375 million (1992)
expenditures:
$410 million (1992), including capital expenditures of $115 million
(1991 est.)
Exports:
$228 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
foodstuffs, cotton, coffee, chemicals
partners:
EC 26%, US 26%, Japan, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico (1992)
Imports:
$907 million (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
petroleum, food, chemicals, machinery, clothing
partners:
US 26%, Venezuela, Costa Rica, EC, Guatemala (1992)
External debt:
$10.5 billion ( 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for 20-25% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
434,000 kW
production:
1.118 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
290 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles, clothing,
petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear
Agriculture:
crops account for about 15% of GDP; export crops - coffee, bananas,
sugarcane, cotton; food crops - rice, corn, cassava, citrus fruit,
beans; also produces a variety of animal products - beef, veal, pork,
poultry, dairy products; normally self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-92), $620 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$1.381 billion
Currency:
1 gold cordoba (C$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
gold cordobas (C$) per US$1 - 6 (10 January 1993), 5 (1992); note -
gold cordoba replaced cordoba as Nicaragua's currency in 1991
(exchange rate of old cordoba had reached per US$1 - 25,000,000 by
March 1992)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Nicaragua, Communications

Railroads:
373 km 1.067-meter narrow gauge, government owned; majority of system
not operating; 3 km 1.435-meter gauge line at Puerto Cabezas (does not
connect with mainline)
Highways:
total:
25,930 km
paved:
4,000 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 2,170 km; graded earth 5,425 km; unimproved
earth 14,335 km
Pan-American highway:
368.5 km (not in total)
Inland waterways:
2,220 km, including 2 large lakes
Pipelines:
crude oil 56 km
Ports:
Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino, Rama
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,161 GRT/2,500 DWT
Airports:
total:
208
usable:
149
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
13
Telecommunications:
low-capacity radio relay and wire system being expanded; connection
into Central American Microwave System; 60,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 45 AM, no FM, 7 TV, 3 shortwave; earth stations - 1
Intersputnik and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

@Nicaragua, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 946,177; fit for military service 582,669; reach
military age (18) annually 45,555 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $43.0 million, 1.6% of GDP (1992)

@Niger, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, between Algeria and Nigeria
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1.267 million sq km
land area:
1,266,700 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,697 km, Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina 628 km, Chad
1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern Niger; demarcation of
international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to
border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; Burkina and Mali are proceeding
with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger
Climate:
desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrain:
predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in
south; hills in north
Natural resources:
uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
2%
other:
88%
Irrigated land:
320 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife
populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, and lion) threatened
because of poaching and habitat destruction
natural hazards:
recurrent droughts
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
landlocked

@Niger, People

Population:
8,971,605 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.36% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
54.95 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
21.32 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
111 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
44.61 years
male:
43.01 years
female:
46.26 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.35 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Nigerien(s)
adjective:
Nigerien
Ethnic divisions:
Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%,
Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 4,000 French expatriates
Religions:
Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians
Languages:
French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
28%
male:
40%
female:
17%
Labor force:
2.5 million wage earners (1982)
by occupation:
agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government 4%
note:
51% of population of working age (1985)

@Niger, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Niger
conventional short form:
Niger
local long form:
Republique du Niger
local short form:
Niger
Digraph:
NG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Niamey
Administrative divisions:
7 departments (departements, singular - departement); Agadez, Diffa,
Dosso, Maradi, Niamey, Tahoua, Zinder
Independence:
3 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Republic Day, 18 December (1958)
Constitution:
approved by national referendum 16 December 1992; promulgated January
1993
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Mahamane OUSMANE (since 16 April 1993)
head of government:
Prime Minister Mahamadou ISSOUFOU (since 17 April 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime
minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly:
elected by proportional representation for 5 year terms; elections
last held 14 February 1993 (next election NA 1998); seats - (83 total)
MNSD 29, CDS 22, PNDS 13, ANDP-Z 11, UPDP 2, PPN/RDA 2, UDFP 2, PSDN
1, UDPS 1
Judicial branch:
State Court (Cour d'Etat), Court of Appeal (Cour d'Apel)
Political parties and leaders:
National Movement of the Development Society (MNSD-NASSARA), Kada
LABO, General Secretary; Democratic and Social Convention - Rahama
(CDS- Rahama), Mahamane OUSMANE; Nigerien Party for Democracy and
Socialism (PNDS), Mahamadou ISSOUFOU; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy
and Progress - Zamanlahia (ANDP-Z), Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE; Union
of Patriots, Democrats, and Progressives (UPDP), Andre SALIFOU; Niger
Progressive Party - African Democratic Rally (PPN-RDA), Harou KOUKA;
Niger Social Democrat Party (PADN), Malam Adji WAZIRI; Union for
Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS), Akoli DAOUEL
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Adamou SEYDOU
chancery:
2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-4224 through 4227
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John DAVISON
embassy:
Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address:
B. P. 11201, Niamey
telephone:
[227] 72-26-61 through 64
FAX:
[227] 73-31-67
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a
small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band;
similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered
in the white band

@Niger, Economy

Overview:
Niger's economy is centered on subsistence agriculture, animal
husbandry, and re-export trade, and increasingly less on uranium, its
major export throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Uranium revenues dropped
by almost 50% between 1983 and 1990. Terms of trade with Nigeria,
Niger's largest regional trade partner, have improved dramatically
since the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994; this
devaluation boosted exports of livestock, peas, onions, and the
products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on
bilateral and multilateral aid for operating expenses and public
investment, and is strongly induced to adhere to structural adjustment
programs designed by the IMF and the World Bank.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $5.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.9% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$650 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$193 million
expenditures:
$355 million, including capital expenditures of $106 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$294 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
uranium ore 60%, livestock products 20%, cowpeas, onions
partners:
France 77%, Nigeria 8%, Cote d'Ivoire, Italy
Imports:
$346 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
primary materials, machinery, vehicles and parts, electronic
equipment, cereals, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, chemical
products, foodstuffs
partners:
Germany 26%, Cote d'Ivoire 11%, France 5%, Italy 4%, Nigeria 2%
External debt:
$1.2 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -2.7% (1991 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
105,000 kW
production:
230 million kWh
consumption per capita:
30 kWh (1991)
Industries:
cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses,
and a few other small light industries; uranium mining began in 1971
Agriculture:
accounts for roughly 40% of GDP and 90% of labor force; cash crops -
cowpeas, cotton, peanuts; food crops - millet, sorghum, cassava, rice;
livestock - cattle, sheep, goats; self-sufficient in food except in
drought years
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $380 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$3.165 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $504 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $61 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
the official rate is pegged to the French franc, and beginning 12
January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc
from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

@Niger, Communications

Highways:
total:
39,970 km
paved:
bituminous 3,170 km
unpaved:
gravel, laterite 10,330 km; earth 3,470 km; tracks 23,000 km
Inland waterways:
Niger River is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin
frontier from mid-December through March
Airports:
total:
30
usable:
28
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
14
Telecommunications:
small system of wire, radiocommunications, and radio relay links
concentrated in southwestern area; 14,260 telephones; broadcast
stations - 15 AM, 5 FM, 18 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 3 domestic, with 1
planned

@Niger, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, National Police, Republican Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,845,374; fit for military service 994,683; reach
military age (18) annually 91,595 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $27 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989)

@Nigeria, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Benin and
Cameroon
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
923,770 sq km
land area:
910,770 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total 4,047 km, Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger
1,497 km
Coastline:
853 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
30 nm
International disputes:
demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of
which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and
awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; boundary
commission, created with Cameroon to discuss unresolved land and
maritime boundaries, has not yet convened, but a commission was formed
January 1994 to study a flare-up of the dispute
Climate:
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrain:
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in
southeast, plains in north
Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc,
natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
31%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
23%
forest and woodland:
15%
other:
28%
Irrigated land:
8,650 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; desertification; recent
droughts in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities
natural hazards:
periodic droughts
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change

@Nigeria, People

Population:
98,091,097 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.15% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
43.52 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.43 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
75 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
55.33 years
male:
54.11 years
female:
56.59 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.37 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Nigerian(s)
adjective:
Nigerian
Ethnic divisions:
north:
Hausa and Fulani
southwest:
Yoruba
southeast:
Ibos
non-Africans 27,000
note:
Hausa and Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibos together make up 65% of population
Religions:
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Languages:
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
51%
male:
62%
female:
40%
Labor force:
42.844 million
by occupation:
agriculture 54%, industry, commerce, and services 19%, government 15%
note:
49% of population of working age (1985)

@Nigeria, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form:
Nigeria
Digraph:
NI
Type:
military government since 31 December 1983; plans to institute a
constitutional conference to prepare for a new transition to civilian
rule after plans for a transition in 1993 were negated by General
BABANGIDA
Capital:
Abuja
note:
on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially moved from Lagos to
Abuja; many government offices remain in Lagos pending completion of
facilities in Abuja
Administrative divisions:
30 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Abuja Capital Territory*, Adamawa,
Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Edo,
Enugu, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos,
Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe
Independence:
1 October 1960 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 October (1960)
Constitution:
1979 constitution still in force; plan for 1989 constitution to take
effect in 1993 was not implemented
Legal system:
based on English common law, Islamic law, and tribal law
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council and Commander in Chief of
Armed Forces and Defense Minister Gen. Sani ABACHA (since 17 November
1993); Vice-Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council Oladipo DIYA
(since 17 November 1993)
cabinet:
Federal Executive Council
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly
Senate:
suspended after coup of 17 November 1993
House of Representatives:
suspended after coup of 17 November 1993
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Federal Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
note:
two political party system suspended after the coup of 17 November
1993
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMO, IMF, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, OIC
(observer), OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Zubair Mahmud KAZAURE
chancery:
1333 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 986-8400
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Walter CARRINGTON
embassy:
2 Eleke Crescent, Lagos
mailing address:
P. O. Box 554, Lagos
telephone:
[234] (1) 610050
FAX:
[234] (1) 610257
consulate(s) general:
Kaduna
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green

@Nigeria, Economy

Overview:
The oil-rich Nigerian economy continues to be hobbled by poor
macroeconomic management that has resulted in an average annual
inflation rate of 60%, a growing foreign debt, and a worsening balance
of payments. A deepening political crisis in 1993 has compounded the
government's failure to reign in deficit spending, which prevents it
from reaching an agreement with the IMF and its bilateral creditors on
debt relief. Investment in both oil and non-oil sector industry has
been undermined by corruption and squandered on white elephant
projects that have failed to generate diversification or new
employment.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $95.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.1% (1992)
National product per capita:
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
60% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
28% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$9 billion
expenditures:
$10.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$11.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
oil 95%, cocoa, rubber
partners:
US 54%, EC 23%
Imports:
$8.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, manufactured goods, food and animals
partners:
EC 64%, US 10%, Japan 7%
External debt:
$29.5 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.7% (1991); accounts for 43% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
4,740,000 kW
production:
8.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
70 kWh (1991)
Industries:
crude oil and mining - coal, tin, columbite; primary processing
industries - palm oil, peanut, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins;
manufacturing industries - textiles, cement, building materials, food
products, footwear, chemical, printing, ceramics, steel
Agriculture:
accounts for 35% of GDP and half of labor force; inefficient
small-scale farming dominates; once a large net exporter of food and
now an importer; cash crops - cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, rubber; food
crops - corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava, yams; livestock -
cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; fishing and forestry resources extensively
exploited
Illicit drugs:
passenger and cargo air hub for West Africa; facilitates movement of
heroin en route from Southeast and Southwest Asia to Western Europe
and North America; increasingly a transit route for cocaine from South
America intended for West European, East Asian, and North American
markets
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $705 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.2 billion
Currency:
1 naira (N) = 100 kobo
Exchange rates:
naira (N) per US$1 - 21.886 (November 1993), 17.298 (1992), 9.909
(1991), 8.038 (1990), 7.3647 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Nigeria, Communications

Railroads:
3,505 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways:
total:
107,990 km
paved:
mostly bituminous-surface treatment 30,019 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 25,411 km; unimproved earth
52,560 km
Inland waterways:
8,575 km consisting of Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and
creeks
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,042 km; petroleum products 3,000 km; natural gas 500 km
Ports:
Lagos, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Warri, Onne, Sapele
Merchant marine:
33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 432,704 GRT/686,718 DWT, bulk 1,
cargo 18, chemical tanker 3, liquified gas 1, oil tanker 9,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
Airports:
total:
80
usable:
67
with permanent-surface runways:
34
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
15
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
21
Telecommunications:
above-average system limited by poor maintenance; major expansion in
progress; radio relay microwave and cable routes; broadcast stations -
35 AM, 17 FM, 28 TV; satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 20 domestic stations; 1 coaxial
submarine cable

@Nigeria, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 22,468,803; fit for military service 12,840,029; reach
military age (18) annually 986,518 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $172 million, about 1% of GDP (1992)

@Niue

Header
Affiliation:
(free association with New Zealand)

@Niue, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia, 460 km east of Tonga in the South Pacific Ocean
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
260 sq km
land area:
260 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
64 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds
Terrain:
steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau
Natural resources:
fish, arable land
Land use:
arable land:
61%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
19%
other:
12%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to typhoons
international agreements:
signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note:
one of world's largest coral islands

@Niue, People

Population:
1,906 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.66% (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Niuean(s)
adjective:
Niuean
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian (with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and Tongans)
Religions:
Ekalesia Nieue (Niuean Church) 75% - a Protestant church closely
related to the London Missionary Society, Morman 10%, other 15%
(mostly Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Languages:
Polynesian closely related to Tongan and Samoan, English
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1,000 (1981 est.)
by occupation:
most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in government
service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board

@Niue, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Niue
Digraph:
NE
Type:
self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand; Niue
fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains
responsibility for external affairs
Capital:
Alofi
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
19 October 1974 (became a self-governing territory in free association
with New Zealand on 19 October 1974)
National holiday:
Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established
British sovereignty)
Constitution:
19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)
Legal system:
English common law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by New Zealand
Representative Kurt MEYER (since NA)
head of government:
Premier Frank F. LUI (since 12 March 1993; Acting Premier since
December 1992)
cabinet:
Cabinet; consists of the premier and three other ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Assembly:
elections last held on 6 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1996); results
- percent of vote NA; seats - (20 total, 6 elected)
Judicial branch:
Appeal Court of New Zealand, High Court
Political parties and leaders:
Niue Island Party (NIP), Young VIVIAN
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), INTELSAT (signatory user), SPARTECA, SPC, SPF
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
US diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
Flag:
yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the
flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars - a large one on a
blue disk in the center and a smaller one on each arm of the bold red
cross

@Niue, Economy

Overview:
The economy is heavily dependent on aid from New Zealand. Government
expenditures regularly exceed revenues, with the shortfall made up by
grants from New Zealand - the grants are used to pay wages to public
employees. The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence
gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export. Industry
consists primarily of small factories to process passion fruit, lime
oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign
collectors is an important source of revenue. The island in recent
years has suffered a serious loss of population because of migration
of Niueans to New Zealand.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $2.1 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$1,000 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.6% (1984)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$5.5 million
expenditures:
$6.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1985 est.)
Exports:
$175,274 (f.o.b., 1985)
commodities:
canned coconut cream, copra, honey, passion fruit products, pawpaw,
root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts
partners:
NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia
Imports:
$3.8 million (c.i.f., 1985)
commodities:
food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants,
chemicals, drugs
partners:
NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Western Samoa, Australia, US
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
1,500 kW
production:
3 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,490 kWh (1990)
Industries:
tourist, handicrafts, coconut products
Agriculture:
coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes; subsistence crops - taro, yams,
cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $62 million
Currency:
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.7771 (January 1994), 1.8495
(1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Niue, Communications

Highways:
total:
229 km
unpaved:
all-weather 123 km; plantation access 106 km
Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
single-line telephone system connects all villages on island; 383
telephones; 1,000 radio receivers (1987 est.); broadcast stations - 1
AM, 1 FM, no TV

@Niue, Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

@Norfolk Island

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of Australia)

@Norfolk Island, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Oceania, 1,575 km east of Australia in the South Pacific
Ocean
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
34.6 sq km
land area:
34.6 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
32 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
25%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
75%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to typhoons (especially May to July)
international agreements:
NA

@Norfolk Island, People

Population:
2,710 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.7% (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Norfolk Islander(s)
adjective:
Norfolk Islander(s)
Ethnic divisions:
descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New Zealander
Religions:
Anglican 39%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in Australia 16.4%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 4.4%, none 9.2%, unknown 16.9%, other 2.4%
(1986)
Languages:
English (official), Norfolk a mixture of 18th century English and
ancient Tahitian
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

@Norfolk Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of Norfolk Island
conventional short form:
Norfolk Island
Digraph:
NF
Type:
territory of Australia
Capital:
Kingston (administrative center); Burnt Pine (commercial center)
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
National holiday:
Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June (1856)
Constitution:
Norfolk Island Act of 1979
Legal system:
wide legislative and executive responsibility under the Norfolk Island
Act of 1979; Supreme Court
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by
Administrator A. G. KERR (since NA April 1992), who is appointed by
the Governor General of Australia
head of government:
Assembly President David Ernest BUFFETT (since NA May 1992)
cabinet:
Executive Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Assembly:
elections last held 1989 (held every three years); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total) percent of seats by party NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a
large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider
white band

@Norfolk Island, Economy

Overview:
The primary economic activity is tourism, which has brought a level of
prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific Islands. The
number of visitors has increased steadily over the years and reached
29,000 in FY89. Revenues from tourism have given the island a
favorable balance of trade and helped the agricultural sector to
become self-sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$4.2 million, including capital expenditures of $400,000 (1989 est.)
Exports:
$1.7 million (f.o.b., FY86)
commodities:
postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm,
small quantities of avocados
partners:
Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe
Imports:
$15.6 million (c.i.f., FY86)
commodities:
NA
partners:
Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
7,000 kW
production:
8 million kWh
consumption per capita:
3,160 kWh (1990)
Industries:
tourism
Agriculture:
Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables,
fruit, cattle, poultry
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704
(1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Norfolk Island, Communications

Highways:
total:
80 km
paved:
53 km
unpaved:
earth, coral 27 km
Ports:
none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
1,500 radio receivers (1982); radio link service with Sydney; 987
telephones (1983); broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

@Norfolk Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Northern Mariana Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(commonwealth in political union with the US)

@Northern Mariana Islands, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 5,635 km
west-southwest of Honolulu, about three-quarters of the way between
Hawaii and the Philippines
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
477 sq km
land area:
477 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes 14 islands including Saipan, Rota, and Tinian
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,482 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal
temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July
to October
Terrain:
southern islands are limestone with level terraces and fringing coral
reefs; northern islands are volcanic; highest elevation is 471 meters
(Mt. Okso' Takpochao on Saipan)
Natural resources:
arable land, fish
Land use:
arable land:
5% on Saipan
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
19%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
contamination of groundwater on Saipan by raw sewage contributes to
disease
natural hazards:
active volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; subject to typhoons (especially
August to November)
international agreements:
NA
Note:
strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean

@Northern Mariana Islands, People

Population:
49,799 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.04% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
35.05 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.61 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
37.96 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.43 years
male:
65.53 years
female:
69.48 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.69 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
NA
adjective:
NA
Ethnic divisions:
Chamorro, Carolinians and other Micronesians, Caucasian, Japanese,
Chinese, Korean
Religions:
Christian (Roman Catholic majority, although traditional beliefs and
taboos may still be found)
Languages:
English, Chamorro, Carolinian
note:
86% of population speaks a language other than English at home
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
97%
male:
97%
female:
96%
Labor force:
7,476 total indigenous labor force, 2,699 unemployed; 21,188 foreign
workers (1990)
by occupation:
NA

@Northern Mariana Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
conventional short form:
Northern Mariana Islands
Digraph:
CQ
Type:
commonwealth in political union with the US; self-governing with
locally elected governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature;
federal funds to the Commonwealth administered by the US Department of
the Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs
Capital:
Saipan
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
none (commonwealth in political union with the US)
National holiday:
Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)
Constitution:
Covenant Agreement effective 3 November 1986 and the Constitution of
the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
Legal system:
based on US system except for customs, wages, immigration laws, and
taxation
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but
do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
head of government:
Governor Lorenzo I. DeLeon GUERRERO (since 9 January 1990); Lieutenant
Governor Benjamin T. MANGLONA (since 9 January 1990); election last
held in NA November 1989 (next to be held NA November 1993); results -
Lorenzo I. DeLeon GUERRERO, Republican Party, was elected governor
Legislative branch:
bicameral Legislature
Senate:
elections last held NA November 1991 (next to be held NA November
1993); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total)
Republicans 6, Democrats 3
House of Representatives:
elections last held NA November 1991 (next to be held NA November
1993); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total)
Republicans 10, Democrats 6, Independent 2
US House of Representatives:
the Commonwealth does not have a nonvoting delegate in Congress;
instead, it has an elected official "resident representative" located
in Washington, DC; seats - (1 total) Republican (Juan N. BABAUTA)
Judicial branch:
Commonwealth Supreme Court, Superior Court, Federal District Court
Political parties and leaders:
Republican Party, Governor Lorenzo GUERRERO; Democratic Party, Carlos
SHODA, chairman
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), SPC
Flag:
blue with a white five-pointed star superimposed on the gray
silhouette of a latte stone (a traditional foundation stone used in
building) in the center

@Northern Mariana Islands, Economy

Overview:
The economy benefits substantially from financial assistance from the
US. The rate of funding has declined as locally generated government
revenues have grown. An agreement for the years 1986 to 1992 entitled
the islands to $228 million for capital development, government
operations, and special programs. A rapidly growing major source of
income is the tourist industry, which now employs about 50% of the
work force. Japanese tourists predominate. The agricultural sector is
made up of cattle ranches and small farms producing coconuts,
breadfruit, tomatoes, and melons. Industry is small scale, mostly
handicrafts and light manufacturing.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $541 million (1992)
note:
GNP numbers reflect US spending
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$11,500 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.5-7.5% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$147 million
expenditures:
$127.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
$263.4 million (f.o.b. 1991 est.)
commodities:
manufactured goods, garments, bread, pastries, concrete blocks, light
iron work
partners:
NA
Imports:
$392.4 million (c.i.f. 1991 est.)
commodities:
food, construction, equipment, materials
partners:
NA
External debt:
$0
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
25,000 kW
production:
35 million kWh
consumption per capita:
740 kWh (1990)
Industries:
tourism, construction, light industry, handicrafts
Agriculture:
coconuts, fruits, cattle, vegetables
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

@Northern Mariana Islands, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
total:
381.5 km
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
undifferentiated:
primary 134.5 km; secondary 55 km; local 192 km (1991)
Inland waterways:
none
Ports:
Saipan, Tinian
Airports:
total:
6
usable:
5
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM (1984), 1 TV, 2 cable TV stations; 2
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Northern Mariana Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

@Norway, Geography

Location:
Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
west of Sweden
Map references:
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
324,220 sq km
land area:
307,860 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 2,515 km, Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 167 km
Coastline:
21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413 km, long
fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093 km)
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
10 nm
continental shelf:
to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
4 nm
International disputes:
territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land); dispute between
Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in Arctic Ocean between
Greenland and Jan Mayen has been settled by the International Court of
Justice; maritime boundary dispute with Russia over portion of Barents
Sea
Climate:
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder
interior; rainy year-round on west coast
Terrain:
glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile
valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords;
arctic tundra in north
Natural resources:
petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead,
fish, timber, hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
27%
other:
70%
Irrigated land:
950 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting
lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note:
about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented
coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in
North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world;
Norway and Turkey only NATO members having a land boundary with Russia

@Norway, People

Population:
4,314,604 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.39% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.32 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.44 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.38 years
male:
74.02 years
female:
80.94 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.81 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Norwegian(s)
adjective:
Norwegian
Ethnic divisions:
Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Lapps (Sami) 20,000
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 87.8% (state church), other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 3.8%, none 3.2%, unknown 5.2% (1980)
Languages:
Norwegian (official)
note:
small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
2.004 million (1992)
by occupation:
services 39.1%, commerce 17.6%, mining, oil, and manufacturing 16.0%,
banking and financial services 7.6%, transportation and communications
7.8%, construction 6.1%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5.5%
(1989)

@Norway, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form:
Norway
local long form:
Kongeriket Norge
local short form:
Norge
Digraph:
NO
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Oslo
Administrative divisions:
19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder,
Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland,
Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane,
Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Dependent areas:
Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
Independence:
26 October 1905 (from Sweden)
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Constitution:
17 May 1814, modified in 1884
Legal system:
mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions;
Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
HAAKON MAGNUS (born 20 July 1973)
head of government:
Prime Minister Gro Harlem BRUNDTLAND (since 3 November 1990)
cabinet:
State Council; appointed by the king in accordance with the will of
the Storting

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