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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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male:
64.3 years
female:
69.18 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.08 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Nauruan(s)
adjective:
Nauruan
Ethnic divisions:
Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%
Religions:
Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)
Languages:
Nauruan (official; a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely
understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial
purposes
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
by occupation:
NA

@Nauru, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Nauru
conventional short form:
Nauru
former:
Pleasant Island
Digraph:
NR
Type:
republic
Capital:
no official capital; government offices in Yaren District
Administrative divisions:
14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada,
Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren
Independence:
31 January 1968 (from UN trusteeship under Australia, New Zealand, and
UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 31 January (1968)
Constitution:
29 January 1968
Legal system:
own Acts of Parliament and British common law
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Bernard DOWIYOGO (since 12 December 1989); election last
held 19 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1995); results -
Bernard DOWIYOGO elected by Parliament
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president from the parliament
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament:
elections last held on 14 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1995); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (18 total) independents
18
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
none
Member of:
AsDB, C (special), ESCAP, ICAO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, ITU, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UPU
Diplomatic representation in US:
consulate(s):
Agana (Guam)
US diplomatic representation:
the US Ambassador to Australia is accredited to Nauru
Flag:
blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and a
large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the
star indicates the country's location in relation to the Equator (the
yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of
Nauru

@Nauru, Economy

Overview:
Revenues come from the export of phosphates, the reserves of which are
expected to be exhausted by the year 2000. Phosphates have given
Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third World -
$10,000 annually. Few other resources exist, so most necessities must
be imported, including fresh water from Australia. The rehabilitation
of mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are
serious long-term problems. Substantial amounts of phosphate income
are invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $90 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$10,000 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
0%
Budget:
revenues:
$69.7 million
expenditures:
$51.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1986 est.)
Exports:
$93 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities:
phosphates
partners:
Australia, NZ
Imports:
$73 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities:
food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery
partners:
Australia, UK, NZ, Japan
External debt:
$33.3 million
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
14,000 kW
production:
50 million kWh
consumption per capita:
5,430 kWh (1990)
Industries:
phosphate mining, financial services, coconut products
Agriculture:
coconuts; other agricultural activity negligible; almost completely
dependent on imports for food and water
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries (1970-89), $2 million
Currency:
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704
(1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2834 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Nauru, Communications

Railroads:
3.9 km; used to haul phosphates from the center of the island to
processing facilities on the southwest coast
Highways:
total:
27 km
paved:
21 km
unpaved:
improved earth 6 km
Ports:
Nauru
Merchant marine:
1 bulk ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,426 GRT/5,750 DWT
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
adequate local and international radio communications provided via
Australian facilities; 1,600 telephones; 4,000 radios; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Nauru, Defense Forces

Branches:
Directorate of the Nauru Police Force
note:
no regular armed forces
Defense expenditures:
$NA - no formal defense structure

@Navassa Island

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

@Navassa Island, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the Caribbean Sea, 160 km south of the US Naval Base at
Guantanamo Bay (Cuba), between Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
5.2 sq km
land area:
5.2 sq km
comparative area:
about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
8 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Haiti
Climate:
marine, tropical
Terrain:
raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed by
vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 meters high)
Natural resources:
guano
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
10%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
90%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo
Bay, Cuba; mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to support goat
herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus

@Navassa Island, People

Population:
uninhabited; note - transient Haitian fishermen and others camp on the
island

@Navassa Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Navassa Island
Digraph:
BQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Coast Guard
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

@Navassa Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Navassa Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

@Navassa Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

@Nepal, Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, in the Himalayas, between China and India
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
140,800 sq km
land area:
136,800 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Arkansas
Land boundaries:
total 2,926 km, China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical
summers and mild winters in south
Terrain:
Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region,
rugged Himalayas in north
Natural resources:
quartz, water, timber, hydroelectric potential, scenic beauty, small
deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
17%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
13%
forest and woodland:
33%
other:
37%
Irrigated land:
9,430 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
the almost total dependence on wood for fuel and cutting down trees to
expand agricultural land without replanting has resulted in widespread
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution (use of contaminated
water presents human health risks)
natural hazards:
vulnerable to severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and
famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer
monsoons
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban,
Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change,
Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
Note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight
of world's 10 highest peaks

@Nepal, People

Population:
21,041,527 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.44% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
37.63 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
13.28 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
83.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
52.53 years
male:
52.35 years
female:
52.73 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.24 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Nepalese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Nepalese
Ethnic divisions:
Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs, Bhotias, Rais,
Limbus, Sherpas
Religions:
Hindu 90%, Buddhist 5%, Muslim 3%, other 2% (1981)
note:
only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp distinction
between many Hindu and Buddhist groups
Languages:
Nepali (official), 20 languages divided into numerous dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
26%
male:
38%
female:
13%
Labor force:
8.5 million (1991 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry 2%
note:
severe lack of skilled labor

@Nepal, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Nepal
conventional short form:
Nepal
Digraph:
NP
Type:
parliamentary democracy as of 12 May 1991
Capital:
Kathmandu
Administrative divisions:
14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri,
Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani,
Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti
Independence:
1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah)
National holiday:
Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945)
Constitution:
9 November 1990
Legal system:
based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
head of government:
Prime Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA (since 29 May 1991)
chief of state:
King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (since 31 January 1972, crowned King
24 February 1985); Heir Apparent Crown Prince DIPENDRA Bir Bikram Shah
Dev, son of the King (born 21 June 1971)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the king on recommendation of the prime minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
National Council:
consists of a 60-member body, 50 appointed by House of Representatives
and 10 by the King
House of Representatives:
elections last held on 12 May 1991 (next to be held May 1996); results
- NCP 38%, CPN/UML 28%, NDP/Chand 6%, UPF 5%, NDP/Thapa 5%, Terai
Rights Sadbhavana Party 4%, Rohit 2%, CPN (Democratic) 1%,
independents 4%, other 7%; seats - (205 total) NCP 110, CPN/UML 69,
UPF 9, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 6, NDP/Chand 3, Rohit 2, CPN
(Democratic) 2, NDP/Thapa 1, independents 3; note - the new
Constitution of 9 November 1990 gave Nepal a multiparty democracy
system for the first time in 32 years
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat)
Political parties and leaders:
Nepali Congress Party (NCP), president Krishna Prasad BHATTARAI, Prime
Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA, Supreme Leader Ganesh Man SINGH; The
Conservative National Democratic Party (NDP/Thapa), Surya Bahadur
THAPA; Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist and Leninist (CPN/UML),
Man Mohan ADHIKARI; Terai Rights Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party, Gajendra
Narayan SINGH; United People's Front (UPF), Lila Mani POKHREL; Nepal
Workers and Peasants Party (NWPP), Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE; National
Democratic Party/Chand (NDP/Chand), Lokendra Bahadur CHAND; Rohit
Party, N. M. BIJUKCHHE; Communist Party of Nepal
(Democratic-Manandhar), B. B. MANANDHAR
Other political or pressure groups:
numerous small, left-leaning student groups in the capital; several
small, radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups
Member of:
AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM,
SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
chancery:
2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 667-4550
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Sandra VOGELGESANG
embassy:
Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[977] (1) 411179 or 412718, 411613, 413890
FAX:
[977] (1) 419963
Flag:
red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping
right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized
moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun

@Nepal, Economy

Overview:
Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world.
Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for
over 90% of the population and accounting for 60% of GDP. Industrial
activity is limited, mainly involving the processing of agricultural
produce (jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain). Production of textiles
and carpets has expanded recently and accounted for 85% of foreign
exchange earnings in FY94. Apart from agricultural land and forests,
exploitable natural resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism.
Agricultural production in the late 1980s grew by about 5%, as
compared with annual population growth of 2.6%. More than 40% of the
population is undernourished. Since May 1991, the government has been
encouraging trade and foreign investment, e.g., by eliminating
business licenses and registration requirements in order to simplify
domestic and foreign investment. The government also has been cutting
public expenditures by reducing subsidies, privatizing state
industries, and laying off civil servants. Prospects for foreign trade
and investment in the 1990s remain poor, however, because of the small
size of the economy, its technological backwardness, its remoteness,
and susceptibility to natural disaster. Nepal experienced severe
flooding in August 1993 which caused at least $50 million in damage to
the country's infrastructure.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $20.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.9% (FY93)
National product per capita:
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (September 1993)
Unemployment rate:
5%; underemployment estimated at 25%-40% (1987)
Budget:
revenues:
$457 million
expenditures:
$725 million, including capital expenditures of $427 million (FY93
est.)
Exports:
$369 million (f.o.b., FY93) but does not include unrecorded border
trade with India
commodities:
carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain
partners:
US, Germany, India, UK
Imports:
$789 million (c.i.f., FY93 est.)
commodities:
petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%
partners:
India, Singapore, Japan, Germany
External debt:
$2 billion (FY93 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6% (FY91 est.); accounts for 16% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
300,000 kW
production:
1 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
50 kWh (1992)
Industries:
small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette, textile,
carpet, cement, and brick production; tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 60% of GDP and 93% of work force; farm products - rice,
corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, buffalo meat; not
self-sufficient in food, particularly in drought years
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and international drug
markets; transit point for heroin from Southeast Asia to the West
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $304 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $2.23
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $30 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $286 million
Currency:
1 Nepalese rupee (NR) = 100 paisa
Exchange rates:
Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1 - 49.240 (January 1994), 48.607 (1993),
42.742 (1992), 37.255 (1991), 29.370 (1990), 27.189 (1989)
Fiscal year:
16 July - 15 July

@Nepal, Communications

Railroads:
52 km (1990), all 0.762-meter narrow gauge; all in Terai close to
Indian border; 10 km from Raxaul to Birganj is government owned
Highways:
total:
7,080 km
paved:
2,898 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 1,660 km; seasonally motorable tracks 2,522 km
(1990)
Airports:
total:
37
usable:
37
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radio communication and
broadcast service; international radio communication service is poor;
50,000 telephones (1990); broadcast stations - 88 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Nepal, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Nepalese Army, Royal Nepalese Army Air Service, Nepalese Police
Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 5,003,661; fit for military service 2,598,507; reach
military age (17) annually 241,405 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 2% of GDP (FY91/92)

@Netherlands,

@Netherlands, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
37,330 sq km
land area:
33,920 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total 1,027 km, Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km
Coastline:
451 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters
Terrain:
mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in
southeast
Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, fertile soil
Land use:
arable land:
26%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
32%
forest and woodland:
9%
other:
32%
Irrigated land:
5,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, and
nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles
and refining activities; acid rain
natural hazards:
the extensive system of dikes and dams, protects nearly one-half of
the total area from being flooded
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea
Note:
located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or
Meuse, Schelde)

@Netherlands, People

Population:
15,367,928 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.58% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
12.62 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.5 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.75 years
male:
74.69 years
female:
80.97 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.58 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)
adjective:
Dutch
Ethnic divisions:
Dutch 96%, Moroccans, Turks, and other 4% (1988)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 34%, Protestant 25%, Muslim 3%, other 2%, unaffiliated
36% (1991)
Languages:
Dutch
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1979 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
6.7 million (1991)
by occupation:
services 50.1%, manufacturing and construction 28.2%, government
15.9%, agriculture 5.8% (1986)

@Netherlands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of the Netherlands
conventional short form:
Netherlands
local long form:
Koninkrijk de Nederlanden
local short form:
Nederland
Digraph:
NL
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government
Administrative divisions:
12 provinces (provincien, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland,
Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant,
Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland, Zuid-Holland
Dependent areas:
Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
Independence:
1579 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)
Constitution:
17 February 1983
Legal system:
civil law system incorporating French penal theory; judicial review in
the Supreme Court of legislation of lower order rather than Acts of
the States General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980); Heir Apparent
WILLEM-ALEXANDER, Prince of Orange, son of Queen Beatrix (born 27
April 1967)
head of government:
Prime Minister RUDOLPHUS (Ruud) F. M. LUBBERS (since 4 November 1982);
Vice Prime Minister Willem (Wim) KOK (since 2 November 1989) -
resigned after 3 May 1994 parliamentary elections; no new government
has been formed to date
cabinet:
Ministry of General Affairs; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral legislature (Staten Generaal)
First Chamber (Eerste Kamer):
elections last held on 9 June l991 (next to be held 9 June 1995);
results - elected by the country's 12 provincial councils; seats - (75
total) percent of seats by party NA
Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer):
elections last held on 3 May 1994 (next to be held in May 1999);
results - PvdA 24.3%, CDA 22.3%, VVD 20.4%, D'66 16.5%, other 16.5%;
seats - (150 total) PvdA 37, CDA 34, VVD 31, D'66 24, other 24
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (De Hoge Raad)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Elco BRINKMAN; Labor (PvdA), Wim
KOK; Liberal (VVD), Frits BOLKESTEIN; Democrats '66 (D'66), Hans van
MIERLO; a host of minor parties
Other political or pressure groups:
large multinational firms; Federation of Netherlands Trade Union
Movement (comprising Socialist and Catholic trade unions) and a
Protestant trade union; Federation of Catholic and Protestant
Employers Associations; the nondenominational Federation of
Netherlands Enterprises; and Interchurch Peace Council (IKV)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE,
CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, G-10,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA,
UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMUR, UNPROFOR, UNTAC,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Adriaan Pieter Roetert JACOBOVITS DE SZEGED
chancery:
4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 244-5300
FAX:
(202) 362-3430
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Manila (Trust Territories of the
Pacific Islands), New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kirk Terry DORNBUSH
embassy:
Lange Voorhout 102, 2514 EJ The Hague
mailing address:
PSC 71, Box 1000, the Hague; APO AE 09715
telephone:
[31] (70) 310-9209
FAX:
[31] (70) 361-4688
consulate(s) general:
Amsterdam
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to
the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer

@Netherlands, Economy

Overview:
This highly developed and affluent economy is based on private
enterprise. The government makes its presence felt, however, through
many regulations, permit requirements, and welfare programs affecting
most aspects of economic activity. The trade and financial services
sector contributes over 50% of GDP. Industrial activity provides about
25% of GDP and is led by the food-processing, oil-refining, and
metalworking industries. The highly mechanized agricultural sector
employs only 5% of the labor force, but provides large surpluses for
export and the domestic food-processing industry. Rising unemployment
and a sizable budget deficit are currently the most serious economic
problems. Many of the economic issues of the 1990s will reflect the
course of European economic integration.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $262.8 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
-0.2% (1993)
National product per capita:
$17,200 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9.1% (March 1994)
Budget:
revenues:
$109.9 billion
expenditures:
$122.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$139 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
metal products, chemicals, processed food and tobacco, agricultural
products
partners:
EC 77% (Germany 27%, Belgium-Luxembourg 15%, UK 10%), US 4% (1991)
Imports:
$130.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
raw materials and semifinished products, consumer goods,
transportation equipment, crude oil, food products
partners:
EC 64% (Germany 26%, Belgium-Luxembourg 14%, UK 8%), US 8% (1991)
External debt:
$0
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.5% (1993 est.); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
22,216,000 kW
production:
63.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
4,200 kWh (1992)
Industries:
agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery
and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, fishing, construction,
microelectronics
Agriculture:
accounts for 4.6% of GDP; animal production predominates; crops -
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; shortages of grain,
fats, and oils
Illicit drugs:
gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe; European
producer of illicit amphetamines and other synthetic drugs
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $19.4 billion
Currency:
1 Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (f.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Netherlands guilders, gulden, or florins (f.) per US$1 - 1.9508
(January 1994), 1.8573 (1993), 1.7585 (1992), 1.8697 (1991), 1.8209
(1990), 2.1207 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Netherlands, Communications

Railroads:
2,828 km 1.435-meter standard gauge operated by Netherlands Railways
(NS) (includes 1,957 km electrified and 1,800 km double track)
Highways:
total:
104,590 km
paved:
92,525 km (including 2,185 km of expressway)
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 12,065 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
6,340 km, of which 35% is usable by craft of 1,000 metric ton capacity
or larger
Pipelines:
crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas 10,230 km
Ports:
coastal - Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Den Helder, Dordrecht, Eemshaven,
Ijmuiden, Rotterdam, Scheveningen, Terneuzen, Vlissingen; inland - 29
ports
Merchant marine:
324 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,507,112 GRT/3,208,838 DWT,
bulk 3, cargo 180, chemical tanker 21, combination bulk 3, container
32, liquefied gas 12, livestock carrier 1, multifunction large-load
carrier 4, oil tanker 27, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 20,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 15, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2
note:
many Dutch-owned ships are also registered on the captive Netherlands
Antilles register
Airports:
total:
28
usable:
28
with permanent-surface runways:
19
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
7
Telecommunications:
highly developed, well maintained, and integrated; extensive redundant
system of multiconductor cables, supplemented by microwave radio relay
microwave links; 9,418,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 (3
relays) AM, 12 (39 repeaters) FM, 8 (7 repeaters) TV; 5 submarine
cables; 1 communication satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT
(1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean antenna) and EUTELSAT systems;
nationwide mobile phone system

@Netherlands, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (including Naval Air
Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force, Royal
Constabulary
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,180,745; fit for military service 3,667,212; reach
military age (20) annually 98,479 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $6.8 billion, 2.3% of GDP (1993)

@Netherlands Antilles

Header
Affiliation:
(part of the Dutch realm)

@Netherlands Antilles, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, two island groups - Curacao and Bonaire in the southern
Caribbean Sea are about 70 km north of Venezuela near Aruba and the
rest of the country is about 800 km to the northeast about one-third
of the way between Antigua and Barbuda and Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
960 sq km
land area:
960 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten
(Dutch part of the island of Saint Martin)
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
364 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds
Terrain:
generally hilly, volcanic interiors
Natural resources:
phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
92%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane belt, so rarely
threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are subject to
hurricanes from July to October
international agreements:
party to - Whaling

@Netherlands Antilles, People

Population:
185,790 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.47% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
16.62 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.5 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
9.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.32 years
male:
74.1 years
female:
78.66 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.96 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Netherlands Antillean(s)
adjective:
Netherlands Antillean
Ethnic divisions:
mixed African 85%, Carib Indian, European, Latin, Oriental
Religions:
Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
Dutch (official), Papiamento a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English
dialect predominates, English widely spoken, Spanish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population:
94%
male:
94%
female:
93%
Labor force:
89,000
by occupation:
government 65%, industry and commerce 28% (1983)

@Netherlands Antilles, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Netherlands Antilles
local long form:
none
local short form:
Nederlandse Antillen
Digraph:
NA
Type:
part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs granted in
1954
Capital:
Willemstad
Administrative divisions:
none (part of the Dutch realm)
Independence:
none (part of the Dutch realm)
National holiday:
Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)
Constitution:
29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands, as amended
Legal system:
based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law
influence
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980), represented by
Governor General Jaime SALEH (since NA October 1989)
head of government:
Prime Minister Miguel POURIER (since 25 February 1994)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed with the advice and approval of the
unicameral legislature
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Staten:
elections last held on 25 February 1994 (next to be held March 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (23 total) PAR 8, PNP
3, SPA 2, PDB 2, UPB 1, MAN 2, DP 1, WIPM 1, DP-St. E 1, DP-St. M 1,
Nos Patria 1
note:
the government of Miguel POURIER is a coalition of several parties
Judicial branch:
Joint High Court of Justice
Political parties and leaders:
political parties are indigenous to each island
Bonaire:
Patriotic Union of Bonaire (UPB), Rudy ELLIS; Democratic Party of
Bonaire (PDB), Franklin CRESTIAN
Curacao:
Antillean Restructuring Party (PAR), Miguel POURIER; National People's
Party (PNP), Maria LIBERIA-PETERS; New Antilles Movement (MAN),
Domenico Felip Don MARTINA; Workers' Liberation Front (FOL), Wilson
(Papa) GODETT; Socialist Independent (SI), George HUECK and Nelson
MONTE; Democratic Party of Curacao (DP), Augustin DIAZ; Nos Patria,
Chin BEHILIA
Saba:
Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM Saba), Will JOHNSON; Saba
Democratic Labor Movement, Vernon HASSELL; Saba Unity Party, Carmen
SIMMONDS
Sint Eustatius:
Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius (DP-St.E), K. Van PUTTEN; Windward
Islands People's Movement (WIPM); St. Eustatius Alliance (SEA), Ralph
BERKEL
Sint Maarten:
Democratic Party of Sint Maarten (DP-St.M), Claude WATHEY; Patriotic
Movement of Sint Maarten (SPA), Vance JAMES
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO
(associate), UPU, WMO, WTO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Consul General Bernard J. WOERZ
consulate general:
Saint Anna Boulevard 19, Willemstad, Curacao
mailing address:
P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao
telephone:
[599] (9) 613066
FAX:
[599] (9) 616489
Flag:
white with a horizontal blue stripe in the center superimposed on a
vertical red band also centered; five white five-pointed stars are
arranged in an oval pattern in the center of the blue band; the five
stars represent the five main islands of Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint
Eustatius, and Sint Maarten

@Netherlands Antilles, Economy

Overview:
Tourism, petroleum refining, and offshore finance are the mainstays of
the economy. The islands enjoy a high per capita income and a
well-developed infrastructure as compared with other countries in the
region. Unlike many Latin American countries, the Netherlands Antilles
has avoided large international debt. Almost all consumer and capital
goods are imported, with Venezuela and the US being the major
suppliers.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$9,700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
16.4% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$209 million
expenditures:
$232 million, including capital expenditures of $8 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
$240 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
petroleum products 98%
partners:
US 39%, Brazil 9%, Colombia 6%
Imports:
$1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
crude petroleum 64%, food, manufactures
partners:
Venezuela 26%, US 18%, Colombia 6%, Netherlands 6%, Japan 5%
External debt:
$701 million (December 1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
125,000 kW
production:
365 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,980 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism (Curacao and Sint Maarten), petroleum refining (Curacao),
petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and Bonaire), light
manufacturing (Curacao)
Agriculture:
hampered by poor soils and scarcity of water; chief products - aloes,
sorghum, peanuts, fresh vegetables, tropical fruit; not
self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
money-laundering center; transshipment point for South American
cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $513 million
Currency:
1 Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (NAf.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Netherlands Antillean guilders, gulden, or florins (NAf.) per US$1 -
1.79 (fixed rate since 1989; 1.80 fixed rate 1971-88)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Netherlands Antilles, Communications

Highways:
total:
950 km
paved:
300 km
unpaved:
gravel, earth 650 km
Ports:
Willemstad, Philipsburg, Kralendijk
Merchant marine:
113 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 966,797 GRT/1,251,871 DWT, bulk
1, cargo 43, chemical tanker 7, combination ore/oil 1, container 3,
liquefied gas 5, multifunction large-load carrier 18, oil tanker 1,
passenger 4, refrigerated cargo 23, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7
note:
all but a few are foreign owned, mostly in the Netherlands
Airports:
total:
5
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
generally adequate facilities; extensive interisland microwave radio
relay links; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 2 submarine
cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Netherlands Antilles, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Netherlands Navy, Marine Corps, Royal Netherlands Air Force,
National Guard, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 48,866; fit for military service 27,421; reach
military age (20) annually 1,595 (1994 est.)
Note:
defense is responsibility of the Netherlands

@New Caledonia

Header
Affiliation:
(overseas territory of France)

@New Caledonia, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Melanesia, in the South Pacific Ocean, 1,750 km east of
Australia
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
19,060 sq km
land area:
18,760 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
2,254 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid
Terrain:
coastal plains with interior mountains
Natural resources:
nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, copper
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
14%
forest and woodland:
51%
other:
35%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
typhoons most frequent from November to March
international agreements:
NA

@New Caledonia, People

Population:
181,309 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.79% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
22.39 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.96 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
15.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.62 years
male:
70.32 years
female:
77.09 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.62 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
New Caledonian(s)
adjective:
New Caledonian
Ethnic divisions:
Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%, Polynesian 3.8%,
Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%
Languages:
French, 28 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1976)
total population:
91%
male:
91%
female:
90%
Labor force:
50,469 foreign workers for plantations and mines from Wallis and
Futuna, Vanuatu, and French Polynesia (1980 est.)
by occupation:
NA

@New Caledonia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies
conventional short form:
New Caledonia
local long form:
Territoire des Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances
local short form:
Nouvelle-Caledonie
Digraph:
NC
Type:
overseas territory of France since 1956
Capital:
Noumea
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order
administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there
are 3 provinces named Iles Loyaute, Nord, and Sud
Independence:
none (overseas territory of France; a referendum on independence will
be held in 1998)
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to the islands;
formerly under French law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government:
High Commissioner and President of the Council of Government Alain
CHRISTNACHT (since 15 January 1991; appointed by the French Ministry
of the Interior); President of the Territorial Congress Simon
LOUECKHOTE (since 26 June 1989)
cabinet:
Consultative Committee
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Territorial Assembly:
elections last held 11 June 1989 (next to be held 1993); results -
RPCR 44.5%, FLNKS 28.5%, FN 7%, CD 5%, UO 4%, other 11%; seats - (54
total) RPCR 27, FLNKS 19, FN 3, other 5; note - election boycotted by
FULK
French Senate:
elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held September
2001); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) RPCR 1
French National Assembly:
elections last held 21 March 1993 (next to be held 21 and 28 March
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) RPCR 2
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
white-dominated Rassemblement pour la Caledonie dans la Republique
(RPCR), conservative, Jacques LAFLEUR - affiliated to France's
Rassemblement pour la Republique (RPR); Melanesian proindependence
Kanaka Socialist National Liberation Front (FLNKS), Paul NEAOUTYINE;
Melanesian moderate Kanak Socialist Liberation (LKS), Nidoish
NAISSELINE; National Front (FN), extreme right, Guy GEORGE; Caledonie
Demain (CD), right-wing, Bernard MARANT; Union Oceanienne (UO),
conservative, Michel HEMA; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak (FULK),
proindependence, Clarence UREGEI; Union Caledonian (UC), Francois
BURCK
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WFTU, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (overseas territory of France)
US diplomatic representation:
none (overseas territory of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

@New Caledonia, Economy

Overview:
New Caledonia has more than 25% of the world's known nickel resources.
In recent years the economy has suffered because of depressed
international demand for nickel, the principal source of export
earnings. Only a negligible amount of the land is suitable for
cultivation, and food accounts for about 25% of imports.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $1 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.4% (1988)
National product per capita:
$6,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
16% (1989)
Budget:
revenues:
$224 million
expenditures:
$211 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1985 est.)
Exports:
$671 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
nickel metal 87%, nickel ore
partners:
France 32%, Japan 23.5%, US 3.6%
Imports:
$764 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
foods, fuels, minerals, machines, electrical equipment
partners:
France 44.0%, US 10%, Australia 9%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
400,000 kW
production:
2.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
12,790 kWh (1990)
Industries:
nickel mining and smelting
Agriculture:
large areas devoted to cattle grazing; coffee, corn, wheat,
vegetables; 60% self-sufficient in beef
Illicit drugs:
illicit cannabis cultivation is becoming a principal source of income
for some families
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $4.185 billion
Currency:
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Comptoirs Francais duPacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 107.63
(January 1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.00
(1990), 115.99 (1989); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@New Caledonia, Communications

Highways:
total:
6,340 km
paved:
634 km
unpaved:
5,706 km (1987)
Ports:
Noumea, Nepoui, Poro, Thio
Airports:
total:
30
usable:
28
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
32,578 telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 7 TV; 1
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@New Caledonia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Gendarmerie, Police Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@New Zealand, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Oceania, southeast of Australia in the South Pacific
Ocean
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
268,680 sq km
land area:
268,670 sq km
comparative area:
about the size of Colorado
note:
includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell
Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
15,134 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)
Climate:
temperate with sharp regional contrasts
Terrain:
predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
Natural resources:
natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
53%
forest and woodland:
38%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
2,800 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by
species introduced from outside
natural hazards:
earthquakes are common, though usually not severe
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed,
but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note:
about 80% of the population lives in cities

@New Zealand, People

Population:
3,388,737 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.57% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
15.52 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.06 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.38 years
male:
72.76 years
female:
80.18 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.03 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
New Zealander(s)
adjective:
New Zealand
Ethnic divisions:
European 88%, Maori 8.9%, Pacific Islander 2.9%, other 0.2%
Religions:
Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist 5%,
Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 9% (1986)
Languages:
English (official), Maori
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1,603,500 (June 1991)
by occupation:
services 67.4%, manufacturing 19.8%, primary production 9.3% (1987)

@New Zealand, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
New Zealand
Abbreviation:
NZ
Digraph:
NZ
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Wellington
Administrative divisions:
93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri,
Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller, Chatham Islands, Cheviot,
Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont, Eketahuna, Ellesmere,
Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay, Great Barrier Island,
Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay, Heathcote, Hikurangi**,
Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt, Inangahua, Inglewood,
Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie, Malvern, Manaia**,
Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata, Mount
Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford,
Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako, Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*,
Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks,
Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki,
Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent,
Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino,
Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa
South, Wairewa, Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace,
Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland, Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa,
Woodville
Dependent areas:
Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
Independence:
26 September 1907 (from UK)
National holiday:
Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established
British sovereignty)
Constitution:
no formal, written constitution; consists of various documents,
including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments;
Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987, but
has not been enacted
Legal system:
based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts
for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Dame Catherine TIZARD (since 12 December 1990)
head of government:
Prime Minister James BOLGER (since 29 October 1990); Deputy Prime
Minister Donald McKINNON (since 2 November 1990)
cabinet:
Executive Council; appointed by the governor general on recommendation
of the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of Representatives:
(commonly called Parliament) elections last held on 6 November 1993
(next to be held NA November 1996); results - NP 35.2%, NZLP 34.7%,
Alliance 18.3%, New Zealand First 8.3%; seats - (99 total) NP 50, NZLP
45, Alliance 2, New Zealand First Party 2
Judicial branch:
High Court, Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
National Party (NP; government), James BOLGER; New Zealand Labor Party
(NZLP; opposition), Helen CLARK; Alliance, Jim ANDERTON; Democratic
Party, Dick RYAN; New Zealand Liberal Party, Hanmish MACINTYRE and
Gilbert MYLES; Green Party, no official leader; Mana Motuhake, Martin
RATA; Socialist Unity Party (SUP; pro-Soviet), Kenneth DOUGLAS; New
Zealand First, Winston PETERS
note:
the New Labor, Democratic, and Mana Motuhake parties formed a
coalition called the Alliance Party, Jim ANDERTON, president, in
September 1991; the Green Party joined the coalition in May 1992
Member of:
ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986),
APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, COCOM (cooperating), EBRD,
ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MTCR, NAM (guest), OECD, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAVEM
II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Lionel John WOOD
chancery:
37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 328-4800
consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Josiah BEEMAN
embassy:
29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, FPO AP 96531-1001
telephone:
[64] (4) 472-2068
FAX:
[64] (4) 472-3537
consulate(s) general:
Auckland
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with
four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half
of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

@New Zealand, Economy

Overview:
Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an agrarian economy
dependent on a guaranteed British market to a more industrialized,
open free market economy that can compete on the global scene. The
government has hoped that dynamic growth would boost real incomes,
broaden and deepen the technological capabilities of the industrial
sector, reduce inflationary pressures, and permit the expansion of
welfare benefits. The results have been mixed: inflation is down from
double-digit levels, but growth was sluggish in 1988-91. In 1992-93,
growth picked up to 3% annually, a sign that the new economic approach
is beginning to pay off. Business confidence has strengthened, and the
inflation remains among the lowest in the industrial world.
Unemployment, down from 11% in 1991, remains unacceptably high at 9%.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $53 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1993)
National product per capita:
$15,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
9.1% (September 1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
note:
deficit $345 million (October 1993)
Exports:
$10.3 billion (FY93)
commodities:
wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fruit, fish, cheese, manufactures,
chemicals, forestry products
partners:
Australia 18.9%, Japan 15.1%, US 12.5%, South Korea 4.1%
Imports:
$9.4 billion (FY93)
commodities:
petroleum, consumer goods, motor vehicles, industrial equipment
partners:
Australia 21.1%, US 19.6%, Japan 14.7%, UK 6.3%, Germany 4.2%
External debt:
$35.3 billion (March 1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.9% (1990); accounts for about 20% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
8,000,000 kW
production:
31 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
9,250 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery,
transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Agriculture:
accounts for about 9% of GDP and about 10% of the work force;
livestock predominates - wool, meat, dairy products all export
earners; crops - wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables;
surplus producer of farm products; fish catch reached a record 503,000
metric tons in 1988
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $526 million
Currency:
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.7771 (January 1994), 1.8495
(1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@New Zealand, Communications

Railroads:
4,716 km total; all 1.067-meter gauge; 274 km double track; 113 km
electrified; over 99% government owned
Highways:
total:
92,648 km
paved:
49,547 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 43,101 km
Inland waterways:
1,609 km; of little importance to transportation
Pipelines:
petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; condensate (liquified
petroleum gas - LPG) 150 km
Ports:
Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Wellington, Tauranga
Merchant marine:
18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 165,514 GRT/218,699 DWT, bulk 6,
cargo 2, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 3, railcar carrier 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 5
Airports:
total:
108
usable:
108
with permanent-surface runways:
39
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
39
Telecommunications:
excellent international and domestic systems; 2,110,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 64 AM, 2 FM, 14 TV; submarine cables extend to
Australia and Fiji; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@New Zealand, Defense Forces

Branches:
New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 880,576; fit for military service 741,629; reach
military age (20) annually 28,242 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $792 million, 2% of GDP (FY90/91)

@Nicaragua, Geography

Location:
Middle America, between Costa Rica and Honduras
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America
Area:
total area:
129,494 sq km
land area:
120,254 sq km
comparative area:

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