Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 26 out of 46

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.1 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Moldova, Communications

Railroads:
1,150 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
total:
20,000 km
paved or gravelled:
13,900 km
unpaved:
earth 6,100 km (1990)
Pipelines:
natural gas 310 km (1992)
Ports:
none; landlocked
Airports:
total:
26
usable:
15
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
5
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
8
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
The telecommunication system of Moldova is not well developed; number
of telephone subscribers 577,000 (1991); number of subscribers per
1,000 persons 134 (1991); number of unsuccessful requests for
telephone service 215,000 (1991); international connections to the
other former Soviet republics by land line and microwave radio relay
through Ukraine, and to other countries by leased connections to the
Moscow international gateway switch; 2 satellite earth stations - 1
EUTELSAT and 1 INTELSAT; broadcast services NA

@Moldova, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Air and Air Defence Force, Security Forces (internal
and border troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,098,156; fit for military service 869,866; reach
military age (18) annually 35,814 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Monaco, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, in southern France
near the border with Italy
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1.9 sq km
land area:
1.9 sq km
comparative area:
about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 4.4 km, France 4.4 km
Coastline:
4.1 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
Terrain:
hilly, rugged, rocky
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed, but
not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note:
second smallest independent state in world (after Holy See); almost
entirely urban

@Monaco, People

Population:
31,278 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.81% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
10.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.21 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
9.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.69 years
male:
73.94 years
female:
81.64 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.7 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Monacan(s) or Monegasque(s)
adjective:
Monacan or Monegasque
Ethnic divisions:
French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

@Monaco, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Principality of Monaco
conventional short form:
Monaco
local long form:
Principaute de Monaco
local short form:
Monaco
Digraph:
MN
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Monaco
Administrative divisions:
4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La
Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo
Independence:
1419 (rule by the House of Grimaldi)
National holiday:
National Day, 19 November
Constitution:
17 December 1962
Legal system:
based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
25 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Prince RAINIER III (since NA November 1949); Heir Apparent Prince
ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958)
head of government:
Minister of State Jacques DUPONT (since NA 1991)
cabinet:
Council of Government; under the authority of the Prince
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Council (Conseil National):
elections last held on 24 January 1988 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total) UND 18
Judicial branch:
Supreme Tribunal (Tribunal Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
National and Democratic Union (UND); Democratic Union Movement (MUD);
Monaco Action; Monegasque Socialist Party (PSM)
Member of:
ACCT, CSCE, ECE, IAEA, ICAO, IMF (observer), IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
Diplomatic representation in US:
honorary consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco,
San Juan (Puerto Rico)
honorary consulate(s):
Dallas, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, and Washington
US diplomatic representation:
no mission in Monaco, but the US Consul General in Marseille, France,
is accredited to Monaco
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag
of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white
(top) and red

@Monaco, Economy

Overview:
Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean coast, is a popular
resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The
Principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and
small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no
income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for
individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies
that have set up businesses and offices. About 50% of Monaco's annual
revenue comes from value-added taxes on hotels, banks, and the
industrial sector; about 25% of revenue comes from tourism. Living
standards are high, that is, roughly comparable to those in prosperous
French metropolitan suburbs.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $475 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$16,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NEGL%
Budget:
revenues:
$424 million
expenditures:
$376 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
$NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates
Monacan trade duties; also participates in EU market system through
customs union with France
Imports:
$NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates
Monacan trade duties; also participates in EU market system through
customs union with France
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
10,000 kW standby; power imported from France
production:
NA
consumption per capita:
NA (1992)
Agriculture:
none
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Monaco, Communications

Railroads:
1.6 km 1.435-meter gauge
Highways:
none; city streets
Ports:
Monaco
Merchant marine:
1 oil tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,268 GRT/4,959 DWT
Airports:
1 usable airfield with permanent-surface runways
Telecommunications:
served by cable into the French communications system; automatic
telephone system; 38,200 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM,
5 TV; no communication satellite earth stations

@Monaco, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@Mongolia, Geography

Location:
Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1.565 million sq km
land area:
1.565 million sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total 8,114 km, China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrain:
vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest;
Gobi Desert in southeast
Natural resources:
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel,
zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
79%
forest and woodland:
10%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
770 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
limited water resources; policies of the former communist regime
promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised
concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning
of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have
severely polluted the air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting
of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion
from wind and rain; desertification
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

@Mongolia, People

Population:
2,429,762 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.61% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
33.04 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.99 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
43.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
66.16 years
male:
63.9 years
female:
68.52 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.33 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mongolian(s)
adjective:
Mongolian
Ethnic divisions:
Mongol 90%, Kazakh 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Religions:
predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4%
note:
previously limited religious activity because of Communist regime
Languages:
Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
primarily herding/agricultural
note:
over half the adult population is in the labor force, including a
large percentage of women; shortage of skilled labor

@Mongolia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Mongolia
local long form:
none
local short form:
Mongol Uls
former:
Outer Mongolia
Digraph:
MG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Ulaanbaatar
Administrative divisions:
18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 3 municipalities*
(hotuud, singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan,
Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay,
Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov,
Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Independence:
13 March 1921 (from China)
National holiday:
National Day, 11 July (1921)
Constitution:
adopted 13 January 1992
Legal system:
blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no
constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 3 September 1990); election
last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); results -
Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP and MSDP) elected directly with 57.8% of
the vote; other candidate Lodongiyn TUDEV (MPRP)
head of government:
Prime Minister Putsagiyn JASRAY (since 3 August 1992); Deputy Prime
Ministers Lhamsuren ENEBISH and Choijilsurengiyn PUREVDORJ (since NA)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the Great Hural
Legislative branch:
unicameral
State Great Hural:
elections first time held 28 June 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total) MPRP 71, United Party
4, MSDP 1
note:
the People's Small Hural no longer exists
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court serves as appeals court for people's and provincial
courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts
Political parties and leaders:
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), Budragchagiin
DASH-YONDON, secretary general; Mongolian Democratic Party (MDP),
Erdenijiyn BAT-UUL, general coordinator; National Progress Party
(NPP), S. BYAMBAA and Luusandambyn DASHNYAM, leaders; Social
Democratic Party (SDP), BATBAYAR and Tsohiogyyn ADYASUREN, leaders;
Mongolian Independence Party (MIP), D. ZORIGT, leader; United Party of
Mongolia (made up of the MDP, SDP, and NPP); Mongolian National
Democratic Party (MNDP), D. GANBOLD, chairman; Mongolian Social
Democratic Party (MSDP), B. BATBAYAR, chairman; Mongolian Conservative
Party, O. ZOYA; Mongolian Green Party (MGP), M. GANBAT
note:
opposition parties were legalized in May 1990
Member of:
AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM
(observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Luvsandorj DAWAGIV
chancery:
2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 333-7117
FAX:
(202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON
embassy:
address NA, Ulaanbaatar
mailing address:
Ulaanbaatar, c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region II, Big Ring
Road; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone:
[976] (1) 329095 through 329606
FAX:
[976] (1) 320-776
Flag:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red,
centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem
("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric
representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang
symbol)

@Mongolia, Economy

Overview:
Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population, and wide expanses of
unproductive land have constrained economic development. Economic
activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding
of livestock - Mongolia has the highest number of livestock per person
in the world. In past years extensive mineral resources had been
developed with Soviet support; total Soviet assistance at its height
amounted to 30% of GDP. The mining and processing of coal, copper,
molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of
industrial production. Timber and fishing are also important sectors.
The Mongolian leadership is trying to make the transition from
Soviet-style central planning to a market economy through
privatization and price reform, and is soliciting support from
international financial agencies and foreign investors. The economy,
however, has still not recovered from the loss of Soviet aid, and the
country continues to suffer substantial economic hardships.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-1.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
325% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
note:
deficit of $67 million
Exports:
$355 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar,
other nonferrous metals
partners:
former CMEA countries 62%, China 17%, EC 8% (1992)
Imports:
$501 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer
goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
partners:
USSR 75%, Austria 5%, China 5%
External debt:
$16.8 billion (yearend 1990); 98.6% with USSR
Industrial production:
growth rate -15% (1992 est.); accounts for about 42% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
1,248,000 kW
production:
3,740 kWh
consumption per capita:
1,622 kWh (1992)
Industries:
copper, processing of animal products, building materials, food and
beverage, mining (particularly coal)
Agriculture:
accounts for about 35% of GDP and provides livelihood for about 50% of
the population; livestock raising predominates (primarily sheep and
goats, but also cattle, camels, and horses); crops - wheat, barley,
potatoes, forage
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos
Exchange rates:
tughriks (Tug) per US$1 - 150 (1 January 1993), 40 (1992), 7.1 (1991),
5.63 (1990), 3.00 (1989)
note:
the exchange rate 40 tughriks = 1US$ was introduced June 1991 and was
in force to the end of 1992
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Mongolia, Communications

Railroads:
1,750 km 1.524-meter broad gauge (1988)
Highways:
total:
46,700 km
paved:
1,000 km
unpaved:
45,700 km (1988)
Inland waterways:
397 km of principal routes (1988)
Ports:
none; landlocked
Airports:
total:
81
usable:
31
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
fewer than 5
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
fewer than 20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
12
Telecommunications:
63,000 telephones (1989); broadcast stations - 12 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (with
18 provincial repeaters); repeat of Russian TV; 120,000 TVs; 220,000
radios; at least 1 earth station

@Mongolia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Mongolian People's Army (includes Internal Security Forces and
Frontier Guards), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 587,113; fit for military service 382,633; reach
military age (18) annually 25,261 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22.8 million of GDP, 1% of GDP (1992)

@Montserrat

Header
Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

@Montserrat, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 400 km southeast of
Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
100 sq km
land area:
100 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
40 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
10%
forest and woodland:
40%
other:
30%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to severe hurricanes (June to November)
international agreements:
NA
Note:
located 400 km east southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

@Montserrat, People

Population:
12,701 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.33% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
15.93 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.79 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
11.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.73 years
male:
73.96 years
female:
77.53 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.05 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Montserratian(s)
adjective:
Montserratian
Ethnic divisions:
black, Europeans
Religions:
Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day
Adventist, other Christian denominations
Languages:
English
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
97%
male:
97%
female:
97%
Labor force:
5,100
by occupation:
community, social, and personal services 40.5%, construction 13.5%,
trade, restaurants, and hotels 12.3%, manufacturing 10.5%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 8.8%, other 14.4% (1983 est.)

@Montserrat, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Montserrat
Digraph:
MH
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Plymouth
Administrative divisions:
3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges, Saint Peter
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday of June)
Constitution:
present constitution came into force 19 December 1989
Legal system:
English common law and statute law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
Frank SAVAGE (since NA February 1993)
head of government:
Chief Minister Reuben T. MEADE (since October 1991)
cabinet:
Executive Council; consists of the governor, the chief minister, three
other ministries, the attorney-general, and the finance secretary
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Council:
elections last held on 8 October 1991; results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected) NPP 4, NDP 1, PLM 1,
independent 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
National Progressive Party (NPP) Reuben T. MEADE; People's Liberation
Movement (PLM), Noel TUITT; National Development Party (NDP), Bertrand
OSBORNE; Independent (IND), Ruby BRAMBLE
Member of:
CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, INTERPOL (subbureau), OECS,
WCL
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the
coat of arms features a woman standing beside a yellow harp with her
arm around a black cross

@Montserrat, Economy

Overview:
The economy is small and open with economic activity centered on
tourism and construction. Tourism is the most important sector and
accounts for roughly one-fifth of GDP. Agriculture accounts for about
4% of GDP and industry 10%. The economy is heavily dependent on
imports, making it vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices. Exports
consist mainly of electronic parts sold to the US.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $53.7 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,300 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.8% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
3% (1987)
Budget:
revenues:
$12.1 million
expenditures:
$14.3 million, including capital expenditures of $3.2 million (1988
est.)
Exports:
$2.8 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
electronic parts, plastic bags, apparel, hot peppers, live plants,
cattle
partners:
NA
Imports:
$80.6 million (f.o.b.,1992)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured
goods, fuels, lubricants, and related materials
partners:
NA
External debt:
$2.05 million (1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate 8.1% (1986); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
5,271 kW
production:
12 million kWh
consumption per capita:
950 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism; light manufacturing - rum, textiles, electronic appliances
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP; small-scale farming; food crops - tomatoes,
onions, peppers; not self-sufficient in food, especially livestock
products
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $90 million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Montserrat, Communications

Highways:
total:
280 km
paved:
200 km
unpaved:
gravel, earth 80 km
Ports:
Plymouth
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
3,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 8 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV

@Montserrat, Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Morocco, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean
Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
446,550 sq km
land area:
446,300 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total 2,002 km, Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km
Coastline:
1,835 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty is unresolved;
the UN is attempting to hold a referendum; the UN-administered
cease-fire has been currently in effect since September 1991; Spain
controls five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off
the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which
Morocco contests as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon
de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas
Climate:
Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
Terrain:
mostly mountains with rich coastal plains
Natural resources:
phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
Land use:
arable land:
18%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
28%
forest and woodland:
12%
other:
41%
Irrigated land:
12,650 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming
of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water
supplies contaminated by untreated sewage; siltation of reservoirs;
oil pollution of coastal waters
natural hazards:
northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection
Note:
strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

@Morocco, People

Population:
28,558,635 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.12% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
28.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.26 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
49.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.23 years
male:
66.36 years
female:
70.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.83 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Moroccan(s)
adjective:
Moroccan
Ethnic divisions:
Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%
Religions:
Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%
Languages:
Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of
business, government, and diplomacy
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
50%
male:
61%
female:
38%
Labor force:
7.4 million
by occupation:
agriculture 50%, services 26%, industry 15%, other 9% (1985)

@Morocco, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Morocco
conventional short form:
Morocco
local long form:
Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
local short form:
Al Maghrib
Digraph:
MO
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Rabat
Administrative divisions:
37 provinces and 5 municipalities* (wilayas, singular - wilaya);
Agadir, Al Hoceima, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane,
Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Srarhna, Er Rachidia,
Essaouira, Fes, Fes*, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset,
Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech, Marrakech*, Meknes,
Meknes*, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi
Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan,
Tiznit
Independence:
2 March 1956 (from France)
National holiday:
National Day, 3 March (1961) (anniversary of King Hassan II's
accession to the throne)
Constitution:
10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial
review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
King HASSAN II (since 3 March 1961)
head of government:
Prime Minister Abdellatif FILALI (since 29 May 1994)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the King
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Chamber of Representatives (Majlis Nawab):
elections last held 15 June 1993 (direct popular vote) and 17
September 1993 (indirect special interest vote); next to be held NA
1999; results - seats (333 total), direct popular vote (222 seats)
USFP 48, IP 43, MP 33, RNI 28, UC 27, PND 14, MNP 14, PPS 6, PDI 3,
SAP 2, PA 2, OADP 2; indirect special interest vote (111 seats) UC 27,
MP 18, RNI 13, MNP 11, PND 10, IP 7, Party of Shura and Istiqlal 6,
USFP 4, PPS 4, CDT 4, UTM 3, UGTM 2, SAP 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
opposition:
Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP), leader NA; Istiqlal Party
(IP), M'Hamed BOUCETTA; Party of Progress and Socialism (PPS), Ali
YATA; Organization of Democratic and Popular Action (OADP), leader NA
pro-government:
Constitutional Union (UC), Maati BOUABID; Popular Movement (MP),
Mohamed LAENSER; National Democratic Party (PND), Mohamed Arsalane
EL-JADIDI; National Popular Movement, Mahjoubi AHARDANE
independents:
National Rally of Independents (RNI), Ahmed OSMAN; Democracy and
Istiqlal Party (PDI), leader NA; Action Party (PA), leader NA;
Non-Obedience Candidates (SAP), leader NA
labor unions and community organizations (indirect
elections:
Democratic Confederation of Labor (CDT), leader NA; General Union of
Moroccan Workers (UGTM), leader NA; Moroccan Union of Workers (UTM),
leader NA; Party of Shura and Istiqlal, leader NA
Member of:
ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, EBRD, ECA,
FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, OAS (observer), NAM, OIC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mohamed BENAISSA
chancery:
1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009;
telephone:
(202) 462-7979 through 7982
FAX:
(202) 265-0161
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Marc C. GINSBERG
embassy:
2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat
mailing address:
PSC 74, Box 003 APO AE 09718
telephone:
[212] (7) 76-22-65
FAX:
[212] (7) 76-56-61
consulate(s) general:
Casablanca
Flag:
red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as
Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional
color of Islam

@Morocco, Economy

Overview:
Morocco faces the typical problems of developing
countries--restraining government spending, reducing constraints on
private activity and foreign trade, and keeping inflation within
bounds. Since the early 1980s the government has pursued an economic
program toward these objectives with the support of the IMF, the World
Bank, and the Paris Club of creditors. The economy has substantial
assets to draw on: the world's largest phosphate reserves, diverse
agricultural and fishing resources, a sizable tourist industry, a
growing manufacturing sector, and large remittances from Moroccans
working abroad. However, a severe drought in 1992-93 has depressed
economic activity and held down experts. Real GDP contracted by 2.9%
in 1992, and growth for 1993 is estimated at only 2%. Despite these
setbacks, initiatives to relax capital controls, strengthen the
banking sector, and privatize state enterprises went forward in 1993.
Servicing the large debt, high unemployment, and vulnerability to
external economic forces remain long-term problems for Morocco.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $70.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
16% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$7.5 billion
expenditures:
$7.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.9 billion (1992
est.)
Exports:
$5.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
food and beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%, consumer goods 21%,
phosphates 17%
partners:
EC 64%, India 6%, Japan 4%, US 3%
Imports:
$8.4 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
capital goods 24%, semiprocessed goods 22%, raw materials 16%, fuel
and lubricants 16%, food and beverages 13%, consumer goods 9%
partners:
EC 63%, US 6%, Saudi Arabia 4%, FSU 4%, Japan 1%
External debt:
$21.3 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.1% (year NA); accounts for 31% of GDP (1991)
Electricity:
capacity:
2,384,000 kW
production:
8.864 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
317 kWh (1992)
Industries:
phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods,
textiles, construction, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 14% of GDP, 50% of employment, and 30% of export value;
not self-sufficient in food; cereal farming and livestock raising
predominate; barley, wheat, citrus fruit, wine, vegetables, olives
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the increase for both
domestic and international drug markets; shipments of hashish mostly
directed to Western Europe; occasional transit point for cocaine from
South America destined for Western Europe.
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.3 billion; US
commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $123.6 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.5 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4.8 billion; Communist countries
(1970-89), $2.5 billion
note:
$2.8 billion debt canceled by Saudi Arabia (1991); IMF standby
agreement worth $13 million; World Bank, $450 million (1991)
Currency:
1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 9.669 (January 1994), 9.299 (1993),
8.538 (1992), 8.707 (1991), 8.242 (1990), 8.488 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Morocco, Communications

Railroads:
1,893 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (246 km double track, 974 km
electrified)
Highways:
total:
59,198 km
paved:
27,740 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth, unimproved earth 31,458 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 362 km; petroleum products (abandoned) 491 km; natural gas
241 km
Ports:
Agadir, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Safi,
Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla
Merchant marine:
47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 226,369 GRT/335,089 DWT, cargo
9, chemical tanker 11, container 3, oil tanker 4, refrigerated cargo
12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 2
Airports:
total:
73
usable:
64
with permanent-surface runways:
26
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
13
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
25
Telecommunications:
good system composed of wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay
links; principal centers are Casablanca and Rabat; secondary centers
are Fes, Marrakech, Oujda, Tangier, and Tetouan; 280,000 telephones
(10.5 telephones per 1,000 persons); broadcast stations - 20 AM, 7 FM,
26 TV and 26 repeaters; 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; microwave radio relay to
Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave to
Algeria; microwave radio relay network linking Syria, Jordan, Egypt,
Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco

@Morocco, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Moroccan Army, Royal Moroccan Navy, Royal Moroccan Air Force,
Royal Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 7,076,261; fit for military service 4,494,641; reach
military age (18) annually 317,093 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 3.8% of GDP (1993 budget)

@Mozambique, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel between South Africa
and Tanzania opposite the island of Madagascar
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
801,590 sq km
land area:
784,090 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total 4,571 km, Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105
km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Coastline:
2,470 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical to subtropical
Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in
northwest, mountains in west
Natural resources:
coal, titanium
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
56%
forest and woodland:
20%
other:
20%
Irrigated land:
1,150 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
civil strife in the hinterlands has resulted in increased migration to
urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences;
desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters
natural hazards:
severe drought and floods occur in central and southern provinces
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

@Mozambique, People

Population:
17,346,280 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
5.87% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
44.97 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
16.33 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
30.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
128.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
48.49 years
male:
46.63 years
female:
50.41 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.25 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mozambican(s)
adjective:
Mozambican
Ethnic divisions:
indigenous tribal groups, Europeans about 10,000, Euro-Africans
35,000, Indians 15,000
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 60%, Christian 30%, Muslim 10%
Languages:
Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
33%
male:
45%
female:
21%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
90% engaged in agriculture

@Mozambique, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form:
Mozambique
local long form:
Republica Popular de Mocambique
local short form:
Mocambique
Digraph:
MZ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Maputo
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza,
Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence:
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitution:
30 November 1990
Legal system:
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986)
head of government:
Prime Minister Mario da Graca MACHUNGO (since 17 July 1986)
cabinet:
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da Republica); draft
electoral law provides for periodic, direct presidential and Assembly
elections
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), Joaquim Alberto
CHISSANO, chairman; formerly a Marxist organization with close ties to
the USSR; FRELIMO was the only legal party before 30 November 1990,
when the new Constitution went into effect establishing a multiparty
system
note:
under the terms of the 1992 peace accords multiparty elections are
scheduled for October 1994; 11 parties, including the Mozambique
National Resistance (RENAMO), Alfonso DHLAKAMA, president, are
registered to participate
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, OIC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Hipolito Pereira Zozimo PATRICIO
chancery:
Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 293-7146
FAX:
(202) 835-0245
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dennis JETT
embassy:
Avenida Kenneth Kuanda, 193 Maputo
mailing address:
P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone:
[258] (1) 49-27-97
FAX:
[258] (1) 49-01-14
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a
red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is
edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star
bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white
book

@Mozambique, Economy

Overview:
One of Africa's poorest countries, Mozambique has failed to exploit
the economic potential of its sizable agricultural, hydropower, and
transportation resources. Indeed, national output, consumption, and
investment declined throughout the first half of the 1980s because of
internal disorders, lack of government administrative control, and a
growing foreign debt. A sharp increase in foreign aid, attracted by an
economic reform policy, resulted in successive years of economic
growth in the late 1980s, but aid has declined steadily since 1989.
Agricultural output is at only 75% of its 1981 level, and grain has to
be imported. Industry operates at only 20-40% of capacity. The economy
depends heavily on foreign assistance to keep afloat. Peace accords
signed in October 1992 improved chances of foreign investment, aided
IMF-supported economic reforms, and supported continued economic
recovery.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $9.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
40% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
50% (1989 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$252 million
expenditures:
$607 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$164.4 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
shrimp 48%, cashews 21%, sugar 10%, copra 3%, citrus 3%
partners:
US, Western Europe, Germany, Japan
Imports:
$1.03 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum
partners:
US, Western Europe, USSR
External debt:
$5 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5% (1989 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
2,270,000 kW
production:
1.745 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
115 kWh (1991)
Industries:
food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), petroleum
products, textiles, nonmetallic mineral products (cement, glass,
asbestos), tobacco
Agriculture:
accounts for 50% of GDP and about 90% of exports; cash crops - cotton,
cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, shrimp; other crops - cassava, corn,
rice, tropical fruits; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $350 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.4
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $37 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $890 million
Currency:
1 metical (Mt) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
meticais (Mt) per US$1 - 4,941.3 (October 1993), 2,550.40 (1992),
1,763.99 (1991), 1,053.09 (1990), 844.34 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Mozambique, Communications

Railroads:
3,288 km total; 3,140 km 1.067-meter gauge; 148 km 0.762-meter narrow
gauge; Malawi-Nacala, Malawi-Beira, and Zimbabwe-Maputo lines are
subject to closure because of insurgency
Highways:
total:
26,498 km
paved:
4,593 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 829 km; unimproved earth
21,076 km
Inland waterways:
about 3,750 km of navigable routes
Pipelines:
crude oil (not operating) 306 km; petroleum products 289 km
Ports:
Maputo, Beira, Nacala
Merchant marine:
4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,686 GRT/9,742 DWT
Airports:
total:
194
usable:
134
with permanent-surface runways:
24
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
5
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
28
Telecommunications:
fair system of troposcatter, open-wire lines, and radio relay;
broadcast stations - 29 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; earth stations - 2 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic Indian Ocean INTELSAT

@Mozambique, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Militia
note:
as of early 1994, Mozambique was demobilizing and reorganizing its
defence forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 3,890,532; fit for military service 2,233,824
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $118 million, 8% of GDP (1993)

@Namibia, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Angola and
South Africa
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
825,418 sq km
land area:
825,418 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than half the size of Alaska
Land boundaries:
total 3,824 km, Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km, South Africa 855
km, Zambia 233 km
Coastline:
1,572 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
short section of boundary with Botswana is indefinite; quadripoint
with Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; dispute with
South Africa over Walvis Bay and 12 offshore islands has been resolved
and these territories were transferred to Namibian sovereignty on 1
March 1994
Climate:
desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
Terrain:
mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
Natural resources:
diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, zinc,
salt, vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected deposits of oil, natural
gas, coal, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
64%
forest and woodland:
22%
other:
13%
Irrigated land:
40 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
very limited natural water resources; desertification
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Namibia, People

Population:
1,595,567 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.45% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
43.4 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
61.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
61.65 years
male:
58.97 years
female:
64.4 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.4 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Namibian(s)
adjective:
Namibian
Ethnic divisions:
black 86%, white 6.6%, mixed 7.4%
note:
about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the
Kavangos tribe
Religions:
Christian
Languages:
English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the
population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%,
indigenous languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1960)
total population:
38%
male:
45%
female:
31%
Labor force:
500,000
by occupation:
agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 19%, services 8%, government
7%, mining 6% (1981 est.)

@Namibia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Namibia
conventional short form:
Namibia
Digraph:
WA
Type:
republic
Capital:
Windhoek
Administrative divisions:
13 districts; Erango, Hardap, Karas, Khomas, Kunene, Liambezi,
Ohanguena, Okarango, Omaheke, Omusat, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa
Independence:
21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 21 March (1990)
Constitution:
ratified 9 February 1990; effective 12 March 1990
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Sam NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990); election last held 16
February 1990 (next to be held March 1995); results - Sam NUJOMA was
elected president by the Constituent Assembly (now the National
Assembly)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president from the National Assembly
Legislative branch:
bicameral legislature
National Council:
elections last held 30 November-3 December 1992 (next to be held by
December 1998); seats - (26 total) SWAPO 19, DTA 6, UDF 1
National Assembly:
elections last held on 7-11 November 1989 (next to be held by November
1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) SWAPO
41, DTA 21, UDF 4, ACN 3, NNF 1, FCN 1, NPF 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO), Sam NUJOMA; DTA of
Namibia (formerly Democratic Turnhalle Alliance) (DTA), Mishake
MUYONGO; United Democratic Front (UDF), Justus GAROEB; Action
Christian National (ACN), Kosie PRETORIUS; National Patriotic Front
(NPF), Moses KATJIUONGUA; Federal Convention of Namibia (FCN), Hans
DIERGAARDT; Namibia National Front (NNF), Vekuii RUKORO
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Tuliameni KALOMOH
chancery:
1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 986-0540
FAX:
(202) 986-0443
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Howard F. JETER
embassy:
Ausplan Building, 14 Lossen St., Windhoek
mailing address:
P. O. Box 9890, Windhoek 9000
telephone:
[264] (61) 221-601, 222-675, 222-680
FAX:
[264] (61) 229-792
Flag:
a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the upper left
section, and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower right
section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe that is
contrasted by two narrow white-edge borders

@Namibia, Economy

Overview:
The economy is heavily dependent on the mining industry to extract and
process minerals for export. Mining accounts for almost 25% of GDP.
Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa
and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Alluvial diamond
deposits are among the richest in the world, making Namibia a primary
source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large
quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten. More than half
the population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence
agriculture) for its livelihood.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.85 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.5% (1992)
National product per capita:
$2,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
17.9% (1992) in urban area
Unemployment rate:
30% (1992)
Budget:
revenues:
$941 million
expenditures:
$1.05 billion, including capital expenditures of $157 million
(FY93/94)
Exports:
$1.289 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium, cattle, processed fish,
karakul skins
partners:
Switzerland, South Africa, Germany, Japan
Imports:
$1.178 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment
partners:
South Africa, Germany, US, Switzerland
External debt:
about $220 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.9% (1991); accounts for 35% of GDP, including mining
Electricity:
capacity:
490,000 kW
production:
1.29 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
850 kWh (1991)
Industries:
meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, mining (copper, lead,
zinc, diamond, uranium)
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP; mostly subsistence farming; livestock raising
major source of cash income; crops - millet, sorghum, peanuts; fish
catch potential of over 1 million metric tons not being fulfilled,
1988 catch reaching only 384,000 metric tons; not self-sufficient in
food
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $47.2 million
Currency:
1 South African rand (R) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
South African rand (R) per US$1 - 3.4096 (January 1994), 3.2678
(1993), 2.8497 (1992), 2.7653 (1991), 2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Namibia, Communications

Railroads:
2,341 km 1.067-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
total:
54,500 km
paved:
4,080 km
unpaved:
gravel 2,540 km; earth 47,880 km (roads and tracks)
Ports:
Luderitz; Walvis Bay
Airports:
total:
136
usable:
109
with permanent-surface runways:
21
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
64
Telecommunications:
good urban, fair rural services; radio relay connects major towns,
wires extend to other population centers; 62,800 telephones; broadcast
stations - 4 AM, 40 FM, 3 TV

@Namibia, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Defense Force (Army), Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 336,145; fit for military service 199,337
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $66 million, 3.4% of GDP (FY92)

@Nauru, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Micronesia, 500 km north-northeast of Papua New Guinea
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
21 sq km
land area:
21 sq km
comparative area:
about one-tenth the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
30 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)
Terrain:
sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with
phosphate plateau in center
Natural resources:
phosphates
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
limited water resources, roof storage tanks collect rainwater;
phosphate mining threatens limited remaining land resources
natural hazards:
rainfall is erratic
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Marine Dumping; signed, but
not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note:
Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific
Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea
in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator

@Nauru, People

Population:
10,019 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.33% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
18.03 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.1 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
40.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
66.68 years

Book of the day:
Facebook Google Reddit StumbleUpon Twitter Pinterest