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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily in March and
April
international agreements:
party to - Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea
Note:
most of the population concentrated along the Senegal River in the
southern part of the country

@Mauritania, People

Population:
2,192,777 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.16% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
47.65 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
16.09 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
85.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
48.06 years
male:
45.23 years
female:
51.01 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.99 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mauritanian(s)
adjective:
Mauritanian
Ethnic divisions:
mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30%
Religions:
Muslim 100%
Languages:
Hasaniya Arabic (official), Pular, Soninke, Wolof (official)
Literacy:
age 10 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
34%
male:
47%
female:
21%
Labor force:
465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980)
by occupation:
agriculture 47%, services 29%, industry and commerce 14%, government
10%
note:
53% of population of working age (1985)

@Mauritania, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Islamic Republic of Mauritania
conventional short form:
Mauritania
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah
local short form:
Muritaniyah
Digraph:
MR
Type:
republic
Capital:
Nouakchott
Administrative divisions:
12 regions (regions, singular - region); Adrar, Assaba, Brakna,
Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech Chargui, Hodh el
Gharbi, Inchiri, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza
note:
there may be a new capital district of Nouakchott
Independence:
28 November 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 November (1960)
Constitution:
12 July 1991
Legal system:
three-tier system: Islamic (Shari'a) courts, special courts, state
security courts (in the process of being eliminated)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984);
election last held January 1992 (next to be held January 1998);
results - President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid 'Ahmed TAYA elected
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
bicameral legislature
Senate (Majlis al-Shuyukh):
elections last held 15 April 1994 (one-third of the seats up for
re-election in 1996)
National Assembly (Majlis al-Watani):
elections last held 6 and 13 March 1992 (next to be held March 1997)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
legalized by constitution passed 12 July 1991, however, politics
continue to be tribally based; emerging parties include Democratic and
Social Republican Party (PRDS), led by President Col. Maaouya Ould
Sid'Ahmed TAYA; Union of Democratic Forces - New Era (UFD/NE), headed
by Ahmed Ould DADDAH; Assembly for Democracy and Unity (RDU), Ahmed
Ould SIDI BABA; Popular Social and Democratic Union (UPSD), Mohamed
Mahmoud Ould MAH; Mauritanian Party for Renewal (PMR), Hameida
BOUCHRAYA; National Avant-Garde Party (PAN), Khattry Ould JIDDOU;
Mauritanian Party of the Democratic Center (PCDM), Bamba Ould SIDI
BADI
Other political or pressure groups:
Mauritanian Workers Union (UTM)
Member of:
ABEDA, ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC,
CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mohamed Fall Ould AININA
chancery:
2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 232-5700
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Gordon S. BROWN
embassy:
address NA, Nouakchott
mailing address:
B. P. 222, Nouakchott
telephone:
[222] (2) 526-60 or 526-63
FAX:
[222] (2) 515-92
Flag:
green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal
crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star,
and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

@Mauritania, Economy

Overview:
A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and
livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many
subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts
in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore,
which account for almost 50% of total exports. The decline in world
demand for this ore, however, has led to cutbacks in production. The
nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the
world, but overexploitation by foreigners threatens this key source of
revenue. The country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott in
1986. In recent years, drought and economic mismanagement have
resulted in a substantial buildup of foreign debt. The government has
begun the second stage of an economic reform program in consultation
with the World Bank, the IMF, and major donor countries.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.2 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,050 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.5% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$280 million
expenditures:
$346 million, including capital expenditures of $61 million (1989
est.)
Exports:
$432 million (f.o.b., 1992 est)
commodities:
iron ore, fish and fish products
partners:
Japan 27%, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg
Imports:
$413 million (c.i.f., 1992 est)
commodities:
foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products, capital goods
partners:
Algeria 15%, China 6%, US 3%, France, Germany, Spain, Italy
External debt:
$1.9 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.4% (1988 est.); accounts for almost 30% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
190,000 kW
production:
135 million kWh
consumption per capita:
70 kWh (1991)
Industries:
fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum
Agriculture:
accounts for 25% of GDP (including fishing); largely subsistence
farming and nomadic cattle and sheep herding except in Senegal river
valley; crops - dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; fish products
number-one export; large food deficit in years of drought
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $168 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.3
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $490 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $277 million; Arab Development Bank (1991), $20
million
Currency:
1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums
Exchange rates:
ouguiyas (UM) per US$1 - 124.480 (December 1993), 87.082 (1992),
81.946 (1991), 80.609 (1990), 83.051 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Mauritania, Communications

Railroads:
690 km 1.435-meter (standard) gauge, single track, owned and operated
by government mining company
Highways:
total:
7,525 km
paved:
1,685 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, otherwise improved 1,040 km; unimproved earth
4,800 km (roads, trails, tracks)
Inland waterways:
mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River
Ports:
Nouadhibou, Nouakchott
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,290 GRT/1,840 DWT
Airports:
total:
28
usable:
28
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
5
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
17
Telecommunications:
poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay
links, and radio communications stations (improvements being made);
broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; satellite earth stations - 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2 ARABSAT, with six planned

@Mauritania, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Guard, National
Police, Presidential Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 467,677; fit for military service 228,385
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $40 million, 4.2% of GDP (1989)

@Mauritius, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the western Indian Ocean, 900 km east of
Madagascar
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,860 sq km
land area:
1,850 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 10.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint Brandon), and
Rodrigues
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
177 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims UK-administered Chagos Archipelago, which includes the island
of Diego Garcia in UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory;
claims French-administered Tromelin Island
Climate:
tropical modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to
November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)
Terrain:
small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains encircling
central plateau
Natural resources:
arable land, fish
Land use:
arable land:
54%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
31%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
170 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution
natural hazards:
subject to cyclones (November to April); almost completely surrounded
by reefs
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

@Mauritius, People

Population:
1,116,923 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.92% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
19.28 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.41 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
18.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.54 years
male:
66.62 years
female:
74.63 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.22 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mauritian(s)
adjective:
Mauritian
Ethnic divisions:
Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%, Franco-Mauritian 2%
Religions:
Hindu 52%, Christian 28.3% (Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant 2.3%),
Muslim 16.6%, other 3.1%
Languages:
English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bojpoori
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
80%
male:
85%
female:
75%
Labor force:
335,000
by occupation:
government services 29%, agriculture and fishing 27%, manufacturing
22%, other 22%
note:
43% of population of working age (1985)

@Mauritius, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Mauritius
conventional short form:
Mauritius
Digraph:
MP
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Port Louis
Administrative divisions:
9 districts and 3 dependencies*; Agalega Islands*, Black River,
Cargados Carajos*, Flacq, Grand Port, Moka, Pamplemousses, Plaines
Wilhems, Port Louis, Riviere du Rempart, Rodrigues*, Savanne
Independence:
12 March 1968 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 March (1968)
Constitution:
12 March 1968; amended 12 March 1992
Legal system:
based on French civil law system with elements of English common law
in certain areas
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Cassam UTEEM (since 1 July 1992); Vice President
Rabindranath GHURBURRON (since 1 July 1992)
head of government:
Prime Minister Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 12 June 1982); Deputy Prime
Minister Prem NABABSING (since 26 September 1990)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on recommendation of
the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Assembly:
elections last held on 15 September 1991 (next to be held by 15
September 1996); results - MSM/MMM 53%, MLP/PMSD 38%; seats - (70
total, 62 elected) MSM/MMM alliance 59 (MSM 29, MMM 26, OPR 2, MTD 2);
MLP/PMSD 3
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
government coalition:
Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), A. JUGNAUTH; Mauritian Militant
Movement (MMM), Prem NABABSING (less 12 legislators under the
leadership of Paul BERENGER, now voting with the opposition);
Organization of the People of Rodrigues (OPR), Louis Serge CLAIR;
Democratic Labor Movement (MTD), Anil BAICHOO
opposition:
Mauritian Labor Party (MLP), Navin RAMGOOLMAN; Socialist Workers
Front, Sylvio MICHEL; Mauritian Social Democratic Party (PMSD), X.
DUVAL; MMM-Berenger Faction, Paul BERENGER
Other political or pressure groups:
various labor unions
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Anund NEEWOOR
chancery:
Suite 441, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 244-1491 or 1492
FAX:
(202) 966-0983
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Leslie ALEXANDER
embassy:
4th Floor, Rogers House, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis
mailing address:
use Embassy street address
telephone:
[230] 208-9763 through 208-9767
FAX:
[230] 208-9534
Flag:
four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and green

@Mauritius, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on sugar, manufacturing (mainly textiles), and
tourism. Sugarcane is grown on about 90% of the cultivated land area
and accounts for 40% of export earnings. The government's development
strategy centers on industrialization (with a view to exports),
agricultural diversification, and tourism. Economic performance in
1992 was impressive, with 6% real growth and low unemployment.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8.6 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$7,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.4% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$557 million
expenditures:
$607 million, including capital expenditures of $111 million (1990
est.)
Exports:
$1.32 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
textiles 44%, sugar 40%, light manufactures 10%
partners:
EC and US have preferential treatment, EU 77%, US 15%
Imports:
$1.63 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
manufactured goods 50%, capital equipment 17%, foodstuffs 13%,
petroleum products 8%, chemicals 7%
partners:
EC, US, South Africa, Japan
External debt:
$991 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7% (1990); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
235,000 kW
production:
630 million kWh
consumption per capita:
570 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, wearing apparel,
chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical
machinery, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 10% of GDP; about 90% of cultivated land in sugarcane;
other products - tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses, cattle, goats,
fish; net food importer, especially rice and fish
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; heroin
consumption and transshipment are growing problems
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $76 million; Western
(non-US) countries (1970-89), $709 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $54 million
Currency:
1 Mauritian rupee (MauR) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Mauritian rupees (MauRs) per US$1 - 18.696 (January 1994), 17.648
(1993), 15.563 (1992), 15.652 (1991), 14.839 (1990), 15.250 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Mauritius, Communications

Highways:
total:
1,800 km
paved:
1,640 km
unpaved:
earth 160 km
Ports:
Port Louis
Merchant marine:
14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 162,387 GRT/260,552 DWT, bulk 6,
cargo 7, liquefied gas 1
Airports:
total:
5
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
small system with good service utilizing primarily microwave radio
relay; new microwave link to Reunion; high-frequency radio links to
several countries; over 48,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM,
no FM, 4 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Mauritius, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Police Force, including the paramilitary Special Mobile Force
(SMF), Special Support Units (SSU), and National Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 316,975; fit for military service 161,634
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $5 million, 0.2% of GDP (FY89)

@Mayotte

Header
Affiliation:
(territorial collectivity of France)

@Mayotte, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the northern Mozambique Channel about halfway
between Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total area:
375 sq km
land area:
375 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
185.2 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Comoros
Climate:
tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon
(November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)
Terrain:
generally undulating with ancient volcanic peaks, deep ravines
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to cyclones during rainy season
international agreements:
NA
Note:
part of Comoro Archipelago

@Mayotte, People

Population:
93,468 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.8% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
48.84 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.84 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
79.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
57.81 years
male:
55.63 years
female:
60.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.77 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mahorais (singular and plural)
adjective:
Mahoran
Ethnic divisions:
NA
Religions:
Muslim 99%, Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)
Languages:
Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

@Mayotte, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte
conventional short form:
Mayotte
Digraph:
MF
Type:
territorial collectivity of France
Capital:
Mamoutzou
Administrative divisions:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Independence:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
National holiday:
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government:
Prefect Jean-Jacques DERACQ (since NA); President of the General
Council Younoussa BAMANA (since NA 1976)
Legislative branch:
unicameral
General Council (Conseil General):
elections last held March 1991 (next to be held March 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) MPM 12, RPR 5
French Senate:
elections last held on 24 September 1989 (next to be held September
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) MPM 1
French National Assembly:
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held 1998);
results - UDF-CDS 54.3%, RPR 44.3%; seats - (1 total) UDF-CDS 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)
Political parties and leaders:
Mahoran Popular Movement (MPM), Younoussa BAMANA; Party for the
Mahoran Democratic Rally (PRDM), Daroueche MAOULIDA; Mahoran Rally for
the Republic (RPR), Mansour KAMARDINE; Union for French Democracy
(UDF), Maoulida AHMED; Center of Social Democrats (CDS),
Member of:
FZ
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

@Mayotte, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is based primarily on the agricultural sector,
including fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte is not
self-sufficient and must import a large portion of its food
requirements, mainly from France. The economy and future development
of the island are heavily dependent on French financial assistance.
Mayotte's remote location is an obstacle to the development of
tourism.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $54 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$37.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1985 est.)
Exports:
$4 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities:
ylang-ylang, vanilla
partners:
France 79%, Comoros 10%, Reunion 9%
Imports:
$21.8 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities:
building materials, transportation equipment, rice, clothing, flour
partners:
France 57%, Kenya 16%, South Africa 11%, Pakistan 8%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
NA
production:
NA
consumption per capita:
NA
Industries:
newly created lobster and shrimp industry
Agriculture:
most important sector; provides all export earnings; crops - vanilla,
ylang-ylang, coffee, copra; imports major share of food needs
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $402 million
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Mayotte, Communications

Highways:
total:
42 km
paved:
bituminous 18 km
unpaved:
24 km
Ports:
Dzaoudzi
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
small system administered by French Department of Posts and
Telecommunications; includes radio relay and high-frequency radio
communications for links to Comoros and international communications;
450 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

@Mayotte, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@Mexico, Geography

Location:
Middle America, between Guatemala and the US
Map references:
North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,972,550 sq km
land area:
1,923,040 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 4,538 km, Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,326 km
Coastline:
9,330 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the natural prolongation of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims Clipperton Island (French possession)
Climate:
varies from tropical to desert
Terrain:
high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus, and desert
Natural resources:
petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
Land use:
arable land:
12%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
39%
forest and woodland:
24%
other:
24%
Irrigated land:
51,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
natural water resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and
poor quality in center and extreme southeast; untreated sewage and
industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation;
widespread erosion; desertification; serious air pollution in the
national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border
natural hazards:
subject to tsunamis along the Pacific coast, destructive earthquakes
in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Gulf and Caribbean
coasts
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands,
Whaling
Note:
strategic location on southern border of US

@Mexico, People

Population:
92,202,199 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.94% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
27.17 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.73 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
27.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.94 years
male:
69.36 years
female:
76.7 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.17 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mexican(s)
adjective:
Mexican
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (Indian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian
30%, Caucasian or predominantly Caucasian 9%, other 1%
Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%
Languages:
Spanish, various Mayan dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
87%
male:
90%
female:
85%
Labor force:
26.2 million (1990)
by occupation:
services 31.7%, agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing 28%,
commerce 14.6%, manufacturing 11.1%, construction 8.4%, transportation
4.7%, mining and quarrying 1.5%

@Mexico, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
United Mexican States
conventional short form:
Mexico
local long form:
Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form:
Mexico
Digraph:
MX
Type:
federal republic operating under a centralized government
Capital:
Mexico
Administrative divisions:
31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district*
(distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California
Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito
Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico,
Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro,
Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas,
Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas
Independence:
16 September 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 September (1810)
Constitution:
5 February 1917
Legal system:
mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial
review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Carlos SALINAS de Gortari (since 1 December 1988); election
last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held 21 August 1994); results -
Carlos SALINAS de Gortari (PRI) 50.74%, Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano
(FDN) 31.06%, Manuel CLOUTHIER (PAN) 16.81%; other 1.39%; note -
several of the smaller parties ran a common candidate under a
coalition called the National Democratic Front (FDN)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la Union)
Senate (Camara de Senadores):
elections last held on 18 August 1991 (next to be held 21 August
1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats in full Senate -
(64 total; Senate will expand to 128 seats following next election)
PRI 62, PRD 1, PAN 1
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados):
elections last held on 18 August 1991 (next to be held 21 August
1994); results - PRI 53%, PAN 20%, PFCRN 10%, PPS 6%, PARM 7%, PMS
(now part of PRD) 4%; seats - (500 total) PRI 320, PAN 89, PRD 41,
PFCRN 23, PARM 15, PPS 12
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Political parties and leaders:
(recognized parties) Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Ignacio
Pichardo PAGAZA; National Action Party (PAN), Carlos CASTILLO; Popular
Socialist Party (PPS), Indalecio SAYAGO Herrera; Democratic
Revolutionary Party (PRD), Porfirio MUNOZ Ledo; Cardenist Front for
the National Reconstruction Party (PFCRN), Rafael AGUILAR Talamantes;
Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution (PARM), Rosa Maria MARTINEZ
Denagri; Democratic Forum Party (PFD), Pablo Emilio MADERO; Mexican
Green Ecologist Party (PVEM), Jorge GONZALEZ Torres
Other political or pressure groups:
Roman Catholic Church; Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM);
Confederation of Industrial Chambers (CONCAMIN); Confederation of
National Chambers of Commerce (CONCANACO); National Peasant
Confederation (CNC); Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT); Revolutionary
Confederation of Workers and Peasants (CROC); Regional Confederation
of Mexican Workers (CROM); Confederation of Employers of the Mexican
Republic (COPARMEX); National Chamber of Transformation Industries
(CANACINTRA); Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations
(COECE); Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services (FESEBES)
Member of:
AG (observer), BCIE, CARICOM (observer), CCC, CDB, CG, EBRD, ECLAC,
FAO, G-3, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS,
OECD, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTI, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jorge MONTANO Martinez
chancery:
1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone:
(202) 728-1600
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco,
San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s):
Albuquerque, Austin, Boston, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico
(California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Eagle Pass
(Texas), Fresno (California), Loredo, Mc Allen (Texas), Midland
(Texas), Nogales (Arizona), Oxnard (California), Philadelphia
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador James JONES
embassy:
Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, D.F.
mailing address:
P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX 78044-3087
telephone:
[52] (5) 211-0042
FAX:
[52] (5) 511-9980, 208-3373
consulate(s) general:
Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana
consulate(s):
Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Nuevo Laredo
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the
coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak)
is centered in the white band

@Mexico, Economy

Overview:
Mexico's economy, made up predominantly of private manufacturing and
services and both large-scale and traditional agriculture, is
beginning to rebound from the economic difficulties of the 1980s but
still faces key challenges. During the 1980s, the accumulation of
large external debts, falling world petroleum prices, rapid population
growth, and mounting inflation and unemployment plagued the economy.
In recent years, the government has responded by implementing sweeping
economic reforms. Strict fiscal and monetary discipline have brought
inflation under control, reduced the internal debt, and produced
budgetary surpluses in 1992 and 1993. The tight money policies,
however, have restricted growth: barely 0.4% in 1993 after a rise of
2.6% in 1992 and 3.6% in 1991. Another aspect of the reform has been
the privatization of more than 80% of Mexico's businesses, including
all of the commercial banks. Seeking out increased trade and
investment opportunities, the government negotiated the North American
Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with the United States and Canada, which
entered into force on 1 January 1994. Within Latin America, Mexico has
completed bilateral free trade agreements with Chile and Costa Rica,
and is continuing negotiations with Colombia and Venezuela for a
trilateral deal in addition to holding trade discussions with various
other nations. In January of 1993, Mexico replaced its old peso at the
rate of 1,000 old to 1 new peso. Despite its hard-won economic
progress and the prospects of long-term gains under NAFTA, Mexico
still faces difficult problems, including sluggish growth,
unemployment, continuing social inequalities, serious pollution, and
the prospect of increased competition with the opening of trade.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $740 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0.4% (1993)
National product per capita:
$8,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10.7% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$58.1 billion
expenditures:
$53 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.4 billion (1992
est.)
Exports:
$50.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.), includes in-bond industries
commodities:
crude oil, oil products, coffee, silver, engines, motor vehicles,
cotton, consumer electronics
partners:
US 74%, Japan 8%, EC 4% (1992 est.)
Imports:
$65.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.), includes in-bond industries
commodities:
metal-working machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery,
electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor
vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts
partners:
US 74%, Japan, 11%, EC 6% (1992)
External debt:
$125 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.8% (1992 est.); accounts for 28% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
27,000,000 kW
production:
120.725 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,300 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum,
mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 9% of GDP and over 25% of work force; large number of
small farms at subsistence level; major food crops - corn, wheat,
rice, beans; cash crops - cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis continues in spite of
active government eradication program; major supplier to the US
market; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound
cocaine and marijuana from South America
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.7
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $110 million
Currency:
1 New Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1 - 3.3556 (March 1994),
3,094.9 (1992), 3,018.4 (1991), 2,812.6 (1990), 2,461.3 (1989)
note:
the new peso replaced the old peso on 1 January 1993; 1 new peso =
1,000 old pesos
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Mexico, Communications

Railroads:
24,500 km total
Highways:
total:
242,300 km
paved:
84,800 km (including 3,166 km of expressways)
unpaved:
gravel and earth 157,500 km
Inland waterways:
2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals
Pipelines:
crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural gas 13,254
km; petrochemical 1,400 km
Ports:
Acapulco, Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, Manzanillo,
Mazatlan, Progreso, Puerto Vallarta, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Tuxpan,
Veracruz
Merchant marine:
58 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 853,161 GRT/1,269,018 DWT, cargo
3, chemical tanker 4, container 4, liquefied gas 7, oil tanker 32,
refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 4
Airports:
total:
1,993
usable:
1,585
with permanent-surface runways:
202
with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
35
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
286
Telecommunications:
highly developed system with extensive microwave radio relay links;
privatized in December 1990; connected into Central America Microwave
System; 6,410,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 679 AM, no FM, 238
TV, 22 shortwave; 120 domestic satellite terminals; earth stations - 4
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT; launched
Solidarity I satellite in November 1993

@Mexico, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Defense (including Army and Air Force), Navy (including
Marines)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 22,779,635; fit for military service 16,619,809; reach
military age (18) annually 1,053,025 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Micronesia, Federated States of, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters
of the way between Hawaii and Indonesia
Map references:
Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
702 sq km
land area:
702 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than four times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Truk (Chuuk), Yap, and Kosrae
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
6,112 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern
islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasional
severe damage
Terrain:
islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral
atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk
Natural resources:
forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to typhoons (June to December)
international agreements:
party to - Climate Change, Law of the Sea; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity
Note:
four major island groups totaling 607 islands

@Micronesia, Federated States of, People

Population:
120,347 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.36% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
28.3 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
11.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
37.24 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.63 years
male:
65.67 years
female:
69.62 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.01 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Micronesian(s)
adjective:
Micronesian; Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s), Trukese, Yapese
Ethnic divisions:
nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups
Religions:
Christian (divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant; other
churches include Assembly of God, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day
Adventist, Latter-Day Saints, and the Baha'i Faith)
Languages:
English (official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese,
Kosrean
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
90%
male:
90%
female:
85%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
two-thirds are government employees
note:
45,000 people are between the ages of 15 and 65

@Micronesia, Federated States of, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Federated States of Micronesia
conventional short form:
none
former:
Kosrae, Ponape, Truk, and Yap Districts (Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands)
Abbreviation:
FSM
Digraph:
FM
Type:
constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact
of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986
Capital:
Kolonia (on the island of Pohnpei)
note:
a new capital is being built about 10 km southwest in the Palikir
valley
Administrative divisions:
4 states; Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk (Truk), Yap
Independence:
3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)
National holiday:
Proclamation of the Federated States of Micronesia, 10 May (1979)
Constitution:
10 May 1979
Legal system:
based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature,
municipal, common, and customary laws
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Bailey OLTER (since 21 May 1991); Vice President Jacob NENA
(since 21 May 1991); election last held ll May 1991 (next to be held
March 1995); results - President Bailey OLTER elected president;
Vice-President Jacob NENA
cabinet:
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Congress:
elections last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be held March 1993);
results - percent of vote NA; seats - (14 total)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
no formal parties
Member of:
AsDB, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, ITU, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jesse B. MAREHALAU
chancery:
1725 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 223-4383
FAX:
(202) 223-4391
consulate(s) general:
Honolulu and Tamuning (Guam)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Aurelia E. BRAZEAL
embassy:
address NA, Kolonia
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1286, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia 96941
telephone:
691-320-2187
FAX:
691-320-2186
Flag:
light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars are
arranged in a diamond pattern

@Micronesia, Federated States of, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity consists primarily of subsistence farming and
fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting,
except for high-grade phosphate. The potential for a tourist industry
exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack of adequate
facilities hinder development. Financial assistance from the US is the
primary source of revenue, with the US pledged to spend $1 billion in
the islands in the l990s. Geographical isolation and a poorly
developed infrastructure are major impediments to long-term growth.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $150 million (1989 est.)
note:
GNP numbers reflect US spending
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
27% (1989)
Budget:
revenues:
$165 million
expenditures:
$115 million, including capital expenditures of $20 million (1988
est.)
Exports:
$2.3 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
copra
partners:
NA
Imports:
$67.7 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
18,000 kW
production:
40 million kWh
consumption per capita:
380 kWh (1990)
Industries:
tourism, construction, fish processing, craft items from shell, wood,
and pearls
Agriculture:
mainly a subsistence economy; black pepper; tropical fruits and
vegetables, coconuts, cassava, sweet potatoes, pigs, chickens
Economic aid:
recipient:
under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US will provide
$1.3 billion in grant aid during the period 1986-2001
Currency:
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

@Micronesia, Federated States of, Communications

Highways:
total:
226 km
paved:
39 km (on major islands)
unpaved:
stone, coral, laterite 187 km
Ports:
Colonia (Yap), Truk, Okat and Lelu (Kosrae)
Airports:
total:
6
usable:
5
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
telephone network - 960 telephone lines total at Kolonia and Truk;
islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for government
purposes); 16,000 radio receivers, 1,125 TV sets (est. 1987);
broadcast stations - 5 AM, 1 FM, 6 TV, 1 shortwave; 4 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations

@Micronesia, Federated States of, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

@Midway Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

@Midway Islands, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 2,350 km
west-northwest of Honolulu, about one-third of the way between
Honolulu and Tokyo
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
5.2 sq km
land area:
5.2 sq km
comparative area:
about 9 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
note:
includes Eastern Island and Sand Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
15 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds
Terrain:
low, nearly level
Natural resources:
fish, wildlife
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
a coral atoll; closed to the public

@Midway Islands, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 453 US military personnel

@Midway Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Midway Islands
Digraph:
MQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy, under
Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific Division. This facility
has been operationally closed since 10 September 1993 and is currently
being transferred from Pacific Fleet to Naval Facilities Engineering
Command via a Memorandum of Understanding.
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC
Flag:
the US flag is used

@Midway Islands, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on providing support services for US naval
operations located on the islands. All food and manufactured goods
must be imported.
Electricity:
supplied by US Military

@Midway Islands, Communications

Highways:
total:
32 km
paved:
NA
Pipelines:
7.8 km
Ports:
Sand Island
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1

@Midway Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

@Moldova, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, between Ukraine and Romania
Map references:
Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
33,700 sq km
land area:
33,700 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Hawaii
Land boundaries:
total 1,389 km, Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
no official territorial claims by either Moldova or Romania, but
nationalists in Romania seek the merger of Moldova into Romania;
potential future dispute by Moldova and Romania against Ukraine over
former southern and northern Bessarabian areas and Northern Bukovina
ceded to Ukraine upon Moldova's incorporation into USSR
Climate:
moderate winters, warm summers
Terrain:
rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Natural resources:
lignite, phosphorites, gypsum
Land use:
arable land:
50%
permanent crops:
13%
meadows and pastures:
9%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
28%
Irrigated land:
2,920 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such
as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion
from poor farming methods
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
landlocked

@Moldova, People

Population:
4,473,033 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.38% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
16.02 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.02 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
30.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.07 years
male:
64.65 years
female:
71.67 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.18 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Moldovan(s)
adjective:
Moldovan
Ethnic divisions:
Moldavian/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Gagauz 3.5%,
Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 figures)
note:
internal disputes with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians in the Dniester
region and Gagauz Turks in the south
Religions:
Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about 1,000
members) (1991)
note:
the large majority of churchgoers are ethnic Moldavian
Languages:
Moldovan (official; virtually the same as the Romanian language),
Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
99%
Labor force:
2.05 million (1992)
by occupation:
agriculture 34.4%, industry 20.1%, other 45.5% (1985 figures)

@Moldova, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Moldova
conventional short form:
Moldova
local long form:
Republica Moldoveneasca
local short form:
none
former:
Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia
Digraph:
MD
Type:
republic
Capital:
Chisinau
Administrative divisions:
previously divided into 40 rayons; new districts possible under new
constitution in 1994
Independence:
27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 August 1991
Constitution:
old Soviet constitution (adopted NA 1979) is still in effect but has
been heavily amended during the past few years; a new constitution is
expected in 1994
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts;
does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and
CSCE documents
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Mircea SNEGUR (since 3 September 1990); election last held 8
December 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Mircea SNEGUR ran
unopposed and won 98.17% of vote; note - President SNEGUR was named
executive president by the Supreme Soviet on 3 September 1990 and was
confirmed by popular election on 8 December 1991
head of government:
Prime Minister Andrei SANGHALI (since 1 July 1992; reappointed 5 April
1994 after elections for new legislature)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on recommendation of
the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament:
elections last held 27 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1999);
results - percent by party NA; seats - (104 total) Agrarian-Democratic
Party 56, Socialist/Yedinstvo Bloc 28, Peasants and Intellectual Bloc
11, Christian Democratic Popular Front 9
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Popular Front (formerly Moldovan Popular Front),
Iurie ROSCA, chairman; Yedinstvo Intermovement, V. YAKOVLEV, chairman;
Social Democratic Party, Oazu NANTOI, chairman, two other chairmen;
Agrarian-Democratic Party, Dumitru MOTPAN, chairman; Democratic Party,
Gheorghe GHIMPU, chairman; Democratic Labor Party, Alexandru ARSENI,
chairman; Reform Party, Anatol SELARU; Republican Party, Victor
PUSCAS; Socialist Party, Valeriu SENIC, chairman; Communist Party,
Vladimir VORONIN
Other political or pressure groups:
United Council of Labor Collectives (UCLC), Igor SMIRNOV, chairman;
Congress of Intellectuals, Alexandru MOSANU; The Ecology Movement of
Moldova (EMM), G. MALARCHUK, chairman; The Christian Democratic League
of Women of Moldova (CDLWM), L. LARI, chairman; National Christian
Party of Moldova (NCPM), D. TODIKE, M. BARAGA, V. NIKU, leaders; The
Peoples Movement Gagauz Khalky (GKh), S. GULGAR, leader; The
Democratic Party of Gagauzia (DPG), G. SAVOSTIN, chairman; The
Alliance of Working People of Moldova (AWPM), G. POLOGOV, president;
Christian Alliance for Greater Romania; Stefan the Great Movement;
Liberal Convention of Moldova; Association of Victims of Repression;
Christian Democratic Youth League
Member of:
BSEC, CE (guest), CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Nicolae TIU
chancery:
1511 K Street NW, Room 329, Washington, DC
telephone:
(202) 783-3012 or -2807
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mary C. PENDLETON
embassy:
Strada Alexei Mateevich #103, Chisinau
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
373 (2) 23-37-72 or 23-34-76
FAX:
7-0422-23-30-44
Flag:
same color scheme as Romania - 3 equal vertical bands of blue (hoist
side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle
of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow
cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a
yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided
horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and
crescent all in black-outlined yellow

@Moldova, Economy

Overview:
Moldova has pushed ahead boldly on economic reform since gaining its
independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. It introduced a
convertible currency - the leu - in late 1993 that has remained stable
against the dollar, removed price controls on most products,
eliminated licenses and quotas on most imports and exports, and freed
interest rates. In 1994, Moldova aims to privatize at least one-third
of state enterprises, lower inflation to 1% per month, and reduce the
budget deficit to 3.5% of GDP. Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and
good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result,
Moldova's economy is primarily based on agriculture, featuring fruits,
vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova, however, must import all of
its supplies of oil, coal, and natural gas, and energy shortages have
contributed to sharp production declines since the break-up of the
Soviet Union. Activities by separatist groups in the Dniester region
have held back economic development in that area. Foreign economic
assistance has been a tangible plus for Moldova, whereas direct
foreign investment has been lacking.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $16.3 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Moldovan statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,650 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
30% per month (1993)
Unemployment rate:
less than 1% (includes only officially registered unemployed; large
numbers of underemployed workers)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
note:
budget deficit for 1993 approximately 6% of GDP
Exports:
$108 million to outside the FSU countries (January-September 1993);
over 70% of exports go to FSU countries
commodities:
foodstuffs, wine, tobacco, textiles and footwear, machinery, chemicals
(1991)
partners:
Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Romania, Germany
Imports:
$145 million from outside the FSU countries (January-September 1993);
over 70% of imports are from FSU countries
commodities:
oil, gas, coal, steel machinery, foodstuffs, automobiles, and other
consumer durables
partners:
Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Romania, Germany
External debt:
$325 million (end of 1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate -10% (1993)
Electricity:
capacity:
3,115,000 kW
production:
11.1 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,491 kWh (1992)
Industries:
key products are canned food, agricultural machinery, foundry
equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery,
refined sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles
Agriculture:
Moldova's principal economic activity; products are vegetables,
fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, meat, milk, tobacco
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis; mostly for CIS
consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
Joint EC-US loan (1993), $127 million; IMF STF credit (1993), $64
million; IMF stand-by loan (1993), $72 million; US commitments
(1992-93), $61 million in humanitarian aid, $11 million in technical
assistance; World Bank loan (1993), $60 million; Russia (1993), 50
billion ruble credit; Romania (1993), 20 billion lei credit
Currency:
the leu (plural lei) was introduced in late 1993
Exchange rates:
NA

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