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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $141 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
8% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$7,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
3% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$19.6 billion
expenditures:
$18 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.4 billion (1994
est.)
Exports:
$46.8 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
electronic equipment, petroleum and petroleum products, palm oil, wood
and wood products, rubber, textiles
partners:
Singapore 23%, US 15%, Japan 13%, UK 4%, Germany 4%, Thailand 4%
(1991)
Imports:
$40.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, food, petroleum products
partners:
Japan 26%, Singapore 21%, US 16%, Taiwan 6%, Germany 4%, UK 3%,
Australia 3% (1991)
External debt:
$18.4 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 13% (1992); accounts for 43% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
8,000,000 kW
production:
30 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,610 kWh (1992)
Industries:
Peninsular Malaysia:
rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing
industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing
timber
Sabah:
logging, petroleum production
Sarawak:
agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging
Agriculture:
accounts for 17% of GDP
Peninsular Malaysia:
natural rubber, palm oil, rice
Sabah:
mainly subsistence, but also rubber, timber, coconut, rice
Sarawak:
rubber, timber, pepper; deficit of rice in all areas
Illicit drugs:
transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the US, Western
Europe, and the Third World despite severe penalties for drug
trafficking
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $170 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.7
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $42 million
Currency:
1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen
Exchange rates:
ringgits (M$) per US$1 - 2.7123 (January 1994), 2.5741 (1993), 2.5474
(1992), 2.7501 (1991), 1.7048 (1990), 2.7088 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Malaysia, Communications

Railroads:
Peninsular Malaysia:
1,665 km 1.04-meter gauge; 13 km double track, government owned
Sabah:
136 km 1.000-meter gauge
Sarawak:
none
Highways:
total:
29,026 km (Peninsular Malaysia 23,600 km, Sabah 3,782 km, Sarawak
1,644 km)
paved:
NA (Peninsular Malaysia 19,352 km mostly bituminous treated)
unpaved:
NA (Peninsular Malaysia 4,248 km)
Inland waterways:
Peninsular Malaysia:
3,209 km
Sabah:
1,569 km
Sarawak:
2,518 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km
Ports:
Tanjong Kidurong, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Port
Kelang, Sandakan, Tawau
Merchant marine:
183 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,935,210 GRT/2,913,808 DWT,
bulk 29, cargo 69, chemical tanker 6, container 26, liquefied gas 6,
livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 39, passenger-cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 2, vehicle carrier 2
Airports:
total:
113
usable:
104
with permanent-surface runways:
33
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
18
Telecommunications:
good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by
microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay
network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service
good; good coverage by radio and television broadcasts; 994,860
telephones (1984); broadcast stations - 28 AM, 3 FM, 33 TV; submarine
cables extend to India and Sarawak; SEACOM submarine cable links to
Hong Kong and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, and 2 domestic

@Malaysia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air Force, Royal
Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police, Sarawak Border Scouts
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,942,387; fit for military service 3,001,972; reach
military age (21) annually 182,850 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.2 billion, 3% of GDP (1994 est.)

@Maldives, Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, in the Indian Ocean off the southwest coast of India
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
300 sq km
land area:
300 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
644 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
35-310 nm as defined by geographic coordinates; segment of zone
coincides with maritime boundary with India
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March);
rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)
Terrain:
flat with elevations only as high as 2.5 meters
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
84%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies
natural hazards:
low level of islands makes them very sensitive to sea level rise
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note:
1,200 coral islands grouped into 19 atolls; archipelago of strategic
location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

@Maldives, People

Population:
252,077 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.61% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
43.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.45 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
53.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
64.67 years
male:
63.24 years
female:
66.17 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.26 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Maldivian(s)
adjective:
Maldivian
Ethnic divisions:
Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, African
Religions:
Sunni Muslim
Languages:
Divehi (dialect of Sinhala; script derived from Arabic), English
spoken by most government officials
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
total population:
92%
male:
92%
female:
92%
Labor force:
66,000 (est.)
by occupation:
fishing industry 25%

@Maldives, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Maldives
conventional short form:
Maldives
Digraph:
MV
Type:
republic
Capital:
Male
Administrative divisions:
19 districts (atolls); Aliff, Baa, Daalu, Faafu, Gaafu Aliff, Gaafu
Daalu, Haa Aliff, Haa Daalu, Kaafu, Laamu, Laviyani, Meemu, Naviyani,
Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Waavu
Independence:
26 July 1965 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 July (1965)
Constitution:
4 June 1968
Legal system:
based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law primarily
in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978); election last
held 1 October 1993 (next to be held NA); results - President Maumoon
Abdul GAYOOM was reelected with 92.76% of the vote
cabinet:
Ministry of Atolls; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Citizens' Council (Majlis):
elections last held on 7 December 1989 (next to be held 7 December
1994); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (48 total, 40 elected)
Judicial branch:
High Court
Political parties and leaders:
no organized political parties; country governed by the Didi clan for
the past eight centuries
Member of:
AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC,
SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
Maldives has no embassy in the US, but does have a UN mission in New
York; Permanent Representative to the UN Ahmed ZAKI
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and makes
periodic visits there
consular agency:
Midhath Hilmy, Male
telephone:
2581
Flag:
red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical
white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side
of the flag

@Maldives, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and shipping. Agriculture is
limited to the production of a few subsistence crops that provide only
10% of food requirements. Fishing is the largest industry, employing
25% of the work force and accounting for over 60% of exports; it is
also an important source of government revenue. During the 1980s
tourism became one of the most important and highest growth sectors of
the economy. In 1988 industry accounted for about 5% of GDP. Real GDP
is officially estimated to have increased by about 10% annually during
the period 1974-90.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $140 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$620 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NEGL%
Budget:
revenues:
$95 million (excluding foreign transfers)
expenditures:
$143 million, including capital expenditures of $71 million (1993
est.)
Exports:
$56.3 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
fish, clothing
partners:
US, UK, Sri Lanka
Imports:
$173.6 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
consumer goods, intermediate and capital goods, petroleum products
partners:
Singapore, Germany, Sri Lanka, India
External debt:
$148 million (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 24% (1990); accounts for 6% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
5,000 kW
production:
11 million kWh
consumption per capita:
50 kWh (1990)
Industries:
fishing and fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, some
coconut processing, garments, woven mats, coir (rope), handicrafts
Agriculture:
accounts for almost 25% of GDP (including fishing); fishing more
important than farming; limited production of coconuts, corn, sweet
potatoes; most staple foods must be imported; fish catch of 67,000
tons (1990 est.)
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $28 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $125
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $14 million
Currency:
1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laari
Exchange rates:
rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1 - 11.105 (January 1994), 10.957 (1993), 10.569
(1992), 10.253 (1991), 9.509 (1990), 9.0408 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Maldives, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA (Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city)
Ports:
Male, Gan
Merchant marine:
14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 38,848 GRT/58,496 DWT, cargo 12,
container 1, oil tanker 1
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
minimal domestic and international facilities; 2,804 telephones;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@Maldives, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Security Service (paramilitary police force)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 55,369; fit for military service 30,919
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Mali, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, between Mauritania and Niger
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1.24 million sq km
land area:
1.22 million sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 7,243 km, Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km,
Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419
km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was
submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983
and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides
agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger
Climate:
subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and
mild June to November; cool and dry November to February
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in
south, rugged hills in northeast
Natural resources:
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, bauxite, iron ore,
manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
25%
forest and woodland:
7%
other:
66%
Irrigated land:
50 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of
safe drinking water; poaching
natural hazards:
hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring
droughts
international agreements:
party to - Law of the Sea, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
Note:
landlocked

@Mali, People

Population:
9,112,950 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.78% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
51.79 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
20.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
106.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
45.91 years
male:
44.29 years
female:
47.57 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.33 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Malian(s)
adjective:
Malian
Ethnic divisions:
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai
6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Religions:
Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%
Languages:
French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
17%
male:
26%
female:
9%
Labor force:
2.666 million (1986 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 80%, services 19%, industry and commerce 1% (1981)
note:
50% of population of working age (1985)

@Mali, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Mali
conventional short form:
Mali
local long form:
Republique de Mali
local short form:
Mali
former:
French Sudan
Digraph:
ML
Type:
republic
Capital:
Bamako
Administrative divisions:
8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro,
Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Independence:
22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)
Constitution:
new constitution adopted in constitutional referendum in 12 January
1992
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally
established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992); election last held
in April 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); Alpha KONARE was elected in
runoff race against Montaga TALL
head of government:
Prime Minister Ibrahima Boubacar KEITA (since March 1994)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly:
elections last held on 8 March 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (total 116) Adema 76, CNID 9,
US/RAD 8, Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West
Africa 6, RDP 4, UDD 4, RDT 3, UFDP 3, PDP 2, UMDD 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
Association for Democracy (Adema), Alpha Oumar KONARE; National
Congress for Democratic Initiative (CNID), Mountaga TALL; Sudanese
Union/African Democratic Rally (US/RDA), Mamadou Madeira KEITA;
Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West Africa;
Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP), Almamy SYLLA; Union for
Democracy and Development (UDD), Moussa Balla COULIBALY; Rally for
Democracy and Labor (RDT); Union of Democratic Forces for Progress
(UFDP), Dembo DIALLO; Party for Democracy and Progress (PDP), Idrissa
TRAORE; Malian Union for Democracy and Development (UMDD)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Siragatou Ibrahim CISSE
chancery:
2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-2249 or 939-8950
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William H. DAMERON III
embassy:
Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V., Bamako
mailing address:
B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone:
[223] 225470
FAX:
[223] 228059
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red;
uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Mali, Economy

Overview:
Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with about 70% of
its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely
confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the
population live as nomads and some 80% of the labor force is engaged
in agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on
processing farm commodities. In consultation with international
lending agencies, the government has adopted a structural adjustment
program for 1992-95, aiming at GDP annual growth of 4.6%, inflation of
no more than 2.5% on average, and a substantial reduction in the
external current account deficit.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - 5.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-6.1% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$650 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$376 million
expenditures:
$697 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$330 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
cotton, livestock, gold
partners:
mostly franc zone and Western Europe
Imports:
$682 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, construction materials,
petroleum, textiles
partners:
mostly franc zone and Western Europe
External debt:
$2.6 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.4% (1992 est.); accounts for 13.0% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
260,000 kW
production:
750 million kWh
consumption per capita:
90 kWh (1991)
Industries:
small local consumer goods and processing, construction, phosphate,
gold, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 50% of GDP; most production based on small subsistence
farms; cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of exports;
other crops - millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; livestock -
cattle, sheep, goats
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $349 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.02
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $92 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $190 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Mali, Communications

Railroads:
642 km 1.000-meter gauge; linked to Senegal's rail system through
Kayes
Highways:
total:
15,700 km
paved:
1,670 km
unpaved:
gravel, improved earth 3,670 km; unimproved earth 10,360 km
Inland waterways:
1,815 km navigable
Airports:
total:
33
usable:
27
with permanent-surface runways:
8
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
5
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
11
Telecommunications:
domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service with
radio relay, wire, and radio communications stations; expansion of
radio relay in progress; 11,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM,
2 FM, 2 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT

@Mali, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Police
(Surete Nationale)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,803,301; fit for military service 1,027,780
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $41 million, 2% of GDP (1989)

@Malta, Geography

Location:
Southern Europe, in the central Mediterranean Sea, 93 km south of
Sicily (Italy), 290 km north of Libya
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
320 sq km
land area:
320 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
140 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
25 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers
Terrain:
mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs
Natural resources:
limestone, salt
Land use:
arable land:
38%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
59%
Irrigated land:
10 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
fresh water very scarce; increasing reliance on desalination
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity
Note:
the country comprises an archipelago, with only the 3 largest islands
(Malta, Gozo, and Comino) being inhabited; numerous bays provide good
harbors

@Malta, People

Population:
366,767 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.79% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.56 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.45 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.77 years
male:
74.53 years
female:
79.18 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.94 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Maltese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Maltese
Ethnic divisions:
Arab, Sicilian, Norman, Spanish, Italian, English
Religions:
Roman Catholic 98%
Languages:
Maltese (official), English (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
total population:
84%
male:
86%
female:
82%
Labor force:
127,200
by occupation:
government (excluding job corps) 37%, services 26%, manufacturing 22%,
training programs 9%, construction 4%, agriculture 2% (1990)

@Malta, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Malta
conventional short form:
Malta
Digraph:
MT
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Valletta
Administrative divisions:
none (administration directly from Valletta)
Independence:
21 September 1964 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 21 September (1964)
Constitution:
1964 constitution substantially amended on 13 December 1974
Legal system:
based on English common law and Roman civil law; has accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Ugo MIFSUD BONNICI (since 4 April 1994)
head of government:
Prime Minister Dr. Edward (Eddie) FENECH ADAMI (since 12 May 1987);
Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Guido DE MARCO (since 14 May 1987)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president on advice of the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of Representatives:
elections last held on 22 February 1992 (next to be held by February
1997); results - NP 51.8%, MLP 46.5%; seats - (usually 65 total) MLP
36, NP 29; note - additional seats are given to the party with the
largest popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; current total
69 (MLP 33, NP 36 after adjustment)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court, Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
Nationalist Party (NP), Edward FENECH ADAMI; Malta Labor Party (MLP),
Alfred SANT
Member of:
C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Albert BORG OLIVIER DE PUGET
chancery:
2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 462-3611 or 3612
FAX:
(202) 387-5470
consulate(s):
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires William A. MOFFITT (new ambassador
nominated, but not confirmed)
embassy:
2nd Floor, Development House, Saint Anne Street, Floriana, Valletta
mailing address:
P. O. Box 535, Valletta
telephone:
[356] 235960
FAX:
[356] 243229
Flag:
two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in the upper
hoist-side corner is a representation of the George Cross, edged in
red

@Malta, Economy

Overview:
Significant resources are limestone, a favorable geographic location,
and a productive labor force. Malta produces only about 20% of its
food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has no domestic
energy sources. Consequently, the economy is highly dependent on
foreign trade and services. Manufacturing and tourism are the largest
contributors to the economy. Manufacturing accounts for about 27% of
GDP, with the electronics and textile industries major contributors
and the state-owned Malta drydocks which employs about 4,300 people.
In 1992, about 1,000,000 tourists visited the island. Per capita GDP
at $6,600 places Malta in the middle-income range of the world's
nations.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.5% (1992)
National product per capita:
$6,600 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.64% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
4% (1992)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.2 billion
expenditures:
$1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $182 million (FY94
est.)
Exports:
$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, clothing and footware, printed
matter
partners:
Italy 30%, Germany 22%, UK 11%
Imports:
$1.93 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
food, petroleum, machinery and semimanufactured goods
partners:
Italy 30%, UK 16%, Germany 13%, US 4%
External debt:
$118 million (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.4% (1992); accounts for 27% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
328,000 kW
production:
1.11 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
3,000 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism, electronics, ship repair yard, construction, food
manufacturing, textiles, footwear, clothing, beverages, tobacco
Agriculture:
accounts for 3% of GDP and 2% of the work force (1992); overall, 20%
self-sufficient; main products - potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat,
barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers, hogs, poultry,
eggs; generally adequate supplies of vegetables, poultry, milk, pork
products; seasonal or periodic shortages in grain, animal fodder,
fruits, other basic foodstuffs
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Western Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $172 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $336
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $76 million; Communist
countries (1970-88), $48 million
Currency:
1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Maltese liri (LM) per US$1 - 0.3951 (January 1994), 0.3821 (1993),
0.3178 (1992), 0.3226 (1991), 0.3172 (1990), 0.3483 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Malta, Communications

Highways:
total:
1,291 km
paved:
asphalt 1,179 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 77 km; earth 35 km
Ports:
Valletta, Marsaxlokk
Merchant marine:
897 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,959,195 GRT/24,038,587 DWT,
barge carrier 3, bulk 259, cargo 296, chemical tanker 25, combination
bulk 28, combination ore/oil 18, container 26, liquefied gas 2,
multifunction large load carrier 3, oil tanker 157, passenger 6,
passenger-cargo 3, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 17,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 20, short-sea passenger 19, specialized tanker
5, vehicle carrier 9
note:
a flag of convenience registry; China owns 11 ships, Russia owns 42
ships, Cuba owns 10, Vietnam owns 6, Croatia owns 63, Romania owns 4
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
automatic system satisfies normal requirements; 153,000 telephones;
excellent service by broadcast stations - 8 AM, 4 FM, and 2 TV;
submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands;
international service by 1 submarine cable and 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Malta, Defense Forces

Branches:
Armed Forces, Maltese Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 98,241; fit for military service 78,071
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $21.9 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989 est.)

@Man, Isle of

Header

Affiliation:
(British crown dependency)

@Man, Isle of, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, in the Irish Sea, between Ireland and Great Britain
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total area:
588 sq km
land area:
588 sq km
comparative area:
nearly 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
113 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half the time
Terrain:
hills in north and south bisected by central valley
Natural resources:
lead, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA% (extensive arable land and forests)
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest, and is a bird
sanctuary

@Man, Isle of, People

Population:
72,017 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.04% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.69 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.58 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
9.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.25 years
male:
73.51 years
female:
79.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Manxman, Manxwoman
adjective:
Manx
Ethnic divisions:
Manx (Norse-Celtic descent), Briton
Religions:
Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Society of
Friends
Languages:
English, Manx Gaelic
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
25,864 (1981)
by occupation:
NA

@Man, Isle of, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Isle of Man
Digraph:
IM
Type:
British crown dependency
Capital:
Douglas
Administrative divisions:
none (British crown dependency)
Independence:
none (British crown dependency)
National holiday:
Tynwald Day, 5 July
Constitution:
1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act
Legal system:
English law and local statute
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Lieutenant Governor Air Marshal Sir Laurence JONES (since NA 1990)
head of government:
President of the Legislative Council Sir Charles KERRUISH (since NA
1990)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
bicameral Tynwald
Legislative Council:
consists of a 10-member body composed of the Lord Bishop of Sodor and
Man, a nonvoting attorney general, and 8 others named by the House of
Keys
House of Keys:
elections last held in 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (24 total) independents 24
Judicial branch:
Court of Tynwald
Political parties and leaders:
there is no party system and members sit as independents
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (British crown dependency)
US diplomatic representation:
none (British crown dependency)
Flag:
red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in the center; the
three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order to
have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a
two-sided emblem is used

@Man, Isle of, Economy

Overview:
Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key sectors of the
economy. The government's policy of offering incentives to
high-technology companies and financial institutions to locate on the
island has paid off in expanding employment opportunities in
high-income industries. As a result, agriculture and fishing, once the
mainstays of the economy, have declined in their shares of GNP.
Banking now contributes about 45% to GNP. Trade is mostly with the UK.
The Isle of Man enjoys free access to European Union markets.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $490 million (1988)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$7,500 (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
1% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$130.4 million
expenditures:
$114.4 million, including capital expenditures of $18.1 million (1985
est.)
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
tweeds, herring, processed shellfish, meat
partners:
UK
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
timber, fertilizers, fish
partners:
UK
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
61,000 kW
production:
190 million kWh
consumption per capita:
2,965 kWh (1992)
Industries:
an important offshore financial center; financial services, light
manufacturing, tourism
Agriculture:
cereals and vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 Manx pound (#M) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Manx pounds (#M) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6658 (1993),
0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989); the Manx
pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Man, Isle of, Communications

Railroads:
60 km; 36 km electric track, 24 km steam track
Highways:
total:
640 km
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Douglas, Ramsey, Peel
Merchant marine:
67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,359,951 GRT/2,316,628 DWT,
bulk 11, cargo 10, chemical tanker 5, container 5, liquefied gas 7,
oil tanker 17, roll-on/roll-off cargo 9, vehicle carrier 3
note:
a captive register of the United Kingdom, although not all ships on
the register are British owned
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
24,435 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV

@Man, Isle of, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Marshall Islands, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of
the way between Hawaii and Papua New Guinea
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
181.3 sq km
land area:
181.3 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Washington, DC
note:
includes the atolls of Bikini, Eniwetak, and Kwajalein
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
370.4 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims US territory of Wake Island
Climate:
wet season May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt
Terrain:
low coral limestone and sand islands
Natural resources:
phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed minerals
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
60%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
40%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
inadequate supplies of safe drinking water
natural hazards:
occasionally subject to typhoons
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution
Note:
two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands; Bikini
and Eniwetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous
World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range

@Marshall Islands, People

Population:
54,031 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.86% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
46.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.68 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
49.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
63.13 years
male:
61.6 years
female:
64.74 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.94 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Marshallese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Marshallese
Ethnic divisions:
Micronesian
Religions:
Christian (mostly Protestant)
Languages:
English (universally spoken and is the official language), two major
Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family, Japanese
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
93%
male:
100%
female:
88%
Labor force:
4,800 (1986)
by occupation:
NA

@Marshall Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of the Marshall Islands
conventional short form:
Marshall Islands
former:
Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Digraph:
RM
Type:
constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact
of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986
Capital:
Majuro
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1 May (1979)
Constitution:
1 May 1979
Legal system:
based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature,
municipal, common, and customary laws
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Amata KABUA (since 1979); election last held 6 January 1992
(next to be held NA; results - President Amata KABUA was reelected)
cabinet:
Cabinet; president selects from the parliament
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament (Nitijela):
elections last held 18 November 1991 (next to be held November 1995);
results - percent of vote NA; seats - (33 total)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
no formal parties; President KABUA is chief political (and
traditional) leader
Member of:
AsDB, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Wilfred I. KENDALL
chancery:
2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 234-5414
FAX:
(202) 232-3236
consulate(s) general:
Honolulu and Los Angeles
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador David C. FIELDS
embassy:
NA address, Majuro
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960-1379
telephone:
(692) 625-4011
FAX:
(692) 625-4012
Flag:
blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner -
orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and
20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes

@Marshall Islands, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture and tourism are the mainstays of the economy. Agricultural
production is concentrated on small farms, and the most important
commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and breadfruit. A few
cattle ranches supply the domestic meat market. Small-scale industry
is limited to handicrafts, fish processing, and copra. The tourist
industry is the primary source of foreign exchange and employs about
10% of the labor force. The islands have few natural resources, and
imports far exceed exports. In 1987 the US Government provided grants
of $40 million out of the Marshallese budget of $55 million.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $63 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6% (1992)
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1992 est)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (1992 est)
Unemployment rate:
16% (1991 est)
Budget:
revenues:
$55 million
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1987 est.)
Exports:
$3.9 million (f.o.b., 1992 est)
commodities:
coconut oil, fish, live animals, trichus shells
partners:
US, Japan, Australia
Imports:
$62.9 million (c.i.f., 1992 est)
commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, beverages and tobacco, fuels
partners:
US, Japan, Australia
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
42,000 kW
production:
80 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,840 kWh (1990)
Industries:
copra, fish, tourism; craft items from shell, wood, and pearls;
offshore banking (embryonic)
Agriculture:
coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits, pigs, chickens
Economic aid:
recipient:
under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US is to
provide approximately $40 million in aid annually
Currency:
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

@Marshall Islands, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
note:
paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise stone-,
coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks
Ports:
Majuro
Merchant marine:
40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,255,348 GRT/4,351,997 DWT,
bulk carrier 23, cargo 2, combination ore/oil 1, container 1, oil
tanker 13
note:
a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
16
usable:
16
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
telephone network - 570 lines (Majuro) and 186 (Ebeye); telex
services; islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for
government purposes); broadcast stations - 1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV, 1
shortwave; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; US Government
satellite communications system on Kwajalein

@Marshall Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

@Martinique

Header
Affiliation:
(overseas department of France)

@Martinique, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the Caribbean Sea, off the coast of Venezuela
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America
Area:
total area:
1,100 sq km
land area:
1,060 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than six times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
290 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to October)
Terrain:
mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano
Natural resources:
coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
8%
meadows and pastures:
30%
forest and woodland:
26%
other:
26%
Irrigated land:
60 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity that result in
an average of one major natural disaster every five years
international agreements:
NA

@Martinique, People

Population:
392,362 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.2% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
17.96 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.95 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
10.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
78.01 years
male:
74.88 years
female:
81.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.92 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Martiniquais (singular and plural)
adjective:
Martiniquais
Ethnic divisions:
African and African-Caucasian-Indian mixture 90%, Caucasian 5%, East
Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%
Languages:
French, Creole patois
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population:
93%
male:
92%
female:
93%
Labor force:
100,000
by occupation:
service industry 31.7%, construction and public works 29.4%,
agriculture 13.1%, industry 7.3%, fisheries 2.2%, other 16.3%

@Martinique, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Department of Martinique
conventional short form:
Martinique
local long form:
Departement de la Martinique
local short form:
Martinique
Digraph:
MB
Type:
overseas department of France
Capital:
Fort-de-France
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
none (overseas department of France)
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French legal system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government:
Prefect Michel MORIN (since NA); President of the General Council
Claude LISE (since 22 March 1992); President of the Regional Council
Emile CAPGRAS (since 22 March 1992)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council and a unicameral Regional Assembly
General Council:
elections last held in 25 September and 8 October 1988 (next to be
held by NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (44 total)
number of seats by party NA; note - a leftist coalition obtained a
one-seat margin
Regional Assembly:
elections last held on 22 March 1992 (next to be held by March 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (41 total) RPR-UDF 16,
MIM 9, PPM 9, PCM 5, independents 2
French Senate:
elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) UDF 1, PPM 1
French National Assembly:
elections last held on NA June 1993 (next to be held June 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (4 total) RPR 3, FSM 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Stephen BAGOE; Union for a Martinique of
Progress (UMP); Martinique Progressive Party (PPM), Aime CESAIRE and
Camille DARSIERES; Socialist Federation of Martinique (FSM), Jean
CRUSOL; Martinique Communist Party (PCM); Martinique Patriots (PM);
Union for French Democracy (UDF), Jean MARAN; Martinique Independence
Movement (MIM), Alfred MARIE-JEANNE
Other political or pressure groups:
Proletarian Action Group (GAP); Alhed Marie-Jeanne Socialist
Revolution Group (GRS); Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance (ARC);
Central Union for Martinique Workers (CSTM), Marc PULVAR; Frantz Fanon
Circle; League of Workers and Peasants; Parti Martiniquais Socialiste
(PMS)
Member of:
FZ, WCL, WFTU
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (overseas department of France)
US diplomatic representation:
the post closed in August 1993 (overseas department of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

@Martinique, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism, and light
industry. Agriculture accounts for about 10% of GDP and the small
industrial sector for 10%. Sugar production has declined, with most of
the sugarcane now used for the production of rum. Banana exports are
increasing, going mostly to France. The bulk of meat, vegetable, and
grain requirements must be imported, contributing to a chronic trade
deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from France.
Tourism has become more important than agricultural exports as a
source of foreign exchange. The majority of the work force is employed
in the service sector and in administration. Banana workers launched
protests late in 1992 because of falling banana prices and fears of
greater competition in the European market from other producers.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.3 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$9,500 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.9% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
32.1% (1990)
Budget:
revenues:
$268 million
expenditures:
$268 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)
Exports:
$201.5 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
refined petroleum products, bananas, rum, pineapples
partners:
France 57.1%, Guadeloupe 31.5%, French Guiana 6.2%
Imports:
$1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum products, crude oil, foodstuffs, construction materials,
vehicles, clothing and other consumer goods
partners:
France 62.2%, UK, Italy, Germany, Japan, US
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
113,100 kW
production:
588 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,580 kWh (1992)
Industries:
construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism
Agriculture:
including fishing and forestry, accounts for about 10% of GDP;
principal crops - pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers, vegetables,
sugarcane for rum; dependent on imported food, particularly meat and
vegetables
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and
Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $10.1 billion
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9305 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Martinique, Communications

Highways:
total:
1,680 km
paved:
1,300 km
unpaved:
gravel, earth 380 km
Ports:
Fort-de-France
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
domestic facilities are adequate; 68,900 telephones; interisland
microwave radio relay links to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Saint Lucia;
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 10 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations

@Martinique, Defense Forces

Branches:
French Forces, Gendarmerie
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@Mauritania, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, along the North Atlantic Ocean, between Western
Sahara and Senegal
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,030,700 sq km
land area:
1,030,400 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 5,074 km, Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal 813 km, Western
Sahara 1,561 km
Coastline:
754 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
boundary with Senegal
Climate:
desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty
Terrain:
mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills
Natural resources:
iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
38%
forest and woodland:
5%
other:
56%
Irrigated land:
120 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
overgrazing, deforestation, and soil erosion aggravated by drought are
contributing to desertification; water scarcity away from the Senegal
which is the only perennial river
natural hazards:

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