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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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elections last held on 24 October 1993 (next to be held by March
1997); results - VU 50.1%, FBP 41.3%, FL 8.5%; seats - (25 total) VU
13, FBP 11, FL 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal cases, Superior
Court (Obergericht) for civil cases
Political parties and leaders:
Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Otto HASLER; Progressive Citizens' Party
(FBP), Emanuel VOGT; Free Electoral List (FL)
Member of:
CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, IAEA, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WIPO
Diplomatic representation in US:
in routine diplomatic matters, Liechtenstein is represented in the US
by the Swiss Embassy
US diplomatic representation:
the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein, but the
US Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular accreditation
at Vaduz
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on
the hoist side of the blue band

@Liechtenstein, Economy

Overview:
The prosperous economy is based primarily on small-scale light
industry and tourism. Industry accounts for 53% of total employment,
the service sector 45% (mostly based on tourism), and agriculture and
forestry 2%. The sale of postage stamps to collectors is estimated at
$10 million annually. Low business taxes (the maximum tax rate is 20%)
and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000 holding or
so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in
Liechtenstein. Such companies, incorporated solely for tax purposes,
provide 30% of state revenues. The economy is tied closely to
Switzerland's economy in a customs union, and incomes and living
standards parallel those of the more prosperous Swiss groups.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $630 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$22,300 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
1.5% (1990)
Budget:
revenues:
$259 million
expenditures:
$292 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery
partners:
EFTA countries 20.9% (Switzerland 15.4%), EC countries 42.7%, other
36.4% (1990)
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
23,000 kW
production:
150 million kWh
consumption per capita:
5,230 kWh (1992)
Industries:
electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals,
food products, precision instruments, tourism
Agriculture:
livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or
centesimi
Exchange rates:
Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.4715 (January
1994), 1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992), 1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990),
1.6359 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Liechtenstein, Communications

Railroads:
18.5 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, electrified; owned, operated, and
included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways
Highways:
total:
322.93 km
paved:
322.93 km
Airports:
none
Telecommunications:
limited, but sufficient automatic telephone system; 25,400 telephones;
linked to Swiss networks by cable and radio relay for international
telephone, radio, and TV services

@Liechtenstein, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is responsibility of Switzerland

@Lithuania, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia
Map references:
Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
65,200 sq km
land area:
65,200 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total 1,273 km, Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia
(Kaliningrad) 227 km
Coastline:
108 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
dispute with Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) over the position of the
Nemunas (Nemen) River border presently located on the Lithuanian bank
and not in midriver as by international standards
Climate:
maritime; wet, moderate winters and summers
Terrain:
lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Natural resources:
peat
Land use:
arable land:
49.1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
22.2%
forest and woodland:
16.3%
other:
12.4%
Irrigated land:
430 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and
chemicals at military bases
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change
Population:
3,848,389 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.74% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
14.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.95 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
16.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.24 years
male:
66.53 years
female:
76.19 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.01 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Lithuanian(s)
adjective:
Lithuanian
Ethnic divisions:
Lithuanian 80.1%, Russian 8.6%, Polish 7.7%, Byelorussian 1.5%, other
2.1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic, Lutheran, other
Languages:
Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1989)
total population:
98%
male:
99%
female:
98%
Labor force:
1.836 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 18%, other 40%
(1990)

@Lithuania, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form:
Lithuania
local long form:
Lietuvos Respublika
local short form:
Lietuva
former:
Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
LH
Type:
republic
Capital:
Vilnius
Administrative divisions:
44 regions (rajonai, singular - rajonas) and 11 municipalities*:
Akmenes Rajonas, Alytaus Rajonas, Alytus*, Anyksciu Rajonas,
Birsionas*, Birzu Rajonas, Druskininkai*, Ignalinos Rajonas, Jonavos
Rajonas, Joniskio Rajonas, Jurbarko Rajonas, Kaisiadoriu Rajonas,
Marijampoles Rajonas, Kaunas*, Kauno Rajonas, Kedainiu Rajonas, Kelmes
Rajonas, Klaipeda*, Klaipedos Rajonas, Kretingos Ragonas, Kupiskio
Rajonas, Lazdiju Rajonas, Marijampole*, Mazeikiu Ragonas, Moletu
Rajonas, Neringa* Pakruojo Rajonas, Palanga*, Panevezio Rajonas,
Panevezys*, Pasvalio Rajonas, Plunges Rajonas, Prienu Rajonas,
Radviliskio Rajonas, Raseiniu Rajonas, Rokiskio Rajonas, Sakiu
Rajonas, Salcininky Rajonas, Siauliai*, Siauliu Rajonas, Silales
Rajonas, Siltues Rajonas, Sirvinty Rajonas, Skuodo Rajonas, Svencioniu
Rajonas, Taurages Rajonas, Telsiu Rajonas, Traky Rajonas, Ukmerges
Rajonas, Utenos Rajonas, Varenos Rajonas, Vilkaviskio Rajonas,
Vilniaus Rajonas, Vilnius*, Zarasu Rajonas
Independence:
6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 February (1918)
Constitution:
adopted 25 October 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS (since 25 November 1992; elected
acting president by Parliament 25 November 1992 and elected by direct
vote 15 February 1993); election last held 14 February 1993 (next to
be held NA 1997); results - Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS was elected; note - on
25 November 1992 BRAZAUSKAS was elected chairman of Parliament and, as
such, acting president of the Republic; he was confirmed in office by
direct balloting 15 February 1993
head of government:
Premier Adolfas SLEZEVICIUS (since 10 March 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the nomination of
the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Seimas (parliament):
elections last held 26 October and 25 November 1992 (next to be held
NA); results - LDDP 51%; seats - (141 total) LDDP 73, Conservative
Party 30, LKDP 17, LTS 8, Farmers' Union 4, LLS 4, Center Union 2,
others 3
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Court of Appeals
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party (LKDP), Povilas KATILIUS, chairman;
Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania (LDDP), Adolfas SLEZEVICIUS,
chairman; Lithuanian Nationalist Union (LTS), Rimantas SMETONA,
chairman; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party (LSDP), Aloyzas SAKALAS,
chairman; Farmers' Union, Jonas CIULEVICIUS, chairman; Center Union,
Romualdas OZOLAS, chairman; Conservative Party, Vytautas LANDSBERGIS,
chairman; Lithuanian Polish Union (LLS), Rytardas MACIKIANEC, chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
Homeland Union; Lithuanian Future Forum; Farmers Union
Member of:
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
LORCS, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Alfonsas EIDINTAS
chancery:
2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 234-5860, 2639
FAX:
(202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Darryl N. JOHNSON
embassy:
Akmenu 6, Vilnius 232600
mailing address:
APO AE 09723
telephone:
370-2-223-031
FAX:
370-2-222-779
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red

@Lithuania, Economy

Overview:
Since independence in September 1991, Lithuania has made steady
progress in developing a market economy. Over 40% of state property
has been privatized and trade is diversifying with a gradual shift
away from the former Soviet Union to Western markets. Nevertheless,
the process has been painful with industrial output in 1993 less than
half the 1991 level. Inflation, while lower than in most ex-Soviet
states, has exceeded rates in the other Baltic states. Full monetary
stability and economic recovery are likely to be impeded by periodic
government backtracking on key elements of its reform and
stabilization program as it seeks to ease the economic pain of
restructuring. Recovery will build on Lithuanian's strategic location
with its ice-free port at Klaipeda and its rail and highway hub in
Vilnius connecting it with Eastern Europe, Belarus, Russia, and
Ukraine, and on its agriculture potential, highly skilled labor force,
and diversified industrial sector. Lacking important natural
resources, it will remain dependent on imports of fuels and raw
materials.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $12.4 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Lithuanian statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-10% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,240 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
188% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
1.8% (July 1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$258.5 million
expenditures:
$270.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
electronics 18%, petroleum products 5%, food 10%, chemicals 6% (1989)
partners:
Russia 40%, Ukraine 16%, other FSU countries 32%, West 12%
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
oil 24%, machinery 14%, chemicals 8%, grain NA% (1989)
partners:
Russia 62%, Belarus 18%, other FSU countries 10%, West 10%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -52% (1992)
Electricity:
capacity:
5,925,000 kW
production:
25 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
6,600 kWh (1992)
Industries:
employs 42% of the labor force; accounts for 23% of GOP shares in the
total production of the former USSR are: metal-cutting machine tools
6.6%; electric motors 4.6%; television sets 6.2%; refrigerators and
freezers 5.4%; other branches: petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small
ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers,
agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components,
computers, and amber
Agriculture:
employs around 18% of labor force; accounts for 25% of GDP; sugar,
grain, potatoes, sugar beets, vegetables, meat, milk, dairy products,
eggs, fish; most developed are the livestock and dairy branches, which
depend on imported grain; net exporter of meat, milk, and eggs
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia
and Latin America to Western Europe; limited producer of illicit
opium; mostly for domestic consumption
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
introduced the convertible litas in June 1993
Exchange rates:
litai per US$1 - 4 (fixed rate 1 May 1994); 3.9 (late January 1994)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Lithuania, Communications

Railroads:
2,000 km (1,524-mm gauge); 120 km electrified
Highways:
total:
44,200 km
paved:
35,500 km
unpaved:
earth 8,700 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
600 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil, 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)
Ports:
coastal - Klaipeda; inland - Kaunas
Merchant marine:
44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 276,265 GRT/323,505 DWT, cargo
29, combination bulk 11, railcar carrier 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
Airports:
total:
96
usable:
18
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
5
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
11
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
Lithuania ranks among the most modern of the former Soviet republics
in respect to its telecommunications system; telephone subscriber
circuits 900,000; subscriber density 240 per 1,000 persons; land lines
or microwave to former USSR republics; international connections no
longer depend on the Moscow gateway switch, but are established by
satellite through Oslo from Vilnius and through Copenhagen from
Kaunas; 2 satellite earth stations - 1 EUTELSAT and 1 INTELSAT; an
NMT-450 analog cellular network operates in Vilnius and other cities
and is linked internationally through Copenhagen by EUTELSAT;
international electronic mail is available; broadcast stations - 13
AM, 26 FM, 1 SW, 1 LW, 3 TV

@Lithuania, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Security Forces (internal and border
troops), National Guard (Skat)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 941,273; fit for military service 744,867; reach
military age (18) annually 27,375 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, 5.5% of GDP (1993 est.)

@Luxembourg, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, between Belgium and Germany
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,586 sq km
land area:
2,586 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
total 359 km, Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrain:
mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to
slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle
floodplain in the southeast
Natural resources:
iron ore (no longer exploited)
Land use:
arable land:
24%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
21%
other:
34%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber; signed,
but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea
Note:
landlocked

@Luxembourg, People

Population:
401,900 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.8% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
12.81 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.47 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
4.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.69 years
male:
73.01 years
female:
80.52 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.64 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Luxembourger(s)
adjective:
Luxembourg
Ethnic divisions:
Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, and
European (guest and worker residents)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant and Jewish 3%
Languages:
Luxembourgisch, German, French, English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
177,300 (one-third of labor force is foreign workers, mostly from
Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and Germany)
by occupation:
services 65%, industry 31.6%, agriculture 3.4% (1988)

@Luxembourg, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form:
Luxembourg
local long form:
Grand-Duche de Luxembourg
local short form:
Luxembourg
Digraph:
LU
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Luxembourg
Administrative divisions:
3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
Independence:
1839
National holiday:
National Day, 23 June (1921) (public celebration of the Grand Duke's
birthday)
Constitution:
17 October 1868, occasional revisions
Legal system:
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964); Heir Apparent Prince HENRI
(son of Grand Duke Jean, born 16 April 1955)
head of government:
Prime Minister Jacques SANTER (since 21 July 1984); Vice Prime
Minister Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July 1984)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the sovereign
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes):
elections last held on 18 June 1989 (next to be held by June 1994);
results - CSV 31.7%, LSAP 27.2%, DP 16.2%, Greens 8.4%, PAC 7.3%, KPL
5.1%, other 4.1%; seats - (60 total) CSV 22, LSAP 18, DP 11, Greens 4,
PAC 4, KPL 1
note:
the Council of State (Conseil d'Etat) is an advisory body whose views
are considered by the Chamber of Deputies
Judicial branch:
Superior Court of Justice (Cour Superieure de Justice)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Social Party (CSV), Jacques SANTER; Socialist Workers Party
(LSAP), Jacques POOS; Liberal (DP), Colette FLESCH; Communist (KPL),
Andre HOFFMANN; Green Alternative (GAP), Jean HUSS
Other political or pressure groups:
group of steel companies representing iron and steel industry;
Centrale Paysanne representing agricultural producers; Christian and
Socialist labor unions; Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and
Shopkeepers Federation
Member of:
ACCT, Australia Group, Benelux, CCC, CE, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE,
EIB, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC,
NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UPU,
WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Alphonse BERNS
chancery:
2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-4171
FAX:
(202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general:
New York and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward M. ROWELL
embassy:
22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address:
PSC 11, Luxembourg City; APO AE 09132-5380
telephone:
[352] 460123
FAX:
[352] 461401
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue;
similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and
is shorter; design was based on the flag of France

@Luxembourg, Economy

Overview:
The stable, prosperous economy features moderate growth, low
inflation, and negligible unemployment. Agriculture is based on small
but highly productive family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until
recently dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified,
particularly toward high-technology firms. During the past decade,
growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the
decline in steel. Services, especially banking, account for a growing
proportion of the economy. Luxembourg participates in an economic
union with Belgium on trade and most financial matters, is also
closely connected economically to the Netherlands, and as a member of
the 12-member European Union enjoys the advantages of the open
European market.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1993)
National product per capita:
$22,600 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
5.1% (March 1994)
Budget:
revenues:
$3.5 billion
expenditures:
$3.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$6.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
finished steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass, aluminum,
other industrial products
partners:
EC 76%, US 5%
Imports:
$8.3 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
partners:
Belgium 37%, FRG 31%, France 12%, US 2%
External debt:
$131.6 million (1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -0.5% (1990); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
1,238,750 kW
production:
1.375 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
3,450 kWh (1990)
Industries:
banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products,
engineering, tires, glass, aluminum
Agriculture:
accounts for less than 3% of GDP (including forestry); principal
products - barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; cattle
raising widespread
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1 - 36.242 (January 1994), 34.597
(1993), 32.150 (1992), 34.148 (1991), 33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989);
note - the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian franc, which
circulates freely in Luxembourg
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Luxembourg, Communications

Railroads:
Luxembourg National Railways (CFL) operates 272 km 1,435-mm standard
gauge; 178 km double track; 197 km electrified
Highways:
total:
5,108 km
paved:
4,995 km (including 80 km of limited access divided highway)
unpaved:
gravel 57 km; earth 56 km
Inland waterways:
37 km; Moselle River
Pipelines:
petroleum products 48 km
Ports:
Mertert (river port)
Merchant marine:
50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,477,998 GRT/2,424,994 DWT,
bulk 8, cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 6, combination
ore/oil 2, container 4, liquefied gas 9, oil tanker 5, passenger 2,
refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly
buried cables; 230,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 3
TV; 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable; 1
direct-broadcast satellite earth station; nationwide mobile phone
system

@Luxembourg, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 103,872; fit for military service 86,026; reach
military age (19) annually 2,235 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 1.2% of GDP (1992)

@Macau

Header
Affiliation:
(overseas territory of Portugal)

@Macau, Geography

Location:
Eastern Asia, 27 km west-southwest of Hong Kong on the southeast coast
of China bordering the South China Sea
Map references:
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
16 sq km
land area:
16 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 0.34 km, China 0.34 km
Coastline:
40 km
Maritime claims:
not specified
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
Terrain:
generally flat
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Ozone Layer Protection
Note:
essentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect the two islands
to the peninsula on mainland

@Macau, People

Population:
484,557 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.35% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
14.78 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.12 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
79.75 years
male:
77.33 years
female:
82.3 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.46 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Macanese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Macau
Ethnic divisions:
Chinese 95%, Portuguese 3%, other 2%
Religions:
Buddhist 45%, Roman Catholic 7%, Protestant 1%, none 45.8%, other 1.2%
(1981)
Languages:
Portuguese (official), Cantonese is the language of commerce
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population:
90%
male:
93%
female:
86%
Labor force:
180,000 (1986)
by occupation:
NA

@Macau, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Macau
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ilha de Macau
Digraph:
MC
Type:
overseas territory of Portugal scheduled to revert to China in 1999
Capital:
Macau
Administrative divisions:
2 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Ilhas, Macau
Independence:
none (territory of Portugal; Portugal signed an agreement with China
on 13 April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20 December 1999; in the
joint declaration, China promises to respect Macau's existing social
and economic systems and lifestyle for 50 year after transition)
National holiday:
Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)
Constitution:
17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau; basic law drafted primarily by
Beijing awaiting final approval
Legal system:
Portuguese civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President (of Portugal) Mario Alberto SOARES (since 9 March 1986)
head of government:
Governor Gen. Vasco Joachim Rocha VIEIRA (since 20 March 1991)
cabinet:
Consultative Council; consists of five members appointed by the
governor, two nominated by the governor, five members elected for a
four-year term (2 represent administrative bodies, 1 represents moral,
cultural, and welfare interests, and 2 economic interests), and three
statuatory members
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Assembly:
elections last held on 10 March 1991; results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (23 total; 8 elected by universal suffrage, 8 by
indirect suffrage, and 7 appointed by the governor) number of seats by
party NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Association to Defend the Interests of Macau; Macau Democratic Center;
Group to Study the Development of Macau; Macau Independent Group
Other political or pressure groups:
wealthy Macanese and Chinese representing local interests, wealthy
pro-Communist merchants representing China's interests; in January
1967 the Macau Government acceded to Chinese demands that gave China
veto power over administration
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), GATT, IMO (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), WTO
(associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (Chinese territory under Portuguese administration)
US diplomatic representation:
the US has no offices in Macau, and US interests are monitored by the
US Consulate General in Hong Kong
Flag:
the flag of Portugal is used

@Macau, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based largely on tourism (including gambling) and
textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have spawned
other small industries - toys, artificial flowers, and electronics.
The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the
clothing industry has provided about two-thirds of export earnings;
the gambling industry represented well over 40% of GDP in 1992. Macau
depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy
imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw materials
and capital goods.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.5 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
12% (1992)
National product per capita:
$7,300 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.7% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$305 million
expenditures:
$298 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)
Exports:
$1.8 billion (1992 est.)
commodities:
textiles, clothing, toys
partners:
US 35%, Hong Kong 12.5%, Germany 12%, China 9.9%, France 8% (1992
est.)
Imports:
$2 billion (1992 est.)
commodities:
raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods
partners:
Hong Kong 33%, China 20%, Japan 18% (1992 est.)
External debt:
$91 million (1985)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
258,000 kW
production:
855 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,806 kWh (1992)
Industries:
clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture, tourism
Agriculture:
rice, vegetables; food shortages - rice, vegetables, meat; depends
mostly on imports for food requirements
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 pataca (P) = 100 avos
Exchange rates:
patacas (P) per US$1 - 8.034 (1991-93), 8.024 (1990), 8.030 (1989);
note - linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per
Hong Kong dollar
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Macau, Communications

Highways:
total:
42 km
paved:
42 km
Ports:
Macau
Airports:
none usable, 1 under construction; 1 seaplane station
Telecommunications:
fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and
international services; 52,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM,
3 FM, no TV (TV programs received from Hong Kong); 115,000 radio
receivers (est.); international high-frequency radio communication
facility; access to international communications carriers provided via
Hong Kong and China; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Macau, Defense Forces

Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 139,499; fit for military service 77,887
Note:
defense is responsibility of Portugal

@Madagascar, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the western Indian Ocean, 430 km east of
Mozambique
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
587,040 sq km
land area:
581,540 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
4,828 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova
Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)
Climate:
tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Natural resources:
graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands,
semiprecious stones, mica, fish
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
58%
forest and woodland:
26%
other:
11%
Irrigated land:
9,000 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing;
desertification; surface water contaminated with untreated sewage and
other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the
island are endangered
natural hazards:
subject to periodic cyclones
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test
Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of
the Sea
Note:
world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique
Channel

@Madagascar, People

Population:
13,427,758 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.19% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
45.22 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
13.35 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
89 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
53.98 years
male:
52.06 years
female:
55.96 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.68 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective:
Malagasy
Ethnic divisions:
Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed
African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka,
Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Languages:
French (official), Malagasy (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
80%
male:
88%
female:
73%
Labor force:
4.9 million (90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in subsistence
agriculture; 175,000 wage earners)
by occupation:
agriculture 26%, domestic service 17%, industry 15%, commerce 14%,
construction 11%, services 9%, transportation 6%, other 2%
note:
51% of population of working age (1985)

@Madagascar, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form:
Madagascar
local long form:
Republique de Madagascar
local short form:
Madagascar
former:
Malagasy Republic
Digraph:
MA
Type:
republic
Capital:
Antananarivo
Administrative divisions:
6 provinces - Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga,
Toamasina, Toliary
Independence:
26 June 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Constitution:
19 August 1992 by national referendum
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Albert ZAFY (since 9 March 1993); election last held on 10
February 1993 (next to be held 1998); results - Albert ZAFY (UNDD),
67%; Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA), 33%
head of government:
Prime Minister Francisque RAVONY (since 9 August 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
Senate:
(Senat) two-thirds of upper house seats are to be filled by an
electoral college made up of representatives of territorial
collectivities; the remaining third is to be filled by presidential
appointment, following nomination by economic, social, and cultural
groups; the selection of senators was scheduled for March 1994
National Assembly:
(Assemblee Nationale) elections last held on 16 June 1993 (next to be
held June 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (138
total) CFV coalition 76, PMDM/MFM 16, CSCD 11, Famima 10, RPSD 7,
various pro-Ratsiraka groups 10, others 8
note:
the National Assembly has suspended its operations during 1992 and
early 1993 in preparation for new legislative elections. In its place,
an interim High Authority of State and a Social and Economic Recovery
Council have been established
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour
Constitutionnelle)
Political parties and leaders:
Committee of Living Forces (CFV), an alliance of National Union for
Development and Democracy (UNDD), Support Group for Democracy and
Development in Madagascar (CSDDM), Action and Reflection Group for the
Development of Madagascar (Grad), Congress Party for Madagascar
Independence - Renewal (AKFM-Fanavaozana), and some 12 other
anti-Ratsiraka oppositon parties, trade unions, and religious groups;
leader Dr. Albert ZAFY; Militant Party for the Development of
Madagascar (PMDM/MFM; formerly the Movement for Proletarian Power),
Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA; Confederation of Civil Societies for
Development (CSCD), Guy Willy RAZANAMASY; Association of United
Malagasys (Famima); Rally for Social Democracy (RPSD), Pierre
TSIRANANA
Other political or pressure groups:
National Council of Christian Churches (FFKM); Federalist Movement
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO
chancery:
2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-5525 or 5526
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dennis P. BARRETT
embassy:
14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
mailing address:
B. P. 620, Antananarivo
telephone:
[261] (2) 212-57, 200-89, 207-18
FAX:
261-234-539
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical
white band of the same width on hoist side

@Madagascar, Economy

Overview:
Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world. Agriculture,
including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy,
accounting for over 30% of GDP and contributing more than 70% of total
export earnings. Industry is largely confined to the processing of
agricultural products and textile manufacturing; in 1991 it accounted
for only 13% of GDP. In 1986 the government introduced a five-year
development plan that stressed self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice)
by 1990, increased production for exports, and reduced energy imports.
Subsequently, growth in output has been held back because of
protracted antigovernment strikes and demonstrations for political
reform.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $10.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$250 million
expenditures:
$265 million, including capital expenditures of $180 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$312 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves 11%, shellfish, sugar, petroleum
products
partners:
France, Japan, Italy, Germany, US
Imports:
$350 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%,
consumer goods 14%, food 13%
partners:
France, Germany, UK, other EC, US
External debt:
$4.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.2% (1990 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
125,000 kW
production:
450 million kWh
consumption per capita:
35 kWh (1991)
Industries:
agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories, breweries,
tanneries, sugar refining plants), light consumer goods industries
(textiles, glassware), cement, automobile assembly plant, paper,
petroleum
Agriculture:
accounts for 31% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, vanilla, sugarcane,
cloves, cocoa; food crops - rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts;
cattle raising widespread; almost self-sufficient in rice
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used
mostly for domestic consumption
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $136 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$3.125 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $491 million
Currency:
1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 1,965.8 (January 1994), 1,864.0
(1992), 1,835.4 (1991), 1,454.6 (December 1990), 1,603.4 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Madagascar, Communications

Railroads:
1,020 km 1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
total:
40,000 km
paved:
4,694 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 811 km; other earth 34,495 km
(est.)
Inland waterways:
of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Canal
des Pangalanes
Ports:
Toamasina, Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toliara
Merchant marine:
10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,620 GRT/33,173 DWT, cargo 5,
chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 2
Airports:
total:
140
usable:
105
with permanent-surface runways:
30
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
37
Telecommunications:
above average system includes open-wire lines, coaxial cables, radio
relay, and troposcatter links; submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite
earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and broadcast stations - 17
AM, 3 FM, 1 (36 repeaters) TV

@Madagascar, Defense Forces

Branches:
Popular Armed Forces (including Intervention Forces, Development
Forces, Aeronaval Forces - including Navy and Air Force), Gendarmerie,
Presidential Security Regiment
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,924,829; fit for military service 1,739,830; reach
military age (20) annually 124,652 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $37 million, 2.2% of GDP (1991 est.)

@Malawi, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, between Mozambique and Zambia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
118,480 sq km
land area:
94,080 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
total 2,881 km, Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
Terrain:
narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some
mountains
Natural resources:
limestone, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
Land use:
arable land:
25%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
50%
other:
5%
Irrigated land:
200 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural
runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds
endangers fish population
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
landlocked

@Malawi, People

Population:
9,732,409 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
-1.09% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
50.42 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
23.19 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-38.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
141.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
39.73 years
male:
38.93 years
female:
40.55 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.43 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Malawian(s)
adjective:
Malawian
Ethnic divisions:
Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian,
European
Religions:
Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, traditional indigenous
beliefs
Languages:
English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages important
regionally
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1966)
total population:
22%
male:
34%
female:
12%
Labor force:
428,000 wage earners
by occupation:
agriculture 43%, manufacturing 16%, personal services 15%, commerce
9%, construction 7%, miscellaneous services 4%, other permanently
employed 6% (1986)

@Malawi, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Malawi
conventional short form:
Malawi
former:
Nyasaland
Digraph:
MI
Type:
multiparty democracy following a referendum on 14 June 1993; formerly
a one-party republic
Capital:
Lilongwe
Administrative divisions:
24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa,
Karonga, Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji,
Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje,
Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba
Independence:
6 July 1964 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 July (1964)
Constitution:
6 July 1966; republished as amended January 1974
Legal system:
based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994), leader of the United
Democratic Front
cabinet:
Cabinet; named by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly:
elections last held 17 May 1994 (next to be held NA); seats - (177
total) UDF 84, AFORD 33, MCP 55, others 5
Judicial branch:
High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party:
United Democratic Front (UDF), Bakili MULUZI
opposition groups:
Malawi Congress Party (MCP), Gwanda CHAKUAMBA Phiri, secretary general
(top party position); Alliance for Democracy (Aford), Chakufwa
CHIHANA; Socialist League of Malawi (Lesoma), Kapote MWAKUSULA,
secretary general; Malawi Democratic Union (MDU), Harry BWANAUSI;
Congress for the Second Republic (CSR), Kanyama CHIUME; Malawi
Socialist Labor Party (MSLP), Stanford SAMBANEMANJA
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert B. MBAYA
chancery:
2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 797-1007
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Michael T. F. PISTOR
embassy:
address NA, in new capital city development area in Lilongwe
mailing address:
P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
telephone:
[265] 783-166
FAX:
[265] 780-471
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a
radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band; similar to the
flag of Afghanistan, which is longer and has the national coat of arms
superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands

@Malawi, Economy

Overview:
Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries.
The economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90% of the
population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 40% of GDP
and 90% of export revenues. After two years of weak performance,
economic growth improved significantly in 1988-91 as a result of good
weather and a broadly based economic adjustment effort by the
government. Drought cut overall output sharply in 1992. The economy
depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF,
the World Bank, and individual donor nations.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent $6 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-8% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
21% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$416 million
expenditures:
$498 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$413 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts, wood products
partners:
US, UK, Zambia, South Africa, Germany
Imports:
$737 million (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer goods,
transportation equipment
partners:
South Africa, Japan, US, UK, Zimbabwe
External debt:
$1.8 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.5% (1992 est.); accounts for about 15% of GDP (1992
est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
190,000 kW
production:
620 million kWh
consumption per capita:
65 kWh (1992)
Industries:
agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar), sawmilling, cement,
consumer goods
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops - tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea,
and corn; subsistence crops - potatoes, cassava, sorghum, pulses;
livestock - cattle, goats
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $215 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.15
billion
Currency:
1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala
Exchange rates:
Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1 - 4.4598 (November 1993), 3.6033 (1992),
2.8033 (1991), 2.7289 (1990), 2.7595 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Malawi, Communications

Railroads:
789 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways:
total:
13,135 km
paved:
2,364 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 251 km; earth, improved earth
10,520 km
Inland waterways:
Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km
Ports:
Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, and Nkotakota - all on Lake Nyasa
(Lake Malawi)
Airports:
total:
47
usable:
41
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
10
Telecommunications:
fair system of open-wire lines, radio relay links, and radio
communications stations; 42,250 telephones; broadcast stations - 10
AM, 17 FM, no TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
Note:
a majority of exports would normally go through Mozambique on the
Beira, Nacala, and Limgogo railroads, but now most go through South
Africa because of insurgent activity and damage to rail lines

@Malawi, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Air Wing and Naval Detachment), Police (including
paramilitary Mobile Force Unit),
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,046,413; fit for military service 1,043,674
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 1.6% of GDP (1989 est.)

@Malaysia, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea, between Vietnam and
Indonesia
Map references:
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
329,750 sq km
land area:
328,550 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 2,669 km, Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km
Coastline:
4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the
South China Sea
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; State of Sabah
claimed by the Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase the Malaysian
salient that divides Brunei into two parts; two islands in dispute
with Singapore; two islands in dispute with Indonesia
Climate:
tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October
to February) monsoons
Terrain:
coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
Natural resources:
tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
10%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
63%
other:
24%
Irrigated land:
3,420 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
air and water pollution; deforestation
natural hazards:
subject to flooding
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law
of the Sea
Note:
strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China
Sea

@Malaysia, People

Population:
19,283,157 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.28% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
28.45 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.67 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
25.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.15 years
male:
66.26 years
female:
72.18 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.51 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Malaysian(s)
adjective:
Malaysian
Ethnic divisions:
Malay and other indigenous 59%, Chinese 32%, Indian 9%
Religions:
Peninsular Malaysia:
Muslim (Malays), Buddhist (Chinese), Hindu (Indians)
Sabah:
Muslim 38%, Christian 17%, other 45%
Sarawak:
tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and Confucianist 24%, Muslim 20%,
Christian 16%, other 5%
Languages:
Peninsular Malaysia:
Malay (official), English, Chinese dialects, Tamil
Sabah:
English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Chinese (Mandarin and Hakka
dialects predominate)
Sarawak:
English, Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages
*** No data for this item ***
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
78%
male:
86%
female:
70%
Labor force:
7.258 million (1991 est.)

@Malaysia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Malaysia
former:
Malayan Union
Digraph:
MY
Type:
constitutional monarchy
note:
Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; nominally headed by the
paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament; Peninsular
Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, where
governors are appointed by
Malaysian Pulau Pinang Government; powers of state governments are
limited by federal Constitution; Sabah - self-governing state, holds
20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense,
internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government;
Sarawak - self-governing state, holds 27 seats in House of
Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and
other powers delegated to federal government
Capital:
Kuala Lumpur
Administrative divisions:
13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) and 2 federal
territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular - wilayah
persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri
Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak,
Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*
Independence:
31 August 1957 (from UK)
National holiday:
National Day, 31 August (1957)
Constitution:
31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in
the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Paramount Ruler JA'AFAR ibni Abdul Rahman (since 26 April 1994);
Deputy Paramount Ruler SALAHUDDIN ibni Hisammuddin Alam Shah (since 26
April 1994)
head of government:
Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981); Deputy
Prime Minister ANWAR bin Ibrahim (since 1 December 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the Paramount Ruler from members of parliament
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Parlimen)
Senate (Dewan Negara):
consists of a 58-member body, 32 appointed by the paramount ruler and
16 elected by the state legislatures
House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat):
elections last held 21 October 1990 (next to be held by August 1995);
results - National Front 52%, other 48%; seats - (180 total) National
Front 127, DAP 20, PAS 7, independents 4, other 22; note - within the
National Front, UMNO got 71 seats and MCA 18 seats
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Peninsular Malaysia:
National Front, a confederation of 13 political parties dominated by
United Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO Baru), MAHATHIR bin
Mohamad; Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), LING Liong Sik; Gerakan
Rakyat Malaysia, LIM Keng Yaik; Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), S.
Samy VELLU
Sabah:
National Front, Tan Sri SAKARAN, Sabah Chief Minister; United Sabah
National Organizaton (USNO), leader NA
Sarawak:
coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party Pesaka
Bumiputra Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Amar Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud;
Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar James WONG Soon Kai;
Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Datuk Amar James WONG; Parti Bansa
Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk Leo MOGGIE; major opposition parties are
Democratic Action Party (DAP), LIM Kit Siang and Pan-Malaysian Islamic
Party (PAS), Fadzil NOOR
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, UN,
UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Abdul MAJID bin Mohamed
chancery:
2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 328-2700
FAX:
(202) 483-7661
consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John S. WOLF
embassy:
376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address:
P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur; APO AP 96535-5000
telephone:
[60] (3) 248-9011
FAX:
[60] (3) 242-2207
Flag:
fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white
(bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the
crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was
based on the flag of the US

@Malaysia, Economy

Overview:
The Malaysian economy, a mixture of private enterprise and a soundly
managed public sector, has posted a remarkable record of 8%-9% average
growth in 1987-93. This growth has resulted in a substantial reduction
in poverty and a marked rise in real wages. Despite sluggish growth in
the major world economies in 1992-93, demand for Malaysian goods
remained strong, and foreign investors continued to commit large sums
in the economy. The government is aware of the inflationary potential
of this rapid development and is closely monitoring fiscal and
monetary policies.

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