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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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president; includes Lao Front for National Construction (LFNC); other
parties moribund
Other political or pressure groups:
non-Communist political groups moribund; most leaders fled the country
in 1975
Member of:
ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador HIEM PHOMMACHANH
chancery:
2222 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-6416 or 6417
FAX:
(202) 332-4923
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Victor TOMSETH
embassy:
Rue Bartholonie, Vientiane
mailing address:
B. P. 114, Vientiane, or American Embassy, Box V, APO AP 96546
telephone:
[851] 2220, 2357, or 3570, 16-9581
FAX:
[851] 4675
Flag:
three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and red with
a large white disk centered in the blue band

@Laos, Economy

Overview:
Laos has had a Communist centrally planned economy with government
ownership and control of major productive enterprises. Since 1986,
however, the government has been decentralizing control and
encouraging private enterprise. Laos is a landlocked country with a
primitive infrastructure; it has no railroads, a rudimentary road
system, limited external and internal telecommunications, and
electricity available in only a limited area. Subsistence agriculture
is the main occupation, accounting for over 60% of GDP and providing
about 85-90% of total employment. The predominant crop is rice. For
the foreseeable future the economy will continue to depend for its
survival on foreign aid from the IMF and other international sources;
aid from the former USSR and Eastern Europe has been cut sharply.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
7% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.8% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
21% (1989 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$83 million
expenditures:
$188.5 million, including capital expenditures of $94 million (1990
est.)
Exports:
$133 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
electricity, wood products, coffee, tin
partners:
Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, FSU, US, China
Imports:
$266 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
food, fuel oil, consumer goods, manufactures
partners:
Thailand, FSU, Japan, France, Vietnam, China
External debt:
$1.1 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 12% (1991 est.); accounts for about 18% of GDP (1991 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
226,000 kW
production:
990 million kWh
consumption per capita:
220 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tin and gypsum mining, timber, electric power, agricultural
processing, construction
Agriculture:
accounts for 60% of GDP and employs most of the work force;
subsistence farming predominates; normally self-sufficient in
nondrought years; principal crops - rice (80% of cultivated land),
sweet potatoes, vegetables, corn, coffee, sugarcane, cotton; livestock
- buffaloes, hogs, cattle, poultry
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis, opium poppy for the international drug
trade, third-largest opium producer (180 metric tons in 1993)
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $276 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $605
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $995 million
Currency:
1 new kip (NK) = 100 at
Exchange rates:
new kips (NK) per US$1 - 720 (July 1993). 710 (May 1992), 710
(December 1991), 700 (September 1990), 576 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Laos, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
total:
27,527 km
paved:
bituminous 1,856 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 7,451 km; unimproved earth
18,220 km (often impassable during rainy season mid-May to
mid-September)
Inland waterways:
about 4,587 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries; 2,897 additional
kilometers are sectionally navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5 m
Pipelines:
petroleum products 136 km
Ports:
none
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,370 GRT/3,000 DWT
Airports:
total:
53
usable:
41
with permanent-surface runways:
8
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
15
Telecommunications:
service to general public practically non-existant; radio
communications network provides generally erratic service to
government users; 7,390 telephones (1986); broadcast stations - 10 AM,
no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

@Laos, Defense Forces

Branches:
Lao People's Army (LPA; including naval, aviation, and militia
elements), Air Force, National Police Department
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,015,357; fit for military service 547,566; reach
military age (18) annually 49,348 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Latvia, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, bordering on the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia
Map references:
Arctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
64,100 sq km
land area:
64,100 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total 1,078 km, Belarus 141 km, Estonia 267 km, Lithuania 453 km,
Russia 217 km
Coastline:
531 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
the Abrene section of border ceded by the Latvian Soviet Socialist
Republic to Russia in 1944
Climate:
maritime; wet, moderate winters
Terrain:
low plain
Natural resources:
minimal; amber, peat, limestone, dolomite
Land use:
arable land:
27%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
13%
forest and woodland:
39%
other:
21%
Irrigated land:
160 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
air and water pollution because of a lack of waste conversion
equipment; Gulf of Riga and Daugava River heavily polluted;
contamination of soil and groundwater with chemicals and petroleum
products at military bases
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified
- Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Latvia, People

Population:
2,749,211 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.5% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.84 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.61 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
21.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.44 years
male:
64.37 years
female:
74.75 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.98 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Latvian(s)
adjective:
Latvian
Ethnic divisions:
Latvian 51.8%, Russian 33.8%, Byelorussian 4.5%, Ukrainian 3.4%,
Polish 2.3%, other 4.2%
Religions:
Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox
Languages:
Lettish (official), Lithuanian, Russian, other
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
1.407 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 41%, agriculture and forestry 16%, other 43%
(1990)

@Latvia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Latvia
conventional short form:
Latvia
local long form:
Latvijas Republika
local short form:
Latvija
former:
Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
LG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Riga
Administrative divisions:
26 counties (singular - rajons) and 7 municipalities*: Aizkraukles
Rajons, Aluksnes Rajons, Balvu Rajons, Bauskas Rajons, Cesu Rajons,
Daugavpils*, Daugavpils Rajons, Dobeles Rajons, Gulbenes Rajons,
Jekabpils Rajons, Jelgava*, Jelgavas Rajons, Jurmala*, Kraslavas
Rajons, Kuldigas Rajons, Leipaja*, Liepajas Rajons, Limbazu Rajons,
Ludzas Rajons, Madonas Rajons, Ogres Rajons, Preiju Rajons, Rezekne*,
Rezeknes Rajons, Riga*, Rigas Rajons, Saldus Rajons, Talsu Rajons,
Tukuma Rajons, Valkas Rajons, Valmieras Rajons, Ventspils*, Ventspils
Rajons
Independence:
6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 November (1918)
Constitution:
newly elected Parliament in 1993 restored the 1933 constitution
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Guntis ULMANIS (since 7 July 1993); Saeima elected President
ULMANIS in the third round of balloting on 7 July 1993
head of government:
Prime Minister Valdis BIRKAVS (since 20 July 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the Supreme Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament (Saeima):
elections last held 5-6 June 1993 (next to be held NA June 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (100 total) LC 36, LNNK
15, Concord for Latvia 13, LZS 12, Equal Rights 7, LKDS 6, TUB 6, DCP
5
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Latvian Way Union (LC), Valdis BIRKAVS; Latvian Farmers Union (LZS),
Alvars BERKIS; Latvian National Independence Movement (LNNK), Andrejs
KRASTINS, Aristids LAMBERGS, cochairmen; Concord for Latvia, Janis
JURKANS; Equal Rights, Sergejs DIMANIS; Christian Democrat Union
(LKDS), Peteris CIMDINS, Andris SAULITIS, Janis RUSKO; Fatherland and
Freedom (TUB), Maris GRINBLATS, Roberts MILBERGS, Oigerts DZENTIS;
Democratic Center (DCP), Ints CALITIS; Popular Front of Latvia (LTF),
Uldis AUGSTKALNS
Member of:
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE (guest), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, LORCS, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ojars Eriks KALNINS
chancery:
4325 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone:
(202) 726-8213 and 8214
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ints M, SILINS
embassy:
Raina Boulevard 7, Riga 226050
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
46-9-882-0046
FAX:
46-9-882-0047
Flag:
two horizontal bands of maroon (top and bottom), white (middle,
narrower than other two bands)

@Latvia, Economy

Overview:
Latvia is rapidly becoming a dynamic market economy, rivaled only by
Estonia among the former Soviet states in the speed of its
transformation. The transition has been painful with GDP falling over
45% in 1992-93, according to official statistics, and industrial
production experiencing even steeper declines. Nevertheless, the
government's tough monetary policies and reform program, which foster
the development of the private sector and market mechanisms, have kept
inflation low, created a dynamic private sector - much of which is not
captured in official statistics - and expanded trade ties with the
West. Much of agriculture is already privatized and the government
plans to step up the pace of privatization of state enterprises. The
economy is now poised for recovery and will benefit from the country's
strategic location on the Baltic Sea, its well-educated population,
and its diverse - albeit largely obsolete - industrial structure.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $13.2 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Latvian statistics, which are very
uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,810 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% per month (1993 average)
Unemployment rate:
5.6% (December 1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$429 million from non-FSU countries (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
oil products, timber, ferrous metals, dairy products, furniture,
textiles
partners:
Russia, other CIS countries, Western Europe
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
fuels, cars, ferrous metals, chemicals
partners:
Russia, other CIS countries, Western Europe
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -38% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
2,140,000 kW
production:
5.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,125 kWh (1992)
Industries:
employs 41% of labor force; highly diversified; dependent on imports
for energy, raw materials, and intermediate products; produces buses,
vans, street and railroad cars, synthetic fibers, agricultural
machinery, fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics,
pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles
Agriculture:
employs 16% of labor force; principally dairy farming and livestock
feeding; products - meat, milk, eggs, grain, sugar beets, potatoes,
vegetables; fishing and fish packing
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia
and Latin America to Western Europe; limited producer of illicit
opium; mostly for domestic consumption; also produces illicit
amphetamines for export
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 lat = 100 cents; introduced NA March 1993
Exchange rates:
lats per US$1 - 0.5917 (January 1994), 1.32 (March 1993)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Latvia, Communications

Railroads:
2,400 km (1,524-mm gauge); 270 km electrified
Highways:
total:
59,500 km
paved and graveled:
33,000 km
unpaved:
earth 26,500 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
300 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 750 km; refined products 780 km; natural gas 560 km (1992)
Ports:
coastal - Riga, Ventspils, Liepaja; inland - Daugavpils
Merchant marine:
93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 850,840 GRT/1,107,403 DWT, cargo
15, container 2, oil tanker 41, refrigerated cargo 27,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 8
Airports:
total:
50
usable:
15
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
7
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
Latvia is better provided with telephone service than most of the
other former Soviet republics; subscriber circuits 660,000; subscriber
density 240 per 1,000 persons (1993); an NMT-450 analog cellular
telephone network covers 75% of Latvia's population; international
traffic carried by leased connection to the Moscow international
gateway switch and through the new Ericsson AXE local/transit digital
telephone exchange in Riga and through the Finnish cellular net;
electronic mail capability by Sprint data network; broadcasting
services NA

@Latvia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Security Forces (internal and border
troops), Border Guard, Home Guard (Zemessardze)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 652,444; fit for military service 514,055; reach
military age (18) annually 18,803 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
176 million rubles, 3%-5% of GDP; note - conversion of the military
budget into US dollars using the prevailing exchange rate could
produce misleading results

@Lebanon

Header
Note:
Lebanon has made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions
and regaining its national sovereignty since the end of the
devastating 16-year civil war in October 1990. Under the Ta'if accord
- the blueprint for national reconciliation - the Lebanese have
established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving
Muslims a greater say in the political process. Since December 1990,
the Lebanese have formed three cabinets and conducted the first
legislative election in 20 years. Most of the militias have been
weakened or disbanded. The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) has seized vast
quantities of weapons used by the militias during the war and extended
central government authority over about one-half of the country.
Hizballah, the radical Sh'ia party, retains most of its weapons.
Foreign forces still occupy areas of Lebanon. Israel maintains troops
in southern Lebanon and continues to support a proxy militia, The Army
of South Lebanon (ASL), along a narrow stretch of territory contiguous
to its border. The ASL's enclave encompasses this self-declared
security zone and about 20 kilometers north to the strategic town of
Jazzine. As of December 1993, Syria maintained about 30,000-35,000
troops in Lebanon. These troops are based mainly in Beirut, North
Lebanon, and the Bekaa Valley. Syria's deployment was legitimized by
the Arab League early in Lebanon's civil war and in the Ta'if accord.
Citing the continued weakness of the LAF, Beirut's requests, and
failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the
constitutional reforms in the Ta'if accord, Damascus has so far
refused to withdraw its troops from Beirut.

@Lebanon, Geography

Location:
Middle East, in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and
Syria
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
10,400 sq km
land area:
10,230 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.8 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total 454 km, Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km
Coastline:
225 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Israeli troops in
southern Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in northern, central,
and eastern Lebanon since October 1976
Climate:
Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers;
Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and
Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Natural resources:
limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit
region
Land use:
arable land:
21%
permanent crops:
9%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
8%
other:
61%
Irrigated land:
860 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air and water pollution
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation
Note:
Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an
international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate,
protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion,
clan, and ethnicity

@Lebanon, People

Population:
3,620,395 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.98% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
27.89 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.55 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
39.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.35 years
male:
66.92 years
female:
71.9 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.39 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Lebanese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Lebanese
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%
Religions:
Islam 70% (5 legally recognized Islamic groups - Alawite or Nusayri,
Druze, Isma'ilite, Shi'a, Sunni), Christian 30% (11 legally recognized
Christian groups - 4 Orthodox Christian, 6 Catholic, 1 Protestant),
Judaism NEGL%
Languages:
Arabic (official), French (official), Armenian, English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
80%
male:
88%
female:
73%
Labor force:
650,000
by occupation:
industry, commerce, and services 79%, agriculture 11%, government 10%
(1985)

@Lebanon, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Lebanon
conventional short form:
Lebanon
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah
local short form:
none
Digraph:
LE
Type:
republic
Capital:
Beirut
Administrative divisions:
5 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Biqa, 'Al Janub,
Ash Shamal, Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan
Independence:
22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French
administration)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 22 November (1943)
Constitution:
23 May 1926, amended a number of times
Legal system:
mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no
judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age
21 with elementary education
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Ilyas HARAWI (since 24 November 1989); note - by custom, the
president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni
Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shi'a Muslim
head of government:
Prime Minister Rafiq HARIRI (since 22 October 1992)
cabinet:
Cabinet; chosen by the president in consultation with the members of
the National Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly:
(Arabic - Majlis Alnuwab, French - Assemblee Nationale) Lebanon's
first legislative election in 20 years was held in the summer of 1992;
the National Assembly is composed of 128 deputies, one-half Christian
and one-half Muslim; its mandate expires in 1996
Judicial branch:
four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases
and one court for criminal cases)
Political parties and leaders:
political party activity is organized along largely sectarian lines;
numerous political groupings exist, consisting of individual political
figures and followers motivated by religious, clan, and economic
considerations
Member of:
ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Riad TABBARAH
chancery:
2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-6300
FAX:
(202) 939-6324
consulate(s) general:
Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mark HAMBLEY
mailing embassy:
Antelias, Beirut
address:
P. O. Box 70-840, PSC 815, Box 2, Beirut; FPO AE 09836-0002
telephone:
[961] 417774 or 415802 through 415803, 402200, 403300
FAX:
[961] (1) 407-112
Flag:
three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red
with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band

@Lebanon, Economy

Overview:
Since 1975 civil war has seriously damaged Lebanon's economic
infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended
Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub.
Following October 1990, however, a tentative peace has enabled the
central government to begin restoring control in Beirut, collect
taxes, and regain access to key port and government facilities. The
battered economy has also been propped up by a financially sound
banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers.
Family remittances, banking transactions, manufactured and farm
exports, the narcotics trade, and international emergency aid are the
main sources of foreign exchange. In the relatively settled year of
1991, industrial production, agricultural output, and exports showed
substantial gains. The further rebuilding of the war-ravaged country
was delayed in 1992 because of an upturn in political wrangling. In
October 1992, Rafiq HARIRI was appointed Prime Minister. HARIRI, a
wealthy entrepreneur, has announced ambitious plans for Lebanon's
reconstruction which involve a substantial influx of foreign aid and
investment. Progress on restoring basic services is limited. Since
Prime Minister HARIRI's appointment, the most significant improvement
lies in the stabilization of the Lebanese pound, which had gained over
30% in value by yearend 1993. The year 1993 was marked by efforts of
the new administration to encourage domestic and foreign investment
and to obtain additional international assistance.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $6.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.2% (1992)
National product per capita:
$1,720 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
35% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
35% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$990 million
expenditures:
$1.98 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$925 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
agricultural products, chemicals, textiles, precious and semiprecious
metals and jewelry, metals and metal products
partners:
Saudi Arabia 21%, Switzerland 9.5%, Jordan 6%, Kuwait 12%, US 5%
Imports:
$4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
Consumer goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products
partners:
Italy 14%, France 12%, US 6%, Turkey 5%, Saudi Arabia 3%
External debt:
$700 million (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 25% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
1,300,000 kW
production:
3.413 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
990 kWh (1992)
Industries:
banking, food processing, textiles, cement, oil refining, chemicals,
jewelry, some metal fabricating
Agriculture:
accounts for about one-third of GDP; principal products - citrus
fruits, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp (hashish), sheep,
goats; not self-sufficient in grain
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of hashish and heroin for the international drug
trade; hashish production is shipped to Western Europe, the Middle
East, and North and South America; increasingly a key locus of cocaine
processing and trafficking
Economic aid:
aid for Lebanon's reconstruction programs currently totals $1.3
billion since October 1992, including a $175 million loan from the
World Bank
Currency:
1 Lebanese pound (#L) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates:
Lebanese pounds (#L) per US$1 - 1,713.00 (December 1993), 2,200.00
(1992), 928.23 (1991), 695.09 (1990), 496.69 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Lebanon, Communications

Railroads:
system in disrepair, considered inoperable
Highways:
total:
7,300 km
paved:
6,200 km
unpaved:
gravel 450 km; improved earth 650 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 72 km (none in operation)
Ports:
Beirut, Tripoli, Ra'Sil'ata, Juniyah, Sidon, Az Zahrani, Tyre, Jubayl,
Shikka Jadidah
Merchant marine:
63 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 268,268 GRT/399,054 DWT, bulk 4,
cargo 39, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 1, container 2,
livestock carrier 9, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2,
specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 2, combination ore/oil 1
Airports:
total:
9
usable:
7
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
telecommunications system severely damaged by civil war; rebuilding
still underway; 325,000 telephones (95 telephones per 1,000 persons);
domestic traffic carried primarily by microwave radio relay and a
small amount of cable; international traffic by satellite - 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station (erratic operations), coaxial cable to Syria; microwave radio
relay to Syria but inoperable beyond Syria to Jordan, 3 submarine
coaxial cables; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 13 TV (numerous AM
and FM stations are operated sporadically by various factions)

@Lebanon, Defense Forces

Branches:
Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF; including Army, Navy, and Air Force)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 827,267; fit for military service 514,291
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $271 million, 8.2% of GDP (1992 budget)

@Lesotho, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, an enclave of South Africa
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
30,350 sq km
land area:
30,350 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 909 km, South Africa 909 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain:
mostly highland with some plateaus, hills, and mountains
Natural resources:
water, agricultural and grazing land, some diamonds and other minerals
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
66%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
24%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in
overgrazing, severe soil erosion, soil exhaustion; desertification
natural hazards:
subject to periods of drought
international agreements:
party to - Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Note:
landlocked; surrounded by South Africa; Highlands Water Project will
control, store, and redirect water to South Africa
Population:
1,944,493 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.48% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
34 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.19 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
69.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
62.14 years
male:
60.32 years
female:
64.01 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.5 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural)
adjective:
Basotho
Ethnic divisions:
Sotho 99.7%, Europeans 1,600, Asians 800
Religions:
Christian 80%, rest indigenous beliefs
Languages:
Sesotho (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1966)
total population:
59%
male:
44%
female:
68%
Labor force:
689,000 economically active
by occupation:
86.2% of resident population engaged in subsistence agriculture;
roughly 60% of active male labor force works in South Africa

@Lesotho, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Lesotho
conventional short form:
Lesotho
former:
Basutoland
Digraph:
LT
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Maseru
Administrative divisions:
10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe, Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohale's
Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qacha's Nek, Quthing, Thaba-Tseka
Independence:
4 October 1966 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 October (1966)
Constitution:
2 April 1993
Legal system:
based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law; judicial review of
legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
King LETSIE III (since 12 November 1990)
head of government:
Prime Minister Ntsu MOKHEHLE (since 2 April 1993 )
cabinet:
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consisting of the Assembly or lower house whose
members are chosen by popular election and the Senate or upper house
whose members consist of the 22 principal chiefs and 10 other members
appointed by the ruling party; election held in March 1993 (first
since 1971); all 65 seats in the Assembly were won by the BCP
Judicial branch:
High Court, Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
Basotho National Party (BNP), Evaristus SEKHONYANA; Basutholand
Congress Party (BCP), Ntsu MOKHEHLE; National Independent Party (NIP),
A. C. MANYELI; Marematlou Freedom Party (MFP), Vincent MALEBO; United
Democratic Party, Charles MOFELI; Communist Party of Lesotho (CPL),
Jacob M. KENA
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Teboho KITLELI
chancery:
2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 797-5533 through 5536
FAX:
(202) 234-6815
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Karl HOFMANN
embassy:
address NA, Maseru
mailing address:
P. O. Box 333, Maseru 100, Lesotho
telephone:
[266] 312-666
FAX:
[266] 310-116
Flag:
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper half is
white bearing the brown silhouette of a large shield with crossed
spear and club; the lower half is a diagonal blue band with a green
triangle in the corner

@Lesotho, Economy

Overview:
Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho has no important natural
resources other than water. Its economy is based on agriculture, light
manufacturing, and remittances from laborers employed in South Africa
(recently equal to about 45% of GDP). The great majority of households
gain their livelihoods from subsistence farming and migrant labor; a
large portion of the adult male workforce is employed in South African
mines. Manufacturing depends largely on farm products to support the
milling, canning, leather, and jute industries; other industries
include textile, clothing, and construction (in particular, a major
water improvement project which will permit the sale of water to South
Africa). Industry's share of GDP rose from 6% in 1982 to 13% in 1991.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.4% (FY 93)
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
17% (FY93)
Unemployment rate:
at least 55% among adult males (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$438 million
expenditures:
$430 million, including capital expenditures of $155 million (1994
est.)
Exports:
$109 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
wool, mohair, wheat, cattle, peas, beans, corn, hides, skins, baskets
partners:
South Africa 42%, EC 28%, North and South America 25% (1991)
Imports:
$964 million (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
mainly corn, building materials, clothing, vehicles, machinery,
medicines, petroleum
partners:
South Africa 94%, Asia 3%, EC 1% (1991)
External debt:
$428 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5% (1991 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
power supplied by South Africa
Industries:
food, beverages, textiles, handicrafts, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP (1991 est.) and employs 60-70% of all
households; exceedingly primitive, mostly subsistence farming and
livestock; principal crops corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $268 million; US (1992),
$10.3 million; US (1993 est.), $10.1 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $819 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $14 million
Currency:
1 loti (L) = 100 lisente
Exchange rates:
maloti (M) per US$1 - 3.4096 (January 1994), 3.2636 (1993), 2.8497
(1992), 2.7563 (1991), 2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989); note - the
Basotho loti is at par with the South African rand
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Lesotho, Communications

Railroads:
2.6 km; owned, operated by, and included in the statistics of South
Africa
Highways:
total:
7,215 km
paved:
572 km
unpaved:
gravel, stabilized earth 2,337 km; improved earth 1,806 km; unimproved
earth 2,500 km (1988)
Airports:
total:
28
usable:
28
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
rudimentary system consisting of a few landlines, a small microwave
system, and minor radio communications stations; 5,920 telephones;
broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@Lesotho, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Lesotho Defense Force (RLDF; including Army, Air Wing), Royal
Lesotho Mounted Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 438,096; fit for military service 236,324
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 13% of GDP (1990 est.)

@Liberia, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Pacific Ocean between Cote
d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
111,370 sq km
land area:
96,320 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
total 1,585 km, Guinea 563 km, Cote d'Ivoire 716 km, Sierra Leone 306
km
Coastline:
579 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold
nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling plateau and
low mountains in northeast
Natural resources:
iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
2%
forest and woodland:
39%
other:
55%
Irrigated land:
20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
West Africa's largest tropical rain forest, subject to deforestation;
soil erosion; loss of biodiversity
natural hazards:
dust-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to March)
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation

@Liberia, People

Population:
2,972,766 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.33% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
43.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.34 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
113.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
57.73 years
male:
55.27 years
female:
60.25 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.36 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Liberian(s)
adjective:
Liberian
Ethnic divisions:
indigenous African tribes 95% (including Kpelle, Bassa, Gio, Kru,
Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and Bella),
Americo-Liberians 5% (descendants of repatriated slaves)
Religions:
traditional 70%, Muslim 20%, Christian 10%
Languages:
English 20% (official), Niger-Congo language group about 20 local
languages come from this group
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
40%
male:
50%
female:
29%
Labor force:
510,000 including 220,000 in the monetary economy
by occupation:
agriculture 70.5%, services 10.8%, industry and commerce 4.5%, other
14.2%
note:
non-African foreigners hold about 95% of the top-level management and
engineering jobs; 52% of population of working age

@Liberia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Liberia
conventional short form:
Liberia
Digraph:
LI
Type:
republic
Capital:
Monrovia
Administrative divisions:
13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa, Cape Mount, Grand Gedeh, Grand
Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland, Montserrado, Nimba, River Cess, Sinoe
Independence:
26 July 1847
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 July (1847)
Constitution:
6 January 1986
Legal system:
dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American common law for
the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten tribal
practices for indigenous sector
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
Chairman of the Council of State David KPOMAKPOR (since March 1994);
election last held on 15 October 1985 (next scheduled to be held
September 1994); results - Gen. Dr. Samuel Kanyon DOE (NDPL) 50.9%,
Jackson DOE (LAP) 26.4%, other 22.7%; note - President Doe was killed
by rebel forces on 9 September 1990
cabinet:
Cabinet; selected by the leaders of the major factions in the civil
war
note:
a transitional coalition government was formed as part of a July 1993
Cotonou Peace Treaty negotiated under UN auspices by the leaders of
the major factions in the civil war; elections now scheduled for
September 1994
Legislative branch:
unicameral Transitional Legislative Assembly, the members of which are
appointed by the leaders of the major factions in the civil war
note:
the former bicameral legislature no longer exists and there is no
assurance that it will ever be reconstituted
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL), Augustus CAINE, chairman;
Liberian Action Party (LAP), Emmanuel KOROMAH, chairman; Unity Party
(UP), Joseph KOFA, chairman; United People's Party (UPP), Gabriel
Baccus MATTHEWS, chairman; National Patriotic Party (NPP), Charles
TAYLOR, chairman; Liberian Peoples Party (LPP), Dusty WOLOKOLLIE,
chairman
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Konah K. BLACKETT
chancery:
5201 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone:
(202) 723-0437 through 0440
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d' Affaires William P. TWADDELL
embassy:
111 United Nations Drive, Monrovia
mailing address:
P. O. Box 100098, Mamba Point, Monrovia, or APO AE 09813
telephone:
[231] 222991 through 222994
FAX:
[231] 223710
Flag:
11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with
white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue square in the
upper hoist-side corner; the design was based on the US flag

@Liberia, Economy

Overview:
Civil war since 1990 has destroyed much of Liberia's economy,
especially the infrastructure in and around Monrovia. Businessmen have
fled the country, taking capital and expertise with them. Many will
not return. Richly endowed with water, mineral resources, forests, and
a climate favorable to agriculture, Liberia had been a producer and
exporter of basic products, while local manufacturing, mainly foreign
owned, had been small in scope. Political instability threatens
prospects for economic reconstruction and repatriation of some 750,000
Liberian refugees who have fled to neighboring countries. The
political impasse between the interim government and rebel leader
Charles Taylor has prevented restoration of normal economic life,
including the re-establishment of a strong central government with
effective economic development programs.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.5% (1988)
National product per capita:
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
43% urban (1988)
Budget:
revenues:
$242.1 million
expenditures:
$435.4 million, including capital expenditures of $29.5 million (1989
est.)
Exports:
$505 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
iron ore 61%, rubber 20%, timber 11%, coffee
partners:
US, EC, Netherlands
Imports:
$394 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.)
commodities:
rice, mineral fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment,
other foodstuffs
partners:
US, EC, Japan, China, Netherlands, ECOWAS
External debt:
$2.1 billion (September 1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA% (1993-94); much industrial damage caused by factional
warfare
Electricity:
capacity:
410,000 kW
production:
750 million kWh
consumption per capita:
275 kWh (1991)
Industries:
rubber processing, food processing, construction materials, furniture,
palm oil processing, mining (iron ore, diamonds)
Agriculture:
accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
principal products - rubber, timber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava,
palm oil, sugarcane, bananas, sheep, goats; not self-sufficient in
food, imports 25% of rice consumption
Illicit drugs:
increasingly a transshipment point for heroin and cocaine
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $665 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $870
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $25 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $77 million
Currency:
1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1 - 1.00 (officially fixed rate since
1940); unofficial parallel exchange rate of L$7 = US$1, January 1992
(unofficial rate floats against the US dollar)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Liberia, Communications

Railroads:
480 km total; 328 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 152 km 1.067-meter
narrow gauge; all lines single track; rail systems owned and operated
by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction with Liberian
Government
Highways:
total:
10,087 km
paved:
603 km
unpaved:
gravel 5,171 km (includes 2323km of private roads of rubber and timber
firms, open to the public); earth 4,313 km
Ports:
Monrovia, Buchanan, Greenville, Harper (or Cape Palmas)
Merchant marine:
1,595 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 56,923,236 GRT/97,692,316
DWT, barge carrier 3, bulk 423, cargo 126, chemical 122, combination
bulk 30, combination ore/oil 64, container 112, liquefied gas 67, oil
tanker 468, passenger 32, refrigerated cargo 61, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 19, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier
59
note:
a flag of convenience registry; all ships are foreign owned; the top 4
owning flags are US 14%, Japan 13%, Norway 10%, and Hong Kong 8%
Airports:
total:
59
usable:
41
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
telephone and telegraph service via radio relay network; main center
is Monrovia; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station; most telecommunications services inoperable
due to insurgency movement

@Liberia, Defense Forces

Branches:
the ultimate structure of the Liberian military force will depend on
who is the victor in the ongoing civil war
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 707,927; fit for military service 377,950
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Libya, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea,
between Egypt and Tunisia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,759,540 sq km
land area:
1,759,540 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total 4,383 km, Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger
354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km
Coastline:
1,770 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
Gulf of Sidra closing line:
32 degrees 30 minutes north
International disputes:
the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in February 1994 that
the 100,000 sq km Aozou Strip between Chad and Libya belongs to Chad,
and that Libya must withdraw from it by 31 May 1994; Libya had
withdrawn its forces in response to the ICJ ruling, but as of June
1994 still maintained an airfield in the disputed area; maritime
boundary dispute with Tunisia; claims part of northern Niger and part
of southeastern Algeria
Climate:
Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Terrain:
mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
8%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
90%
Irrigated land:
2,420 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
desertification; sparse natural surface-water resources; the Great
Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the
world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the
Sahara to coastal cities
natural hazards:
hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four
days in spring and fall
international agreements:
party to - Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the
Sea

@Libya, People

Population:
5,057,392 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.72% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
45.29 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.14 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
63.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
63.88 years
male:
61.73 years
female:
66.13 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.38 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Libyan(s)
adjective:
Libyan
Ethnic divisions:
Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis,
Turks, Indians, Tunisians
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 97%
Languages:
Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major
cities
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
64%
male:
75%
female:
50%
Labor force:
1 million (includes about 280,000 resident foreigners)
by occupation:
industry 31%, services 27%, government 24%, agriculture 18%

@Libya, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
conventional short form:
Libya
local long form:
Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishirakiyah
local short form:
none
Digraph:
LY
Type:
Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace
through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship
Capital:
Tripoli
Administrative divisions:
25 municipalities (baladiyah, singular - baladiyat); Ajdabiya, Al
'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al
Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi,
Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt,
Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan
Independence:
24 December 1951 (from Italy)
National holiday:
Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)
Constitution:
11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977
Legal system:
based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious
courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative
acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Revolutionary Leader Col. Mu'ammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1
September 1969)
head of government:
Chairman of the General People's Committee (Premier) Abd al Majid
al-Qa'ud (since 29 January 1994)
cabinet:
General People's Committee; established by the General People's
Congress
note:
national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of peoples'
committees
Legislative branch:
unicameral
General People's Congress:
national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of peoples'
committees
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
none
Other political or pressure groups:
various Arab nationalist movements with almost negligible memberships
may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements
Member of:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none
US diplomatic representation:
none
Flag:
plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state
religion)

@Libya, Economy

Overview:
The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues from
the oil sector, which contributes practically all export earnings and
about one-third of GDP. In 1990 per capita GDP was the highest in
Africa at $5,410, but GDP growth rates have slowed and fluctuate
sharply in response to changes in the world oil market. Import
restrictions and inefficient resource allocations have led to
shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs. Windfall revenues from the
hike in world oil prices in late 1990 improved the foreign payments
position and resulted in a current account surplus through 1992. The
nonoil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about
20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products
to include petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Although
agriculture accounts for only 5% of GDP, it employs about 20% of the
labor force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit farm
output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food requirements. The UN
sanctions imposed in April 1992 have not yet had a major impact on the
economy because Libya's oil revenues generate sufficient foreign
exchange that, along with Libya's large currency reserves, sustain
food and consumer goods imports as well as equipment for the oil
industry and ongoing development projects.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $32 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$6,600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$8.1 billion
expenditures:
$9.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (1989
est.)
Exports:
$7.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas
partners:
Italy, Germany, Spain, France, UK, Turkey, Greece, Egypt
Imports:
$8.26 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods
partners:
Italy, Germany, UK, France, Spain, Turkey, Tunisia, Eastern Europe
External debt:
$3.5 billion excluding military debt (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 10.5% (1990)
Electricity:
capacity:
4,935,000 kW
production:
14.385 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,952 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Agriculture:
5% of GNP; cash crops - wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus fruits,
peanuts; 75% of food is imported
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $242 million
note:
no longer a recipient
Currency:
1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams
Exchange rates:
Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1 - 0.3233 (January 1994), 0.3250 (1993),
0.3013 (1992), 0.2684 (1991), 0.2699 (1990), 0.2922 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Railroads:
Libya has had no railroad in operation since 1965, all previous
systems having been dismantled; current plans are to construct a
standard gauge (1.435 m) line from the Tunisian frontier to Tripoli
and Misratah, then inland to Sabha, center of a mineral rich area, but
there has been no progress; other plans made jointly with Egypt would
establish a rail line from As Sallum, Egypt to Tobruk with completion
set for mid-1994, progress unknown
Highways:
total:
19,300 km
paved:
bituminous 10,800 km
unpaved:
gravel, earth 8,500 km
Inland waterways:
none
Pipelines:
crude oil 4,383 km; petroleum products 443 km (includes liquified
petroleum gas 256 km); natural gas 1,947 km
Ports:
Tobruk, Tripoli, Banghazi, Misratah, Marsa al Burayqah, Ra's Lanuf,
Ra's al Unif
Merchant marine:
31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 690,703 GRT/1,211,184 DWT, cargo
10, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 2, oil tanker 10,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 4
Airports:
total:
145
usable:
132
with permanent-surface runways:
57
with runways over 3,659 m:
8
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
28
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
52
Telecommunications:
modern telecommunications system using radio relay, coaxial cable,
tropospheric scatter, and domestic satellite stations; 370,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 17 AM, 3 FM, 12 TV; satellite earth
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 14
domestic; submarine cables to France and Italy; radio relay to Tunisia
and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; planned ARABSAT and
Intersputnik satellite stations

@Libya, Defense Forces

Branches:
Armed Peoples of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah (including Army, Navy,
Air and Air Defense Command)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,094,052; fit for military service 649,976; reach
military age (17) annually 52,723 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $3.3 billion, 15% of GDP (1989 est.)

@Liechtenstein, Geography

Location:
Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
160 sq km
land area:
160 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 78 km, Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
claims 620 square miles of Czech territory confiscated from its royal
family in 1918; the Czech Republic insists that restitution does not
go back before February 1948, when the Communists seized power
Climate:
continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to
moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Terrain:
mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Natural resources:
hydroelectric potential
Land use:
arable land:
25%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
38%
forest and woodland:
19%
other:
18%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Hazardous
Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
landlocked; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

@Liechtenstein, People

Population:
30,281 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.26% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.08 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
6.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.46 years
male:
73.76 years
female:
81.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.46 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective:
Liechtenstein
Ethnic divisions:
Alemannic 95%, Italian and other 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 87.3%, Protestant 8.3%, unknown 1.6%, other 2.8% (1988)
Languages:
German (official), Alemannic dialect
Literacy:
age 10 and over can read and write (1981)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
19,905 of which 11,933 are foreigners; 6,885 commute from Austria and
Switzerland to work each day
by occupation:
industry, trade, and building 53.2%, services 45%, agriculture,
fishing, forestry, and horticulture 1.8% (1990)

@Liechtenstein, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form:
Liechtenstein
local long form:
Furstentum Liechtenstein
local short form:
Liechtenstein
Digraph:
LS
Type:
hereditary constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Vaduz
Administrative divisions:
11 communes (gemeinden, singular - gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen,
Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen,
Triesenberg, Vaduz
Independence:
23 January 1719 (Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established)
National holiday:
Assumption Day, 15 August
Constitution:
5 October 1921
Legal system:
local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Prince Hans ADAM II (since 13 November 1989; assumed executive powers
26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und zu Liechtenstein
(born 11 June 1968)
head of government:
Mario FRICK (since 15 December 1993); Deputy Head of Government Dr.
Thomas BUECHEL (since 15 December 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet; elected by the Diet; confirmed by the sovereign
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Diet (Landtag):

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