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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 21 out of 46

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cash crops - coffee, tea, sisal, pineapple; food products - corn,
wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, beef, pork,
poultry, eggs; food output not keeping pace with population growth,
and crop production has been extended into marginal land
Illicit drugs:
widespread wild, small-plot cultivation of marijuana and gat; most
locally consumed; transit country for Southwest Asian heroin moving to
West Africa and onward to Europe and North America; Indian
methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $839 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.49
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $74 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $83 million
Currency:
1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1 - 68.413 (December 1993), 32.217
(1992), 27.508 (1991), 22.915 (1990), 20.572 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Kenya, Communications

Railroads:
2,040 km 1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
total:
64,590 km
paved:
7,000 km
unpaved:
gravel 4,150 km; improved earth 53,440 km
Inland waterways:
part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya
Pipelines:
petroleum products 483 km
Ports:
coastal - Mombasa, Lamu; inland - Kisumu
Merchant marine:
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,883 GRT/6,255 DWT, barge
carrier 1, oil tanker ship 1
Airports:
total:
248
usable:
213
with permanent-surface runways:
28
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
44
Telecommunications:
in top group of African systems; consists primarily of radio relay
links; over 260,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 16 AM; 4 FM, 6
TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT

@Kenya, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General Service Unit of the Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,144,891; fit for military service 3,799,202
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $294 million, 4.9% of GDP (FY88/89 est.)

@Kingman Reef

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

@Kingman Reef, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,600 km
south-southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and American
Samoa
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
1 sq km
land area:
1 sq km
comparative area:
about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
3 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds
Terrain:
low and nearly level with a maximum elevation of about 1 meter
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
wet or awash most of the time, maximum elevation of about 1 meter
makes this a maritime hazard
international agreements:
NA
Note:
barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed to the public

@Kingman Reef, People

Population:
uninhabited

@Kingman Reef, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Kingman Reef
Digraph:
KQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy,
however it is awash the majority of the time, so it is not usable and
uninhabited.
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

@Kingman Reef, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Kingman Reef, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and American Samoa
by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and 1938

@Kingman Reef, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

@Kiribati, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Micronesia, straddling the equator in the Pacific Ocean,
about halfway between Hawaii and Australia
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
717 sq km
land area:
717 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix
Islands
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,143 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs
Natural resources:
phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
51%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
46%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; subject to
occasional tornadoes
international agreements:
party to - Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
ratified - Climate Change
Note:
20 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati
is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean
- the others are Makatea in French Polynesia and Nauru

@Kiribati, People

Population:
77,853 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.99% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
31.64 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.31 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
98.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
54.16 years
male:
52.56 years
female:
55.78 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.77 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
I-Kiribati (singular and plural)
adjective:
I-Kiribati
Ethnic divisions:
Micronesian
Religions:
Roman Catholic 52.6%, Protestant (Congregational) 40.9%, Seventh-Day
Adventist, Baha'i, Church of God, Mormon 6% (1985)
Languages:
English (official), Gilbertese
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
7,870 economically active, not including subsistence farmers (1985
est.)

@Kiribati, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Kiribati
conventional short form:
Kiribati
former:
Gilbert Islands
Digraph:
KR
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tarawa
Administrative divisions:
3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands
note:
a new administrative structure of 6 districts (Banaba, Central
Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa)
may have been changed to 21 island councils (one for each of the
inhabited islands) named Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba,
Beru, Butaritari, Canton, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei,
Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa,
Teraina
Independence:
12 July 1979 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 July (1979)
Constitution:
12 July 1979
Legal system:
NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President (Beretitenti) Teatao TEANNAKI (since 8 July 1991); Vice
President (Kauoman-ni-Beretitenti) Taomati IUTA (since 8 July 1991);
election last held on 8 July 1991 (next to be held by NA 1996);
results - Teatao TEANNAKI 52%, Roniti TEIWAKI 28%
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president from an elected parliament
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of Assembly (Maneaba Ni Maungatabu):
elections last held on 8 May 1991 (next to be held by NA 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total; 39 elected)
percent of seats by party NA
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, High Court
Political parties and leaders:
National Progressive Party, Teatao TEANNAKI; Christian Democratic
Party, Teburoro TITO; New Movement Party, leader NA; Liberal Party,
Tewareka TENTOA; Maneaba Party, Roniti TEIWAKI
note:
there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in
Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups
because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party
structures
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, IMF, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, ITU, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
Kiribati has no mission in the US
US diplomatic representation:
the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Kiribati
Flag:
the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a yellow
rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy
white stripes to represent the ocean

@Kiribati, Economy

Overview:
The country has few national resources. Commercially viable phosphate
deposits were exhausted at the time of independence in 1979. Copra and
fish now represent the bulk of production and exports. The economy has
fluctuated widely in recent years. Real GDP declined about 8% in 1987,
as the fish catch fell sharply to only one-fourth the level of 1986
and copra production was hampered by repeated rains. Output rebounded
strongly in 1988, with real GDP growing by 17%. The upturn in economic
growth came from an increase in copra production and a good fish
catch. Following the strong surge in output in 1988, GNP increased 1%
in both 1989 and 1990.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $36.8 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$525 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2%; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$29.9 million
expenditures:
$16.3 million, including capital expenditures of $14 million (1990
est.)
Exports:
$4.2 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
copra 50%, seaweed 16%, fish 15%
partners:
Denmark, Fiji, US
Imports:
$33.1 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous manufactured goods,
fuel
partners:
Australia 40%, Japan 18%, Fiji 17%, NZ 6%, US 4% (1991)
External debt:
$2 million (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.7% (1992 est.); accounts for less than 4% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
5,000 kW
production:
13 million kWh
consumption per capita:
190 kWh (1990)
Industries:
fishing, handicrafts
Agriculture:
accounts for 23% of GDP (including fishing); copra and fish contribute
about 65% to exports; subsistence farming predominates; food crops -
taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; not self-sufficient in
food
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $273 million
Currency:
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704
(1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year:
NA

@Kiribati, Communications

Highways:
total:
640 km
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Inland waterways:
small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line Islands
Ports:
Banaba and Betio (Tarawa)
Merchant marine:
1 passenger-cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,291 GRT/1,295
DWT
Airports:
total:
21
usable:
20
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
1,400 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Kiribati, Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force (carries out law enforcement functions and paramilitary
duties; there are small police posts on all islands); no military
force is maintained
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Korea, North, Geography

Location:
Eastern Asia, between China and South Korea
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
120,540 sq km
land area:
120,410 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Mississippi
Land boundaries:
total 1,673 km, China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Russia 19 km
Coastline:
2,495 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
military boundary line:
50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the exclusive economic zone limit in the
Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels and aircraft without permission
are banned
International disputes:
short section of boundary with China is indefinite; Demarcation Line
with South Korea
Climate:
temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer
Terrain:
mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal
plains wide in west, discontinuous in east
Natural resources:
coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron ore, copper,
gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
18%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
74%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
14,000 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
localized air pollution attributable to inadequate industrial controls
natural hazards:
late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding; subject to
occasional typhoons which occur during the early fall
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Environmental Modification, Ship
Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and Russia;
mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible, and sparsely
populated

@Korea, North, People

Population:
23,066,573 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.83% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
23.75 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.5 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
27.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.78 years
male:
66.69 years
female:
73.02 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.37 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Korean(s)
adjective:
Korean
Ethnic divisions:
racially homogeneous
Religions:
Buddhism and Confucianism, some Christianity and syncretic Chondogyo
note:
autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent;
government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of
religious freedom
Languages:
Korean
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
99%
female:
99%
Labor force:
9.615 million
by occupation:
agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%
note:
shortage of skilled and unskilled labor (mid-1987 est.)

@Korea, North, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
conventional short form:
North Korea
local long form:
Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk
local short form:
none
Abbreviation:
DPRK
Digraph:
KN
Type:
Communist state; Stalinist dictatorship
Capital:
P'yongyang
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 3 special cities* (jikhalsi,
singular and plural); Chagang-do (Chagang Province), Hamgyong-bukto
(North Hamgyong Province), Hamgyong-namdo (South Hamgyong Province),
Hwanghae-bukto (North Hwanghae Province), Hwanghae-namdo (South
Hwanghae Province), Kaesong-si* (Kaesong City), Kangwon-do (Kangwon
Province), Namp'o-si* (Namp'o City), P'yongan-bukto (North P'yongan
Province), P'yongan-namdo (South P'yongan Province), P'yongyang-si*
(P'yongyang City), Yanggang-do (Yanggang Province)
Independence:
9 September 1948
note:
15 August 1945, date of independence from the Japanese and celebrated
in North Korea as National Liberation Day
National holiday:
DPRK Foundation Day, 9 September (1948)
Constitution:
adopted 1948, completely revised 27 December 1972, revised again in
April 1992
Legal system:
based on German civil law system with Japanese influences and
Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President KIM Il-song (national leader since 1948, president since 28
December 1972); designated successor KIM Chong-il (son of president,
born 16 February 1942); election last held 24 May 1990 (next to be
held by NA 1995); results - President KIM Il-song was reelected
without opposition
head of government:
Premier KANG Song-san (since December 1992)
cabinet:
State Administration Council; appointed by the Supreme People's
Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Supreme People's Assembly (Ch'oego Inmin Hoeui):
elections last held on 7-9 April 1993 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (687 total) the KWP approves a
single list of candidates who are elected without opposition; minor
parties hold a few seats
Judicial branch:
Central Court
Political parties and leaders:
major party - Korean Workers' Party (KWP), KIM Il-song, general
secretary, and his son, KIM Chong-il, secretary, Central Committee;
Korean Social Democratic Party, KIM Pyong-sik, chairman; Chondoist
Chongu Party, YU Mi-yong, chairwoman
Member of:
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, ICAO, IFAD, IMF (observer), IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none
US diplomatic representation:
none
Flag:
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue;
the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a
white disk with a red five-pointed star

@Korea, North, Economy

Overview:
More than 90% of this command economy is socialized; agricultural land
is collectivized; and state-owned industry produces 95% of
manufactured goods. State control of economic affairs is unusually
tight even for a Communist country because of the small size and
homogeneity of the society and the strict rule of KIM Il-song and his
son, KIM Chong-il. Economic growth during the period 1984-88 averaged
2%-3%, but output declined by 3%-5% annually during 1989-92 because of
systemic problems and disruptions in socialist-style economic
relations with the former USSR and China. In 1992, output dropped
sharply, by perhaps 7%-9%, as the economy felt the cumulative effect
of the reduction in outside support. The leadership insisted on
maintaining its high level of military outlays from a shrinking
economic pie. Moreover, a serious drawdown in inventories and critical
shortages in the energy sector have led to increasing interruptions in
industrial production. Abundant mineral resources and hydropower have
formed the basis of industrial development since WWII. Output of the
extractive industries includes coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite,
copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals. Manufacturing is centered on
heavy industry, including military industry, with light industry
lagging far behind. Despite the use of improved seed varieties,
expansion of irrigation, and the heavy use of fertilizers, North Korea
has not yet become self-sufficient in food production. Six consecutive
years of poor harvests, coupled with distribution problems, have led
to chronic food shortages. North Korea remains far behind South Korea
in economic development and living standards.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $22 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-7 to -9% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$19.3 billion
expenditures:
$19.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural and fishery products,
manufactures (including armaments)
partners:
China, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Germany, Hong Kong, Mexico
Imports:
$1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, grain, coking coal, machinery and equipment, consumer goods
partners:
China, Russia, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, Singapore
External debt:
$8 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -7% to -9% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
7,300,000 kW
production:
26 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,160 kWh (1992)
Industries:
machine building, military products, electric power, chemicals,
mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for about 25% of GNP and 36% of work force; principal crops -
rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; livestock and livestock
products - cattle, hogs, pork, eggs; not self-sufficient in grain
Economic aid:
recipient:
Communist countries, $1.4 billion a year in the 1980s, but very little
now
Currency:
1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon
Exchange rates:
North Korean won (Wn) per US$1 - 2.15 (May 1994), 2.13 (May 1992),
2.14 (September 1991), 2.1 (January 1990), 2.3 (December 1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Korea, North, Communications

Railroads:
4,915 km total; 4,250 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 665 km
0.762-meter narrow gauge; 159 km double track; 3,084 km electrified;
government owned (1989)
Highways:
total:
30,000 km
paved:
1,440 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, earth 28,560 km (1991)
Inland waterways:
2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only
Pipelines:
crude oil 37 km
Ports:
primary - Ch'ongjin, Hungnam (Hamhung), Najin, Namp'o, Wonsan;
secondary - Haeju, Kimch'aek, Kosong, Sinuiju, Songnim, Sonbong
(formerly Unggi), Ungsang
Merchant marine:
83 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 706,497 GRT/1,114,827 DWT, bulk
9, cargo 67, combination bulk 1, oil tanker 2, passenger 1,
passenger-cargo 2, short-sea passenger 1
Airports:
total:
55
usable:
55 (est.)
with permanent-surface runways:
about 30
with runways over 3,659 m:
fewer than 5
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
30
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 18 AM, no FM, 11 TV; 300,000 TV sets (1989);
3,500,000 radio receivers; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Korea, North, Defense Forces

Branches:
Korean People's Army (including the Army, Navy, Air Force), Civil
Security Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,658,529; fit for military service 4,044,355; reach
military age (18) annually 196,763 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - about $5 billion, 20%-25% of GNP (1991
est.); note - the officially announced but suspect figure is $2.2
billion (1994), about 12% of total spending

@Korea, South, Geography

Location:
Eastern Asia, between North Korea and Japan
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
98,480 sq km
land area:
98,190 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Indiana
Land boundaries:
total 238 km, North Korea 238 km
Coastline:
2,413 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm; 3 nm in the Korea Strait
International disputes:
Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt Rocks claimed by Japan
Climate:
temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter
Terrain:
mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south
Natural resources:
coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead, hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
21%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
67%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
13,530 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution in large cities; water pollution from the discharge of
sewage and industrial effluents
natural hazards:
occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; earthquakes in
southwest
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the
Sea

@Korea, South, People

Population:
45,082,880 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.04% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
15.7 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.17 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
21.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.59 years
male:
67.39 years
female:
73.98 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.65 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Korean(s)
adjective:
Korean
Ethnic divisions:
homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese)
Religions:
Christianity 48.6%, Buddhism 47.4%, Confucianism 3%, pervasive folk
religion (shamanism), Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way) 0.2%
Languages:
Korean, English widely taught in high school
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
96%
male:
99%
female:
99%
Labor force:
20 million
by occupation:
services and other 52%, mining and manufacturing 27%, agriculture,
fishing, forestry 21% (1991)

@Korea, South, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Korea
conventional short form:
South Korea
local long form:
Taehan-min'guk
local short form:
none
Abbreviation:
ROK
Digraph:
KS
Type:
republic
Capital:
Seoul
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 6 special cities* (jikhalsi,
singular and plural); Cheju-do, Cholla-bukto, Cholla-namdo,
Ch'ungch'ong-bukto, Ch'ungch'ong-namdo, Inch'on-jikhalsi*, Kangwon-do,
Kwangju-jikhalsi*, Kyonggi-do, Kyongsang-bukto, Kyongsang-namdo,
Pusan-jikhalsi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*, Taegu-jikhalsi*, Taejon-jikhalsi*
Independence:
15 August 1948
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 August (1948)
Constitution:
25 February 1988
Legal system:
combines elements of continental European civil law systems,
Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President KIM Yong-sam (since 25 February 1993); election last held on
18 December 1992 (next to be held NA December 1997); results - KIM
Yong-sam (DLP) 41.9%, KIM Tae-chung (DP) 33.8%, CHONG Chu-yong (UPP)
16.3%, other 8%
head of government:
Prime Minister YI Yong-tok (since 29 April 1994); Deputy Prime
Minister CHONG Chae-sok (since 21 December 1993) and Deputy Prime
Minister YI Hong-ku (since 30 April 1994)
cabinet:
State Council; appointed by the president on the prime minister's
recommendation
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Kukhoe):
elections last held on 24 March 1992; results - DLP 38.5%, DP 29.2%,
Unification National Party (UNP) 17.3% (name later changed to UPP),
other 15%; seats - (299 total) DLP 149, DP 97, UNP 31, other 22; the
distribution of seats as of January 1994 was DLP 172, DP 96, UPP 11,
other 20
note:
the change in the distribution of seats reflects the fluidity of the
current situation where party members are constantly switching from
one party to another
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
majority party:
Democratic Liberal Party (DLP), KIM Yong-sam, president
opposition:
Democratic Party (DP), YI Ki-taek, executive chairman; United People's
Party (UPP), KIM Tong-kil, chairman; several smaller parties
note:
the DLP resulted from a merger of the Democratic Justice Party (DJP),
Reunification Democratic Party (RDP), and New Democratic Republican
Party (NDRP) on 9 February 1990
Other political or pressure groups:
Korean National Council of Churches; National Democratic Alliance of
Korea; National Federation of Student Associations; National
Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Council of Labor Unions;
Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Veterans' Association;
Federation of Korean Industries; Korean Traders Association
Member of:
AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, COCOM (cooperating), CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, OAS
(observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador HAN Sung-su
chancery:
2450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-5600
consulate(s) general:
Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador James T. LANEY
embassy:
82 Sejong-Ro, Chongro-ku, Seoul
mailing address:
American Embassy, Unit 15550, Seoul; APO AP 96205-0001
telephone:
[82] (2) 397-4000 through 4008 and 397-4114
FAX:
[82] (2) 738-8845
consulate(s):
Pusan
Flag:
white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the center; there
is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book of
Changes) in each corner of the white field

@Korea, South, Economy

Overview:
The driving force behind the economy's dynamic growth has been the
planned development of an export-oriented economy in a vigorously
entrepreneurial society. Real GNP increased more than 10% annually
between 1986 and 1991. This growth ultimately led to an overheated
situation characterized by a tight labor market, strong inflationary
pressures, and a rapidly rising current account deficit. As a result,
in 1992, economic policy focused on slowing the growth rate of
inflation and reducing the deficit. Annual growth slowed to 5%, still
above the rate in most other countries of the world. Growth increased
to 6.3% in 1993 as a result of fourth quarter manufacturing production
growth of over 10% and is expected to be in the 8% range for 1994.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $424 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6.3% (1993)
National product per capita:
$9,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.8% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
2.6% (October 1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$48.4 billion
expenditures:
$48.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$81 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
electronic and electrical equipment, machinery, steel, automobiles,
ships, textiles, clothing, footwear, fish
partners:
US 26%, Japan 17%, EC 14%
Imports:
$78.9 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil, steel, transport
equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains
partners:
Japan 26%, US 24%, EC 15%
External debt:
$42 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5% (1992 est.); accounts for about 45% of GNP
Electricity:
capacity:
27,016 kW (1993)
production:
105 billion kWh (1992)
consumption per capita:
2,380 kWh (1992)
Industries:
electronics, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel,
textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 8% of GNP and employs 21% of work force (including
fishing and forestry); principal crops - rice, root crops, barley,
vegetables, fruit; livestock and livestock products - cattle, hogs,
chickens, milk, eggs; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat; fish
catch of 2.9 million metric tons, seventh-largest in world
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.9 billion; non-US
countries (1970-89), $3 billion
Currency:
1 South Korean won (W) = 100 chun (theoretical)
Exchange rates:
South Korean won (W) per US$1 - 810.48 (January 1994), 802.68 (1993),
780.65 (1992), 733.35 (1991), 707.76 (1990), 671.46 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Korea, South, Communications

Railroads:
3,091 km total (1991); 3,044 km 1.435 meter standard gauge, 47 km
0.610-meter narrow gauge, 847 km double track; 525 km electrified,
government owned
Highways:
total:
63,201 km
paved:
expressways 1,551 km
unpaved:
NA
undifferentiated:
national highway 12,190 km; provincial, local roads 49,460 km (1991)
Inland waterways:
1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft
Pipelines:
petroleum products 455 km
Ports:
Pusan, Inch'on, Kunsan, Mokp'o, Ulsan
Merchant marine:
417 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,425,920 GRT/10,535,850 DWT,
bulk 123, cargo 132, chemical tanker 16, combination bulk 2,
combination ore/oil 2, container 60, liquefied gas 13, multifunction
large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 47, refrigerated cargo 11, short-sea
passenger 1, vehicle carrier 9
Airports:
total:
104
usable:
95
with permanent-surface runways:
61
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
23
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
18
Telecommunications:
excellent domestic and international services; 13,276,449 telephone
subscribers; broadcast stations - 79 AM, 46 FM, 256 TV (57 of 1 kW or
greater); satellite earth stations - 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT

@Korea, South, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 13,435,598; fit for military service 8,623,325; reach
military age (18) annually 417,055 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $13.0 billion, 3.6% of GNP (1994 est.)

@Kuwait, Geography

Location:
Middle East, at the head of the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi
Arabia
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
17,820 sq km
land area:
17,820 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total 464 km, Iraq 242 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km
Coastline:
499 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
in April 1991 Iraq officially accepted UN Security Council Resolution
687, which demands that Iraq accept the inviolability of the boundary
set forth in its 1963 agreement with Kuwait, ending earlier claims to
Bubiyan and Warbah islands, or to all of Kuwait; the 20 May 1993 final
report of the UN Iraq/Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission was
welcomed by the Security Council in Resolution 833 of 27 May 1993,
which also reaffirmed that the decisions of the commission on the
boundary were final, bringing to a completion the official demarcation
of the Iraq-Kuwait boundary; Iraqi officials still refuse to
unconditionally recognize Kuwaiti sovereignty of the inviolability of
the UN demarcated border; ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim
islands disputed by Saudi Arabia
Climate:
dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters
Terrain:
flat to slightly undulating desert plain
Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
8%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
92%
Irrigated land:
20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities
provide much of the water; air and water pollution; desertification
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping
Note:
strategic location at head of Persian Gulf

@Kuwait, People

Population:
1,819,322 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
5.24% (1994 est.)
note:
this rate reflects the continued post-Gulf crisis return of nationals
and expatriates
Birth rate:
29.43 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
2.37 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
25.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
12.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.99 years
male:
72.83 years
female:
77.25 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Kuwaiti(s)
adjective:
Kuwaiti
Ethnic divisions:
Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian 4%, other 7%
Religions:
Muslim 85% (Shi'a 30%, Sunni 45%, other 10%), Christian, Hindu, Parsi,
and other 15%
Languages:
Arabic (official), English widely spoken
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
73%
male:
77%
female:
67%
Labor force:
566,000 (1986)
by occupation:
services 45.0%, construction 20.0%, trade 12.0%, manufacturing 8.6%,
finance and real estate 2.6%, agriculture 1.9%, power and water 1.7%,
mining and quarrying 1.4%
note:
70% of labor force non-Kuwaiti (1986)

@Kuwait, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
State of Kuwait
conventional short form:
Kuwait
local long form:
Dawlat al Kuwayt
local short form:
Al Kuwayt
Digraph:
KU
Type:
nominal constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Kuwait
Administrative divisions:
5 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al 'Ahmadi, Al
Jahrah, Al Kuwayt, Hawalli, Al Farwaniyah
Independence:
19 June 1961 (from UK)
National holiday:
National Day, 25 February (1948)
Constitution:
16 November 1962 (some provisions suspended since 29 August 1962)
Legal system:
civil law system with Islamic law significant in personal matters; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
adult males who resided in Kuwait before 1920 and their male
descendants at age 21
note:
only 10% of all citizens are eligible to vote
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Amir Shaykh JABIR al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 31 December 1977)
head of government:
Prime Minister and Crown Prince SAAD al-Abdallah al-Salim Al Sabah
(since 8 February 1978); Deputy Prime Minister SABAH al-Ahmad al-Jabir
Al Sabah (since 17 October 1992)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the Prime Minister and approved by
the Amir
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Majlis al-umma):
dissolved 3 July 1986; new elections were held on 5 October 1992 with
a second election in the 14th and 16th constituencies held February
1993
Judicial branch:
High Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
none
Other political or pressure groups:
small, clandestine leftist and Shi'a fundamentalist groups are active;
several groups critical of government policies are publicly active
Member of:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BDEAC, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC,
OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador MUHAMMAD al-Sabah al-Salim al-Sabah
chancery:
2940 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 966-0702
FAX:
(202) 966-0517
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate Ryan CROCKER
embassy:
Bneid al-Gar (opposite the Kuwait International Hotel), Kuwait City
mailing address:
P.O. Box 77 SAFAT, 13001 SAFAT, Kuwait; Unit 69000, Kuwait; APO AE
09880-9000
telephone:
[965] 242-4151 through 4159
FAX:
[956] 244-2855
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a
black trapezoid based on the hoist side

@Kuwait, Economy

Overview:
Kuwait is a small and relatively open economy with proven crude oil
reserves of about 94 billion barrels - 10% of world reserves. Kuwait
has rebuilt its war-ravaged petroleum sector; its crude oil production
reached at least 2.0 million barrels per day by the end of 1993. The
government ran a sizable fiscal deficit in 1993. Petroleum accounts
for nearly half of GDP and 90% of export and government revenues.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $25.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
15% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$15,100 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
NEGL% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$9 billion
expenditures:
$13 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93)
Exports:
$10.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
oil
partners:
France 16%, Italy 15%, Japan 12%, UK 11%
Imports:
$6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
food, construction materials, vehicles and parts, clothing
partners:
US 35%, Japan 12%, UK 9%, Canada 9%
External debt:
$7.2 billion (December 1989 est.)
note:
external debt has grown substantially in 1991 and 1992 to pay for
restoration of war damage
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for NA% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
6,873,000 kW available out of 7,398,000 kW due to Persian Gulf war
production:
12.264 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
8,890 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food processing, building
materials, salt, construction
Agriculture:
practically none; dependent on imports for food; about 75% of potable
water must be distilled or imported
Economic aid:
donor:
pledged bilateral aid to less developed countries (1979-89), $18.3
billion
Currency:
1 Kuwaiti dinar (KD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US$1 - 0.2982 (January 1994), 0.3017 (1993),
0.2934 (1992), 0.2843 (1991), 0.2915 (1990), 0.2937 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Kuwait, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
total:
3,900 km
paved:
bituminous 3,000 km
unpaved:
gravel, sand, earth 900 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 877 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 165 km
Ports:
Ash Shu'aybah, Ash Shuwaykh, Mina' al Ahmadi, Mina' 'Abd Allah, Mina'
Su'ud
Merchant marine:
46 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 2,153,693 GRT/3,561,568 DWT,
cargo 10, container 2, liquefied gas 7, livestock carrier 4, oil
tanker 23
Airports:
total:
7
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
civil network suffered extensive damage as a result of the Gulf war
and reconstruction is still under way with some restored international
and domestic capabilities; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 0 FM, 3 TV;
satellite earth stations - destroyed during Gulf war and not rebuilt
yet; temporary mobile satellite ground stations provide international
telecommunications; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Saudi
Arabia; service to Iraq is nonoperational

@Kuwait, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, National Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 537,696; fit for military service 321,767; reach
military age (18) annually 15,354 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion, 7.3% of GDP (FY92/93)

@Kyrgyzstan, Geography

Location:
Central Asia, between China and Kazakhstan
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
198,500 sq km
land area:
191,300 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries:
total 3,878 km, China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km,
Uzbekistan 1,099 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
territorial dispute with Tajikistan on southwestern boundary in Isfara
Valley area
Climate:
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest
(Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Terrain:
peaks of Tien Shan rise to 7,000 meters, and associated valleys and
basins encompass entire nation
Natural resources:
small amounts of coal abundant hydroelectric potential; significant
deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil
and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead,
and zinc, natural gas, oil, nepheline, rare earth metals, mercury,
bismuth, gold, lead, zinc, hydroelectric power
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
NEGL%
meadows and pastures:
42%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
51%
Irrigated land:
10,320 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution; many people get their water directly from
contaminated streams and wells and as a result, water-borne diseases
are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation
practices
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
landlocked

@Kyrgyzstan, People

Population:
4,698,108 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.53% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
26.33 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
46.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.92 years
male:
63.69 years
female:
72.35 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.35 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Kyrgyz(s)
adjective:
Kyrgyz
Ethnic divisions:
Kirghiz 52.4%, Russian 21.5%, Uzbek 12.9%, Ukrainian 2.5%, German
2.4%, other 8.3%
Religions:
Muslim 70%, Russian Orthodox NA%
Languages:
Kirghiz (Kyrgyz) - official language, Russian widely used
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
1.836 million
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 38%, industry and construction 21%, other 41%
(1990)

@Kyrgyzstan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form:
Kyrgyzstan
local long form:
Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form:
none
former:
Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
KG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Bishkek
Administrative divisions:
6 oblasttar (singular - oblast); Chuy Oblasty, Jalal-Abad Oblasty,
Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty
note:
the administrative center for Chuy Oblasty is Bishkek; the
administrative center for Ysyk-Kol Oblasty may be Ksyk-Kol or Karakol;
all other oblasttar have administrative centers of the same name as
the oblast
Independence:
31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
National Day, 2 December; Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
Constitution:
adopted 5 May 1993
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990); election last held 12
October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Askar AKAYEV won in
uncontested election with 95% of vote and with 90% of electorate
voting; note - president elected by Supreme Soviet 28 October 1990,
then by popular vote 12 October 1991; note - AKAYEV won 96% of the
vote in a referendum on his status as president on 30 January 1993
head of government:
Prime Minister Apas DZHUMAGULOV (since NA December 1993); First Deputy
Prime Minister Almambet MATURBRAIMOV (since NA)
cabinet:
Cabinet of Ministers; subordinate to the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Zhogorku Keneshom:
elections last held 25 February 1990 for the Supreme Soviet (next to
be held no later than NA November 1994 for the Zhogorku Keneshom);
results - Communists 90%; seats - (350 total) Communists 310
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Social Democrats, Ishenbai KADYRBEKOV, chairman; Kyrgyzstan Democratic
Movement (KDM), Kazat AKHMATOV, chairman; National Unity, German
KUZNETSOV; Communist Party, Dzhumalbek AMANBAYEV, chairman; Erkin
(Free) Kyrgyzstan Party, Topchubek TURGUNALIYEV, chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
National Unity Democratic Movement; Peasant Party; Council of Free
Trade Unions; Union of Entrepreneurs; Agrarian Party
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IOC, NACC, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
chancery:
(temporary) Suite 705, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone:
(202) 347-3732/3
FAX:
(202) 347-3718
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward HURWITZ
embassy:
Erkindik Prospekt #66, Bishkek 720002
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
7-3312 22-29-20, 22-26-93, 22-29-89
FAX:
7-3312 22-35-51
Flag:
red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing
the 40 Krygyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run
counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun
is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized
representation of the roof of the traditional Kyrgyz yurt

@Kyrgyzstan, Economy

Overview:
Kyrgyzstan is one of the smallest and poorest states of the former
Soviet Union. Its economy is heavily agricultural, producing cotton
and tobacco on irrigated land in the south, grain in the foothills of
the north, and sheep and goats on mountain pastures. Its small and
obsolescent industrial sector, concentrated around Bishkek, is heavily
dependent on Russia and other CIS countries for customers and for
inputs, including most of its fuel. Since 1990, the economy has
contracted by almost 40%. Kyrgyzstan's inflation was high in 1993,
about 23% per month, but rates were declining at the end of the year.
Kyrgyzstan introduced its national currency, the som, in May 1993, it
has privatized 28% of its former state assets, and plans call for a
massive voucher privatization in 1994. Although Kyrgyzstan will
receive relatively large flows of foreign aid, ongoing economic
restructuring will continue to be painful with an anticipated increase
in unemployment as uneconomic enterprises close. President AKAYEV will
be under strong political pressure to backtrack on some reform
measures.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $11.3 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Kirghiz statistics, which are very
uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-13.4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,440 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
23% per month (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
0.2% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of
unregistered unemployed and underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$100.4 million to countries outside the FSU (1993 est.)
commodities:
wool, chemicals, cotton, ferrous and nonferrous metals, shoes,
machinery, tobacco
partners:
Russia 70%, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and others
Imports:
$105.8 million from countries outside the FSU (1993 est.)
commodities:
grain, lumber, industrial products, ferrous metals, fuel, machinery,
textiles, footwear
partners:
other CIS republics
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -27% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
4,100,000 kW
production:
11.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,551 kWh (1992)
Industries:
small machinery, textiles, food-processing industries, cement, shoes,
sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, and rare
earth metals
Agriculture:
wool, tobacco, cotton, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle), vegetables,
meat, grapes, fruits and berries, eggs, milk, potatoes
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
consumption; limited government eradication program; used as
transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and North
America from Central and Southwest Asia
Economic aid:
recipient:
$80 million in 1993 and an anticipated $400 million in 1994
Currency:
introduced national currency, the som (10 May 1993)
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Kyrgyzstan, Communications

Railroads:
370 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
total:
30,300 km
paved and graveled:
22,600 km
unpaved:
earth 7,700 km (1990)
Pipelines:
natural gas 200 km
Ports:
none; landlocked
Airports:
total:
52
usable:
27
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
13
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
poorly developed; 342,000 telephones in 1991 (also about 100,000
unsatisfied applications for household telephones); 76 telephones per
1,000 persons (31 December 1991); microwave radio relay is principal
means of intercity telephone links; connections with other CIS
countries by landline or microwave and with other countries by leased
connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite;
2 satellite earth stations - 1 GORIZONT and 1 INTELSAT (links through
Ankara to 200 other countries and receives Turkish broadcasts);
broadcast receivers - radios 825,000, TVs 875,000, radio receiver
systems with multiple speakers for program diffusion 748,000

@Kyrgyzstan, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops), Civil
Defense
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,123,959; fit for military service 912,516; reach
military age (18) annually 44,528 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Laos, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, between Vietnam and Thailand
Map references:
Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
236,800 sq km
land area:
230,800 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Utah
Land boundaries:
total 5,083 km, Burma 235 km, Cambodia 541 km, China 423 km, Thailand
1,754 km, Vietnam 2,130 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
boundary dispute with Thailand
Climate:
tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December
to April)
Terrain:
mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus
Natural resources:
timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
58%
other:
35%
Irrigated land:
1,200 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion
natural hazards:
subject to floods, drought, and blight
international agreements:
party to - Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but
not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note:
landlocked

@Laos, People

Population:
4,701,654 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.85% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
43.23 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
14.74 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
101.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
51.68 years
male:
50.16 years
female:
53.28 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.07 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Lao(s) or Laotian(s)
adjective:
Lao or Laotian
Ethnic divisions:
Lao 50%, Phoutheung (Kha) 15%, tribal Thai 20%, Meo, Hmong, Yao, and
other 15%
Religions:
Buddhist 85%, animist and other 15%
Languages:
Lao (official), French, English
Literacy:
age 15-45 can read and write (1993)
total population:
64%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1-1.5 million
by occupation:
agriculture 85-90% (est.)

@Laos, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Lao People's Democratic Republic
conventional short form:
Laos
local long form:
Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao
local short form:
none
Digraph:
LA
Type:
Communist state
Capital:
Vientiane
Administrative divisions:
16 provinces (khoueng, singular and plural) and 1 municipality*
(kampheng nakhon, singular and plural); Attapu, Bokeo, Bolikhamsai,
Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouan, Louang Namtha, Louangphrabang,
Oudomxai, Phongsali, Saravan, Savannakhet, Xekong, Vientiane,
Viangchan*, Xaignabouri, Xiangkhoang
Independence:
19 July 1949 (from France)
National holiday:
National Day, 2 December (1975) (proclamation of the Lao People's
Democratic Republic)
Constitution:
promulgated 14 August 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President NOUHAK PHOUMSAVAN (since 25 November 1992)
head of government:
Prime Minister Gen. KHAMTAI SIPHANDON (since 15 August 1991)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president, approved by the
Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Third National Assembly:
elections last held on 20 December 1992 (next to be held NA); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (85 total) number of seats by
party NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme People's Court
Political parties and leaders:
Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP), KHAMTAI Siphandon, party

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