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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 20 out of 46

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Okinotori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands
(Kazan-retto)
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
29,751 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm; 3 nm in the international straits - La Perouse or Soya,
Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or
Tsushima Strait
International disputes:
islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotau, and the Habomai group
occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia,
claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea;
Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan
Climate:
varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
Terrain:
mostly rugged and mountainous
Natural resources:
negligible mineral resources, fish
Land use:
arable land:
13%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
67%
other:
18%
Irrigated land:
28,680 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain;
acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and
threatening aquatic life
natural hazards:
many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic
occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note:
strategic location in northeast Asia

@Japan, People

Population:
125,106,937 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.32% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
10.49 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.31 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
79.31 years
male:
76.47 years
female:
82.28 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.55 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Japanese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Japanese
Ethnic divisions:
Japanese 99.4%, other 0.6% (mostly Korean)
Religions:
observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including 0.7%
Christian)
Languages:
Japanese
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
63.33 million
by occupation:
trade and services 54%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 33%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7%, government 3% (1988)

@Japan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Japan
Digraph:
JA
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Tokyo
Administrative divisions:
47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka,
Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa,
Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie,
Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama,
Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi,
Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi,
Yamanashi
Independence:
660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)
National holiday:
Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)
Constitution:
3 May 1947
Legal system:
modeled after European civil law system with English-American
influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)
head of government:
Prime Minister Tsutomu HATA (since 25 April 1994); Deputy Prime
Minister (vacant)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral Diet (Kokkai)
House of Councillors (Sangi-in):
elections last held on 26 July 1992 (next to be held NA July 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (252 total) LDP 95,
SDPJ 68, Shin Ryoku fu-Kai 37, CGP 24, JCP 11, other 17
House of Representatives (Shugi-in):
elections last held on 18 July 1993 (next to be held by NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (511 total) LDP 206, SDPJ 74,
Shinseito 62, CGP 52, JNP 37, DSP 19, JCP 15, Sakigake 15, others 19,
independents 10, vacant 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Yohei KONO, president; Yoshiro MORI,
secretary general; Social Democratic Party of Japan (SDPJ), Tomiichi
MURAYAMA; Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), Keigo OUCHI, chairman;
Japan Communist Party (JCP), Tetsuzo FUWA, Presidium chairman; Komeito
(Clean Government Party, CGP), Koshiro ISHIDA, chairman; Japan New
Party (JNP), Morihiro HOSOKAWA, chairman; Shinseito (Japan Renewal
Party, JRP), Tsutomu HATA, chairman; Ichiro OZAWA, secretary general;
Sakigake (Harbinger), Masayoshi TAKEMURA, chairman; Mirai (Future
Party), Michihiko KANO, chairman; The Liberal Party, Koji KAKIZAWA,
chairman
note:
Shin Ryoku fu-Kai is a new, upper house only, parliamentary alliance
which includes the JRP, JNP, DSP, and a minor labor group
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, COCOM, CP,
CSCE (observer), EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MTCR, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Takakazu KURIYAMA
chancery:
2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-6700
FAX:
(202) 328-2187
consulate(s) general:
Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Honolulu,
Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New
York, Portland (Oregon), San Francisco, and Seattle
consulate(s):
Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Walter F. MONDALE
embassy:
10-5, Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo
mailing address:
Unit 45004, Box 258, Tokyo; APO AP 96337-0001
telephone:
[81] (3) 3224-5000
FAX:
[81] (3) 3505-1862
consulate(s) general:
Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo
consulate(s):
Fukuoka
Flag:
white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the
center

@Japan, Economy

Overview:
Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high
technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped
Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second most
powerful economy in the world. Industry, the most important sector of
the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels.
Self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its
requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of
the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the
global catch. Overall economic growth has been spectacular: a 10%
average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. Economic
growth came to a halt in 1992-93 largely because of contractionary
domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the
stock and real estate markets. At the same time, the stronger yen and
slower global growth are containing export growth. Unemployment and
inflation remain remarkably low in comparison with the other
industrialized nations. Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus -
$120 billion in 1993, up more than 10% from the year earlier - which
supports extensive investment in foreign assets. The new prime
minister HATA in early 1994 reiterated previous governments' vows of
administrative and economic reform, including reduction in the trade
surplus, but his weak coalition government faces strong resistance
from traditional interest groups. The crowding of the habitable land
area and the aging of the population are two major long-run problems.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.549 trillion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
0% (1993)
National product per capita:
$20,400 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
2.5% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$490 billion
expenditures:
$579 billion, including capital expenditures (public works only) of
about $68 billion (FY93)
Exports:
$360.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
manufactures 97% (including machinery 46%, motor vehicles 20%,
consumer electronics 10%)
partners:
Southeast Asia 33%, US 29%, Western Europe 18%, China 5%
Imports:
$240.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
manufactures 52%, fossil fuels 20%, foodstuffs and raw materials 28%
partners:
Southeast Asia 25%, US 23%, Western Europe 15%, China 9%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -4% (1993); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
196,000,000 kW
production:
835 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
6,700 kWh (1992)
Industries:
steel and non-ferrous metallurgy, heavy electrical equipment,
construction and mining equipment, motor vehicles and parts,
electronic and telecommunication equipment and components, machine
tools and automated production systems, locomotives and railroad
rolling stock, shipbuilding, chemicals, textiles, food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for only 2% of GDP; highly subsidized and protected sector,
with crop yields among highest in world; principal crops - rice, sugar
beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include pork, poultry, dairy
and eggs; about 50% self-sufficient in food production; shortages of
wheat, corn, soybeans; world's largest fish catch of 10 million metric
tons in 1991
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-93), $123 billion
note:
ODA outlay of $9.9 billion in 1994 (est.)
Currency:
yen (Y)
Exchange rates:
yen (Y) per US$1 - 111.51 (January 1994), 111.20 (1993), 126.65
(1992), 134.71 (1991), 144.79 (1990), 137.96 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Japan, Communications

Railroads:
27,327 km total; 2,012 km 1.435-meter standard gauge and 25,315 km
predominantly 1.067-meter narrow gauge; 5,724 km doubletrack and
multitrack sections, 9,038 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge electrified,
2,012 km 1.435-meter standard-gauge electrified (1987)
Highways:
total:
1,115,609 km
paved:
782,042 km (including 4,869 km of national expressways)
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, or earth 333,567 km (1991)
Inland waterways:
about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas
Pipelines:
crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas 1,800 km
Ports:
Chiba, Muroran, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Tomakomai, Nagoya, Osaka, Tokyo,
Yokkaichi, Yokohama, Kawasaki, Niigata, Fushiki-Toyama, Shimizu,
Himeji, Wakayama-Shimozu, Shimonoseki, Tokuyama-Shimomatsu
Merchant marine:
926 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,383,101 GRT31,007,515 DWT,
bulk 225, cargo 76, chemical tanker 9, combination ore/oil 9,
container 44, liquefied gas 42, multi-function large load carrier 1,
oil tanker 265, passenger 10, passenger cargo 3, refrigerated cargo
66, roll-on/roll-off cargo 44, short-sea passenger 36, specialized
tanker 2, vehicle carrier 94
note:
Japan also owns a large flag of convenience fleet, including up to 38%
of the total number of ships under the Panamanian flag
Airports:
total:
167
usable:
165
with permanent-surface runways:
137
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
34
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
52
Telecommunications:
excellent domestic and international service; 64,000,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 318 AM, 58 FM, 12,350 TV (196 major - 1 kw or
greater); satellite earth stations - 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT; submarine cables to US (via Guam), Philippines,
China, and Russia

@Japan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan Maritime Self-Defense
Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force), Maritime
Safety Agency (Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 32,044,032; fit for military service 27,597,444; reach
military age (18) annually 953,928 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $45.5 billion, less than 1% of GDP (FY94/95
est.)

@Jarvis Island

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

@Jarvis Island, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia, in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,090 km south of
Honolulu, just south of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and
the Cook Islands
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
4.5 sq km
land area:
4.5 sq km
comparative area:
about 7.5 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
8 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain:
sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
Natural resources:
guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
lacks fresh water
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; primarily
a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds,
and marine wildlife; feral cats

@Jarvis Island, People

Population:
uninhabited; note - Millersville settlement on western side of island
occasionally used as a weather station from 1935 until World War II,
when it was abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the International
Geophysical Year by scientists who left in 1958; public entry is by
special-use permit only and generally restricted to scientists and
educators

@Jarvis Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Jarvis Island
Digraph:
DQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

@Jarvis Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Jarvis Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only - one boat landing area in the middle of
the west coast and another near the southwest corner of the island
Note:
there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

@Jarvis Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US
Coast Guard

@Jersey

Header

Affiliation:
(British crown dependency)

@Jersey, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, 27 km from France in the English Channel
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total area:
117 sq km
land area:
117 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
70 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; mild winters and cool summers
Terrain:
gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast
Natural resources:
agricultural land
Land use:
arable land:
57%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population
concentrated in Saint Helier

@Jersey, People

Population:
86,048 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.7% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
12.81 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.1 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
4.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
4.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.64 years
male:
73.54 years
female:
80.09 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.43 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Channel Islander(s)
adjective:
Channel Islander
Ethnic divisions:
UK and Norman-French descent
Religions:
Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New Church,
Methodist, Presbyterian
Languages:
English (official), French (official), Norman-French dialect spoken in
country districts
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

@Jersey, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Bailiwick of Jersey
conventional short form:
Jersey
Digraph:
JE
Type:
British crown dependency
Capital:
Saint Helier
Administrative divisions:
none (British crown dependency)
Independence:
none (British crown dependency)
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)
Constitution:
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system:
English law and local statute
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Air Marshal Sir John SUTTON
(since NA 1990); Bailiff Sir Peter L. CRILL (since NA)
cabinet:
committees; appointed by the States
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Assembly of the States:
elections last held NA (next to be held NA); results - no percent of
vote by party since all are independents; seats - (56 total, 52
elected) 52 independents
Judicial branch:
Royal Court
Political parties and leaders:
none; all independents
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (British crown dependency)
US diplomatic representation:
none (British crown dependency)
Flag:
white with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of
Ireland) extending to the corners of the flag

@Jersey, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based largely on financial services, agriculture, and
tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are
important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of
dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export
earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU countries. In 1986 the
finance sector overtook tourism as the main contributor to GDP,
accounting for 40% of the island's output. In recent years the
government has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey, with the
result that an electronics industry has developed alongside the
traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material and energy
requirements are imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food
needs.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
8% (1987 est.)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1988 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$308 million
expenditures:
$284.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1985)
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
light industrial and electrical goods, foodstuffs, textiles
partners:
UK
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs,
mineral fuels, chemicals
partners:
UK
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
50,000 kW standby
production:
power supplied by France
consumption per capita:
NA (1992)
Industries:
tourism, banking and finance, dairy
Agriculture:
potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; dairy and cattle farming
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Jersey pound (#J) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Jersey pounds (#J) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6658 (1993),
0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989); the Jersey
pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Jersey, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Saint Helier, Gorey, Saint Aubin
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
63,700 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 3 submarine
cables

@Jersey, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Johnston Atoll

Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

@Johnston Atoll, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,430 km
west-southwest of Honolulu, about one-third of the way between Hawaii
and the Marshall Islands
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
2.8 sq km
land area:
2.8 sq km
comparative area:
about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
10 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with
little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly flat with a maximum elevation of 4 meters
Natural resources:
guano (deposits worked until about 1890)
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; Johnston Island and
Sand Island are natural islands; North Island (Akau) and East Island
(Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; closed to the
public; former nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston Atoll
Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); some low-growing vegetation

@Johnston Atoll, People

Population:
327 (July 1994 est.)

@Johnston Atoll, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Johnston Atoll
Digraph:
JQ
Type:
unincorportated territory of the US administered by the US Defense
Nuclear Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA and the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge system
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of the US)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of the US)
Flag:
the flag of the US is used

@Johnston Atoll, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military
personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and
manufactured goods must be imported.
Electricity:
supplied by the management and operations contractor

@Johnston Atoll, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1 with TACAN and beacon
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
excellent system including 60-channel submarine cable, Autodin/SRT
terminal, digital telephone switch, Military Affiliated Radio System
(MARS station), commercial satellite television system, and UHF/VHF
air-ground radio

@Johnston Atoll, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

@Jordan

Header
Affiliation:
(also see separate West Bank entry)

@Jordan, Geography

Location:
Middle East, between Israel and Saudi Arabia
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
89,213 sq km
land area:
88,884 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
total 1,619 km, Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 728 km, Syria
375 km, West Bank 97 km
Coastline:
26 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
differences with Israel over the location of the 1949 Armistice Line
that separates the two countries; water-sharing issues with Israel
Climate:
mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
Terrain:
mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift
Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River
Natural resources:
phosphates, potash, shale oil
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
0.5%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
0.5%
other:
94%
Irrigated land:
570 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
lack of adequate natural water resources; deforestation; overgrazing;
soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands

@Jordan, People

Population:
3,961,194 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.5% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
38.77 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.22 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
32.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.85 years
male:
70.04 years
female:
73.77 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.64 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Jordanian(s)
adjective:
Jordanian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 8%
Languages:
Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle
classes
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
80%
male:
89%
female:
70%
Labor force:
600,000 (1992)
by occupation:
industry 11.4%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels 10.5%, construction
10.0%, transport and communications 8.7%, agriculture 7.4%, other
services 52.0% (1992)

@Jordan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
conventional short form:
Jordan
local long form:
Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah
local short form:
Al Urdun
former:
Transjordan
Digraph:
JO
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Amman
Administrative divisions:
8 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Balqa', Al Karak,
Al Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Ma'an
Independence:
25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British
administration)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 May (1946)
Constitution:
8 January 1952
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review of legislative
acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
King HUSSEIN Bin Talal Al Hashimi (since 11 August 1952)
head of government:
Prime Minister Abd al-Salam al-MAJALI (since May 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-'Umma)
House of Notables (Majlis al-A'ayan):
consists of a 40-member body appointed by the king from designated
categories of public figures
House of Representatives:
elections last held 8 November 1993 (next to be held NA November
1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (80 total)
Muslim Brotherhood (fundamentalist) 16, Independent Islamic bloc
(generally traditionalist) 6, Radical leftist 3, pro-government 55
note:
the House of Representatives has been convened and dissolved by the
King several times since 1974 and in November 1989 the first
parliamentary elections in 22 years were held
Judicial branch:
Court of Cassation
Political parties and leaders:
NA; note - political parties were legalized in December 1992
Member of:
ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, PCA,
UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNRWA, UNPROFOR, UNTAC,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Fayiz A. TARAWNAH
chancery:
3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 966-2664
FAX:
(202) 966-3110
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Wesley EGAN, Jr.
embassy:
Jabel Amman, Amman
mailing address:
P. O. Box 354, Amman, or APO AE 09892-0200
telephone:
[962] (6) 820-101
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green with a
red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a small white
seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star represent the seven
fundamental laws of the Koran

@Jordan, Economy

Overview:
Jordan benefited from increased Arab aid during the oil boom of the
late 1970s and early 1980s, when its annual real GNP growth averaged
more than 10%. In the remainder of the 1980s, however, reductions in
both Arab aid and worker remittances slowed real economic growth to an
average of roughly 2% per year. Imports - mainly oil, capital goods,
consumer durables, and food - outstripped exports, with the difference
covered by aid, remittances, and borrowing. In mid-1989, the Jordanian
Government began debt-rescheduling negotiations and agreed to
implement an IMF-supported program designed to gradually reduce the
budget deficit and implement badly needed structural reforms. The
Persian Gulf crisis that began in August 1990, however, aggravated
Jordan's already serious economic problems, forcing the government to
shelve the IMF program, stop most debt payments, and suspend
rescheduling negotiations. Aid from Gulf Arab states, worker
remittances and trade contracted, and refugees flooded the country,
producing serious balance-of-payments problems, stunting GDP growth,
and straining government resources. The economy rebounded in 1992,
largely due to the influx of capital repatriated by workers returning
from the Gulf, but the recovery has been losing steam since mid-1993.
The government is implementing the reform program adopted in 1992 and
continues to secure rescheduling of its heavy foreign debt.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $11.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.7 billion
expenditures:
$1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $420 million (1993)
Exports:
$1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural products, manufactures
partners:
India, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, EC, Indonesia, UAE
Imports:
$3.2 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, food, live animals,
manufactured goods
partners:
EC, US, Iraq, Japan, Turkey
External debt:
$6.8 billion (December 1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3% (1993 est.); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
1,030,000 kW
production:
3.814 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,070 kWh (1992)
Industries:
phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash, light
manufacturing
Agriculture:
accounts for about 10% of GDP; principal products are wheat, barley,
citrus fruit, tomatoes, melons, olives; livestock - sheep, goats,
poultry; large net importer of food
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.5 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $44 million
Currency:
1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.7019 (February 1994), 0.6928
(1993), 0.6797 (1992), 0.6808 (1991), 0.6636 (1990), 0.5704 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Jordan, Communications

Railroads:
789 km 1.050-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
total:
7,500 km
paved:
asphalt 5,500 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 2,000 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 209 km
Ports:
Al 'Aqabah
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,566 GRT/129,351 DWT, bulk 1,
cargo 1, oil tanker 1
Airports:
total:
16
usable:
14
with permanent-surface runways:
13
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
12
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
adequate telephone system of microwave, cable, and radio links; 81,500
telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7 FM, 8 TV; satellite earth
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1
ARABSAT, 1 domestic TV receive-only; coaxial cable and microwave to
Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Syria; microwave link to Lebanon is inactive;
participant in MEDARABTEL, a microwave radio relay network linking
Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco

@Jordan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF) includes Royal Jordanian Land Force,
Royal Jordanian Air Force, Royal Naval Force; Ministry of the
Interior's Public Security Force (falls under JAF only in wartime or
crisis situations)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 966,420; fit for military service 685,112; reach
military age (18) annually 42,776 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $435 million, 7.9% of GDP (1993)

@Juan de Nova Island

Header
Affiliation:
(possession of France)

@Juan de Nova Island, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the central Mozambique Channel about one-third of
the way between Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total area:
4.4 sq km
land area:
4.4 sq km
comparative area:
about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
24.1 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
NA
Natural resources:
guano deposits and other fertilizers
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
90%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to periodic cyclones
international agreements:
NA
Note:
wildlife sanctuary

@Juan de Nova Island, People

Population:
uninhabited

@Juan de Nova Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Juan de Nova Island
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ile Juan de Nova
Digraph:
JU
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic,
resident in Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
none (possession of France)

@Juan de Nova Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Juan de Nova Island, Communications

Railroads:
short line going to a jetty
Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,439-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1

@Juan de Nova Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@Kazakhstan, Geography

Location:
Central Asia, between Russia and Uzbekistan, bordering on the Caspian
Sea and the Aral Sea
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,717,300 sq km
land area:
2,669,800 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than four times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 12,012 km, China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km,
Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km
Coastline:
0 km
note:
Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea (1,894
km)
Maritime claims:
landlocked, but borders with Russia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan in
the Caspian Sea are under negotiation at present
International disputes:
Russia may dispute current de facto maritime border to midpoint of
Caspian Sea from shore
Climate:
continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
Terrain:
extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in
western Siberia to oasis and desert in Central Asia
Natural resources:
major deposits of petroleum, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore,
nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Land use:
arable land:
15%
permanent crops:
NEGL %
meadows and pastures:
57%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
24%
Irrigated land:
23,080 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense
industries and test ranges are found throughout the country and pose
health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in
some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral
Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving
behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these
substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust
storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of
agricultural chemicals and salinization from faulty irrigation
practices
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
landlocked

@Kazakhstan, People

Population:
17,267,554 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.64% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
19.4 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.93 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-5.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
40.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.04 years
male:
63.39 years
female:
72.93 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.44 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Kazakhstani(s)
adjective:
Kazakhstani
Ethnic divisions:
Kazakh (Qazaq) 41.9%, Russian 37%, Ukrainian 5.2%, German 4.7%, Uzbek
2.1%, Tatar 2%, other 7.1% (1991 official data)
Religions:
Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%
Languages:
Kazakh (Qazaqz) official language spoken by over 40% of population,
Russian (language of interethnic communication) spoken by two-thirds
of population and used in everyday business
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
7.356 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry 26%, other 43%
(1992)

@Kazakhstan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Kazakhstan
conventional short form:
Kazakhstan
local long form:
Kazakhstan Respublikasy
local short form:
none
former:
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
KZ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Almaty
Administrative divisions:
19 oblystar (singular - oblys) and 1 city (qalalar, singular - qala)*;
Almaty*, Almaty Oblysy, Aqmola Oblysy, Aqtobe Oblysy, Atyrau Oblysy,
Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oral), Kokshetau Oblysy, Mangghystau Oblysy,
Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Shymkent), Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay
Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy, Pavlodar Oblysy, Semey Oblysy, Shyghys
Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oskemen; formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk), Soltustik
Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavl), Taldyqorghan Oblysy, Torghay Oblysy,
Zhambyl Oblysy, Zhezqazghan Oblysy
note:
names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from
oblys name
Independence:
16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 December (1991)
Constitution:
adopted 28 January 1993
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (since NA April 1990); Vice
President Yerik ASANBAYEV (since 1 December 1991); election last held
1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1995); percent of vote by party
NA; Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV ran unopposed
head of government:
Prime Minister Sergey TERESHCHENKO (since 14 October 1991); First
Deputy Prime Minister Arkezhan KAZHEGELDIN (since NA November 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Supreme Council:
elections last held 7 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (177 total) Union Peoples' Unity
of Kazakhstan 33, Federation of Trade Unions of the Republic of
Kazakhstan 11, People's Congress of Kazakhstan Party 9, Socialist
Party of Kazakhstan 8, Peasant Union of the Republic Kazakhstan 4,
Social Movement "LAD" 4, Organization of Veterans 1, Union of Youth of
Kazakhstan 1, Democratic Committee for Human Rights 1, Association of
Lawyers of Kazakhstan 1, International Public Committee
"Aral-Asia-Kazakhstan" 1, Congress of Entrepreneurs of Kazakhstan 1,
Deputies of the 12th Supreme Soviet 40, independents 62
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Peoples Unity Movement (PUU), Kuanysh SULTANOV, chairman; Peoples
Congress, Olzhas SULEYMENOV, chairman; Kazakhstan Socialist Party
(SPK; former Communist Party), Piotr SVOIK, co-chairman; Republican
Party (Azat), Kamal ORMANTAYEV, chairman; Democratic Progress
(Russian) Party, Alexandra DOKUCHAYEVA, chairman; Union Peoples' Unity
of Kazakhstan (SNEK); Federation of Trade Unions of the Republic of
Kazakhstan; Peasant Union of the Republic Kazakhstan; Social Movement
LAD (Slavic Rebirth Society), V. MIKHAYLOV, chairman; Union of Youth
of Kazakhstan; Democratic Committee for Human Rights; Association of
Lawyers of Kazakhstan; International Public Committee
"Aral-Asia-Kazakhstan"; Congress of Entrepreneurs of Kazakhstan;
Deputies of the 12th Supreme Soviet
Other political or pressure groups:
Independent Trade Union Center (Birlesu; an association of independent
trade union and business associations), Leonid SOLOMIN, president
Member of:
CCC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOD, NACC, OIC (observer), UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Tuleutai SULEYMENOV
chancery:
3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 333-4504/7
FAX:
(202) 333-4509
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William H. COURTNEY
embassy:
99/97 Furmanova Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan 480012
mailing address:
American Embassy Almaty, c/o Department of State, Washington, DC,
20521-7030
telephone:
(7) (3272) 63-17-70, 63-24-26, 63-28-80, 63-34-05
FAX:
(7) (3272) 63-38-83
Flag:
sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with
32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the
hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in yellow

@Kazakhstan, Economy

Overview:
Kazakhstan, the second largest of the former Soviet states in
territory, possesses vast oil, coal, rare metals, and agricultural
resources. While the economy is gradually making the transition from a
Soviet command system to a market system, strong elements of state
control persist including government ownership of most economic assets
and a continued system of mandatory state procurement for the key
products such as grain and energy; likewise, agriculture remains
largely collectivized. On the other hand, new businesses are forming
rapidly, the economy is opening to foreign investment, and 12% of
state-owned commercial enterprises have been privatized. In 1993, a
three-year industrial privatization program was launched; an
independent currency was successfully introduced; and two large joint
ventures were established with western oil companies. These
far-reaching structural transformations have resulted in a cumulative
decline in national income of more than 30% since 1990. Loose monetary
policies have kept the inflation rate high, averaging 28% per month
for 1993 and accelerating at the end with the disruption caused by a
new currency. Since the introduction of its independent currency in
November 1993, the government has renewed its commitment to fiscal
discipline and accelerating economic reform. However, growing economic
hardship and rising ethnic tensions between Kazakhs and Russians over
the division of economic assets will likely lead to strong pressure to
backtrack.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $60.3 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Kazakhstani statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-13% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,510 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
28% per month (1993)
Unemployment rate:
0.6% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large
numbers of underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $1.76 billion (1991 est.)
Exports:
$1.3 billion to outside the FSU countries (1993)
commodities:
oil, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, grain, wool, meat
(1992)
partners:
Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Imports:
$358.3 million from outside the FSU countries (1993)
commodities:
machinery and parts, industrial materials, oil and gas (1992)
partners:
Russia and other former Soviet republics, China
External debt:
$1.5 billion debt to Russia
Industrial production:
growth rate -16% (1993)
Electricity:
capacity:
19,135,000 kW
production:
81.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
4,739 kWh (1992)
Industries:
extractive industries (oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead,
zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur),
iron and steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural
machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Agriculture:
accounts for almost 40% of net material product; employs about 26% of
the labor force; grain, mostly spring wheat; meat, cotton, wool
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
consumption; limited government eradication program; used as
transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and North
America from Central and Southwest Asia
Economic aid:
recipient:
approximately $1 billion in foreign credits to become available in
1994
Currency:
national currency the tenge introduced on 15 November 1993
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Kazakhstan, Communications

Railroads:
14,460 km (all 1.520-meter gauge); does not include industrial lines
(1990)
Highways:
total:
189,000 km
paved and graveled:
108,100 km
unpaved:
earth 80,900 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
Syrdariya River, Ertis River
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1,500 km; natural gas 3,480 km
(1992)
Ports:
inland - Atyrau (formerly Gur'yev; on Caspian Sea)
Airports:
total:
365
usable:
152
with permanent-surface runways:
49
with runways over 3,659 m:
8
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
38
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
71
Telecommunications:
telephone service is poor, with only about 17 telephones for each 100
persons in urban areas and 7.6 telephones per 100 persons in rural
areas; of the approximately 2.2 million telephones, Almaty has
184,000; broadcast receivers - TVs 4,750,000, radios 4,088,000, radio
receiver systems with multiple speakers for program diffusion
6,082,000; international traffic with other former USSR republics and
China carried by landline and microwave, and with other countries by
satellite and through 8 international telecommunications circuits at
the Moscow international gateway switch; satellite earth stations -
INTELSAT and Orbita (TV receive only); new satellite ground station
established at Almaty with Turkish financial help (December 1992) with
2500 channel band width

@Kazakhstan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,432,716; fit for military service 3,554,209; reach
military age (18) annually 154,989 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
69,326 million rubles, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993); note -
conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

@Kenya, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the northwestern India Ocean between
Tanzania and Somalia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
582,650 sq km
land area:
569,250 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Land boundaries:
total 3,446 km, Ethiopia 830 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km,
Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km
Coastline:
536 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with
international boundary; possible claim by Somalia based on unification
of ethnic Somalis
Climate:
varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Terrain:
low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley;
fertile plateau in west
Natural resources:
gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes, rubies, fluorspar, garnets,
wildlife
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
85%
Irrigated land:
520 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water
quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers;
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change
Note:
the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural
production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt. Kenya; unique
physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and
economic value

@Kenya, People

Population:
28,240,658 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.07% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
42.44 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
11.74 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
74.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
53.23 years
male:
51.48 years
female:
55.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.91 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Kenyan(s)
adjective:
Kenyan
Ethnic divisions:
Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%,
Meru 6%, Asian, European, and Arab 1%, other 15%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 28%, Protestant (including Anglican) 26%, indigenous
beliefs 18%, Muslim 6%
Languages:
English (official), Swahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
69%
male:
80%
female:
58%
Labor force:
9.2 million (includes unemployed); the total employed is 1,370,000
(14.8% of the labor force)
by occupation:
agriculture 75-80% (1993 est.), non-agriculture 20-25% (1993 est.)

@Kenya, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Kenya
conventional short form:
Kenya
former:
British East Africa
Digraph:
KE
Type:
republic
Capital:
Nairobi
Administrative divisions:
8 provinces; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi, North Eastern, Nyanza,
Rift Valley, Western
Independence:
12 December 1963 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 December (1963)
Constitution:
12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments
1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1992
Legal system:
based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial
review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure
one-party state repealed in 1991
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Daniel Teroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); Vice
President George SAITOTI (since 10 May 1989); election last held on 29
December 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - President Daniel T.
arap MOI was reelected with 37% of the vote; Kenneth Matiba
(FORD-ASILI) 26%; Mwai Kibaki (SP) 19%, Oginga Odinga (FORD-Kenya) 17%
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Bunge):
elections last held on 29 December 1992; results - (188 total) KANU
100, FORD-Kenya 31, FORD-Asili 31, DP 23, smaller parties 3; president
nominates 12 additional members
note:
first multiparty election since repeal of one-party state law in 1991
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, High Court
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party is Kenya African National Union (KANU), Daniel T. arap
MOI, president; opposition parties include Forum for the Restoration
of Democracy (FORD-Kenya), Michael WAMALWA; Forum for the Restoration
of Democracy (FORD-Asili), Kenneth MATIBA; Democratic Party of Kenya
(DP), Mwai KIBAKI; Kenya National Congress (KNC), Titus MBATHI; Kenya
Social Congress (KSC), George ANYONA; Kenya National Democratic
Alliance (KENYA), Mukara NG'ANG'A; Party for Independent Candidates of
Kenya (PKK), Otieno OTOERA
Other political or pressure groups:
labor unions; Roman Catholic Church
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
chancery:
2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 387-6101
consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Aurelia BRAZEAL
embassy:
corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi
mailing address:
P. O. Box 30137, Unit 64100, Nairobi or APO AE 09831
telephone:
[254] (2) 334141
FAX:
[254] (2) 340838
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red
band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed
spears is superimposed at the center

@Kenya, Economy

Overview:
Kenya's 3.1% annual population growth rate - one of the highest in the
world - has led to a decline in per capita output in each of the last
three years, 1991-93. Undependable weather conditions and a shortage
of arable land hamper long-term growth in agriculture, the leading
economic sector. In industry and services, Nairobi's reluctance to
embrace IMF-supported reforms has held back investment. Ethnic clashes
and continued suspension of quick disbursing aid by the international
donors kept growth at only 0.5% in 1993.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $33.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
55% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
23.8% urban (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$2.4 billion
expenditures:
$2.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $740 million (1990
est.)
Exports:
$1 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
tea 25%, coffee 18%, petroleum products 11% (1990)
partners:
EC 47%, Africa 23%, Asia 11%, US 4%, Middle East 3% (1991)
Imports:
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment 29%, petroleum and petroleum
products 15%, iron and steel 7%, raw materials, food and consumer
goods (1989)
partners:
EC 46%, Asia 23%, Middle East 20%, US 5% (1991)
External debt:
$7 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.4% (1989 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
730,000 kW
production:
2.54 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
100 kWh (1990)
Industries:
small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles,
soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural processing, oil refining,
cement, tourism
Agriculture:
most important sector, accounting for 25% of GDP and 65% of exports;

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