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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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American Samoan(s)
adjective:
American Samoan
Ethnic divisions:
Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%
Religions:
Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant
denominations and other 30%
Languages:
Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages),
English; most people are bilingual
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
97%
male:
97%
female:
97%
Labor force:
14,400 (1990)
by occupation:
government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

@American Samoa, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of American Samoa
conventional short form:
American Samoa
Abbreviation:
AS
Digraph:
AQ
Type:
unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by
the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International
Affairs
Capital:
Pago Pago
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of the US)
Independence:
none (territory of the US)
National holiday:
Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)
Constitution:
ratified 1966, in effect 1967
Legal system:
NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
head of government:
Governor A. P. LUTALI (since 3 January 1993); Lieutenant Governor
Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1993); election last held 3 November
1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - A. P. LUTALI
(Democrat) 53%, Peter Tali COLEMAN (Republican) 36%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)
House of Representatives:
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1994); results - representatives popularly elected from 17 house
districts; seats - (21 total, 20 elected, and 1 nonvoting delegate
from Swains Island)
Senate:
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1996); results - senators elected by village chiefs from 12 senate
districts; seats - (18 total) number of seats by party NA
US House of Representatives:
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1994); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as delegate
Judicial branch:
High Court
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, SPC
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of the US)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of the US)
Flag:
blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side
and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle
flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan
symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

@American Samoa, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American
Samoa conducts 80%-90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna
processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned
tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries and the government are by
far the two largest employers. Other economic activities include a
slowly developing tourist industry. Transfers from the US Government
add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $128 million (1991)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$2,600 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
12% (1991)
Budget:
revenues:
$97 million (includes $43,000,000 in local revenue and $54,000,000 in
grant revenue);
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91)
Exports:
$306 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
canned tuna 93%
partners:
US 99.6%
Imports:
$360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery
and parts 6%
partners:
US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
42,000 kW
production:
100 million kWh
consumption per capita:
2,020 kWh (1990)
Industries:
tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing vessels), meat
canning, handicrafts
Agriculture:
bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra,
pineapples, papayas, dairy farming
Economic aid:
recipient:
$21,042,650 in operational funds and $1,227,000 in construction funds
for capital improvement projects from the US Department of Interior
(1991)
Currency:
1 United States dollar = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

@American Samoa, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
total:
350 km
paved:
150 km
unpaved:
200 km
Ports:
Pago Pago, Ta'u, Ofu, Auasi, Aanu'u (new construction), Faleosao
Airports:
total:
4
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m:
1 (international airport at Tafuna)
with runways 1,200 to 2,439 m:
0
note:
small airstrips on Fituita and Ofu
Telecommunications:
8,399 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; good telex,
telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station, 1 COMSAT earth station

@American Samoa, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

@Andorra, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
450 sq km
land area:
450 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 125 km, France 60 km, Spain 65 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers
Terrain:
rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Natural resources:
hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
56%
forest and woodland:
22%
other:
20%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
landlocked

@Andorra, People

Population:
63,930 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.99% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.34 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.12 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
23.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
78.37 years
male:
75.5 years
female:
81.5 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.73 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Andorran(s)
adjective:
Andorran
Ethnic divisions:
Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic (predominant)
Languages:
Catalan (official), French, Castilian
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

@Andorra, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Principality of Andorra
conventional short form:
Andorra
local long form:
Principat d'Andorra
local short form:
Andorra
Digraph:
AN
Type:
parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads
of state a co-principality; the two princes are the president of
France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally
by officials called veguers
Capital:
Andorra la Vella
Administrative divisions:
7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo,
Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Independence:
1278
National holiday:
Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September
Constitution:
Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14
March 1993
Legal system:
based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of
legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
chiefs of state:
French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented
by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS (since NA); Spanish Episcopal
Co-Prince Mgr. Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented
by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata - two co-princes (President
Francois MITTERRAND of France, since 21 May 1981, and Bishop of Seo de
Urgel Juan MARTI Alanis in Spain, since 31 January 1971), two
designated representatives (France - Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre
COURTOIS, since NA, and Spain - Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata,
since NA), two permanent delegates (French Prefect Pierre STEINMETZ
for the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, since NA, and Spanish Vicar
General Nemesi MARQUES Oste for the Seo de Urgel diocese, since NA)
head of government:
Executive Council President Oscar RIBAS Reig (since 10 December 1993)
elected by Parliament
cabinet:
Executive Council; designated by the executive council president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
General Council of the Valleys:
(Consell General de las Valls); elections last held 12 December 1993
(next to be held NA); yielded no clear winner; results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) for civil cases, the
Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain) for civil
cases, Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes) for criminal cases
Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Group (AND), Oscar RIBAS Reig and Jordi FARRAS;
Liberal Union (UL), Francesc CERQUEDA; New Democracy (ND), Jaume
BARTOMEU; Andorran National Coalition (CNA), Antoni CERQUEDA; National
Democratic Initiative (IDN), Vincenc MATEU; Liberal Union (UL),
Francesc CERQUEDA
note:
there are two other small parties
Member of:
ECE, INTERPOL, IOC, UN
Diplomatic representation in US:
Andorra has no mission in the US
US diplomatic representation:
Andorra is included within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District,
and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with
the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of
arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and
Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center

@Andorra, Economy

Overview:
Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's economy, accounts for roughly 80%
of GDP. An estimated 13 million tourists visit annually, attracted by
Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. The
banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes
substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited by a
scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The
principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists
mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of
the EU Customs Union; it is unclear what effect the European Single
Market will have on the advantages Andorra obtains from its duty-free
status.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $760 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$14,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
0%
Budget:
revenues:
$138 million
expenditures:
$177 million, Including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)
Exports:
$30 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
electricity, tobacco products, furniture
partners:
France, Spain
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
consumer goods, food
partners:
France, Spain
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
35,000 kW
production:
140 million kWh
consumption per capita:
2,570 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking
Agriculture:
sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats,
and some vegetables
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos; the
French and Spanish currencies are used
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989); Spanish
pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 143.04 (January 1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38
(1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Andorra, Communications

Highways:
total:
96 km
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Telecommunications:
international digital microwave network; international landline
circuits to France and Spain; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV;
17,700 telephones

@Andorra, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

@Angola, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Namibia
and Zaire
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,246,700 sq km
land area:
1,246,700 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,198 km, Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia
1,110 km
Coastline:
1,600 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
20 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry
season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Natural resources:
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold,
bauxite, uranium
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
23%
forest and woodland:
43%
other:
32%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
current issues:
population pressures contributing to overuse of pastures and
subsequent soil erosion; desertification; deforestation of tropical
rain forest attributable to the international demand for tropical
timber and domestic use as a fuel; deforestation contributing to loss
of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and
siltation of rivers and dams; scarcity of potable water
natural hazards:
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
international agreements:
party to - Law of the Sea; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change
Note:
Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

@Angola, People

Population:
9,803,576 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.67% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
45.43 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
18.55 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
145.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
45.77 years
male:
43.72 years
female:
47.92 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.48 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Angolan(s)
adjective:
Angolan
Ethnic divisions:
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and
Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (est.)
Languages:
Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
42%
male:
56%
female:
28%
Labor force:
2.783 million economically active
by occupation:
agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

@Angola, Government

Note:
Civil war has been the norm since independence on 11 November 1975; a
cease-fire lasted from 31 May 1991 until October 1992 when the
insurgent National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
refused to accept its defeat in internationally monitored elections;
fighting has since resumed throughout much of the countryside.
Nevertheless, the two sides are negotiating the details for holding
the second round of presidential elections.
Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Angola
conventional short form:
Angola
local long form:
Republica de Angola
local short form:
Angola
former:
People's Republic of Angola
Digraph:
AO
Type:
transitional government nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong
presidential system
Capital:
Luanda
Administrative divisions:
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie,
Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo,
Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige,
Zaire
Independence:
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitution:
11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March
1991, and 26 August 1992
Legal system:
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently
modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free
markets
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979)
head of government:
Prime Minister Marcolino Jose Carlos MOCO (since 2 December 1992)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional):
first nationwide, multiparty elections were held 29-30 September 1992
with disputed results; further elections are being discussed
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao)
Political parties and leaders:
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose
Eduardo DOS SANTOS, is the ruling party and has been in power since
1975; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led
by Jonas SAVIMBI, remains a legal party despite its return to armed
resistance to the government; five minor parties have small numbers of
seats in the National Assembly
Other political or pressure groups:
Cabindan State Liberation Front (FLEC), N'ZITA Tiago, leader of
largest faction (FLEC-FAC)
note:
FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for
the independence of Cabinda Province
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jose PATRICIO
embassy:
1899 L Street NW, 5th floor, Washington, DC 20038
telephone:
(202) 785-1156
FAX:
(202) 785-1258
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edmund DE JARNETTE
embassy:
Miramar, Luanda
mailing address:
CP6484, Luanda, Angola (mail international); US Embassy, Luanda,
Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20521-2550 (pouch)
telephone:
[244] (2) 39-24-98
FAX:
[244] (2) 39-05-15
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered
yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel
crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

@Angola, Economy

Overview:
Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80-90% of the
population but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil production is
vital to the economy, contributing about 60% to GDP. Bitter internal
fighting continues to severely affect the economy, and food must be
imported. In 1993, production fell by an estimated 22.6%, mainly
because of the capture by insurgents of the oil town of Soyo and
diamond-producing areas in northeastern Angola. Angola has rich
natural resources - notably gold, diamonds, and arable land, in
addition to large oil depoaits - but will need to end the war and
reform government policies if it is to achieve its potential.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $5.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-22.6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1,840% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% with considerable underemployment (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$928 million
expenditures:
$2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992
est.)
Exports:
$3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish
and fish products, timber, cotton
partners:
US, France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil
Imports:
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), food, vehicles
and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines; substantial
military deliveries
partners:
Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain
External debt:
$8 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60% of GDP, including petroleum
output
Electricity:
capacity:
510,000 kW
production:
800 million kWh
consumption per capita:
84 kWh (1991)
Industries:
petroleum; mining - diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite,
uranium, and gold; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco;
sugar; textiles; cement; basic metal products
Agriculture:
cash crops - bananas, sugar cane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cane,
manioc, tobacco; food crops - cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains ;
livestock production accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry 2% of
total agricultural output; disruptions caused by civil war, and
marketing deficiencies require food imports
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$1.105 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion; net
official disbursements (1985-89), $750 million
Currency:
1 new kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei
Exchange rates:
kwanza (Kz) per US$1 - 90,000 (official rate 1June 1994), 180,000
(black market rate 1 June 1994); 7,000 (official rate 16 December
1993), 50,000 (black market rate 16 December 1993); 3,884 (July 1993);
550 (April 1992); 90 (November 1991); 60 (October 1990)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Angola, Communications

Railroads:
3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km 0.600-meter gauge;
limited trackage in use because of landmines still in place from the
civil war; majority of the Benguela Railroad also closed because of
civil war
Highways:
total:
73,828 km
paved:
bituminous-surface 8,577 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, gravel, improved earth 29,350 km; unimproved earth
35,901 km
Inland waterways:
1,295 km navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 179 km
Ports:
Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda
Merchant marine:
12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 63,776 GRT/99,863 DWT, cargo 11,
oil tanker 1
Airports:
total:
302
usable:
175
with permanent-surface runways:
32
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
18
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
59
Telecommunications:
limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and troposcatter
routes; high frequency radio used extensively for military links;
telephone service limited mostly to government and business use;
40,300 telephones (4.1 telephones per 1,000 persons); broadcast
stations - 17 AM, 13 FM, 6 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations

@Angola, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense, People's Defense Organization and
Territorial Troops,
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,262,669; fit for military service 1,139,319; reach
military age (18) annually 96,900 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Anguilla

Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

@Anguilla, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 270 km east of Puerto
Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
91 sq km
land area:
91 sq km
comparative area:
about half the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
61 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
Terrain:
flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
Natural resources:
negligible; salt, fish, lobster
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial
salt ponds)
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)
international agreements:
NA

@Anguilla, People

Population:
7,052 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.67% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
24.25 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.08 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-9.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
17.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.99 years
male:
71.21 years
female:
76.8 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.07 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Anguillan(s)
adjective:
Anguillan
Ethnic divisions:
black African
Religions:
Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%,
Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%
Languages:
English (official)
Literacy:
age 12 and over can read and write (1984)
total population:
95%
male:
95%
female:
95%
Labor force:
2,780 (1984)
by occupation:
NA

@Anguilla, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Anguilla
Digraph:
AV
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
The Valley
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Anguilla Day, 30 May
Constitution:
Anguilla Constitutional Orders 1 April 1982; amended 1990
Legal system:
based on English common law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
Alan W. SHAVE (since 14 August 1992)
head of government:
Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994)
cabinet:
Executive Council; appointed by the governor from the elected members
of the House of Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of Assembly:
elections last held 16 March 1994 (next to be held March 1999);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected)
ANA 2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1
Judicial branch:
High Court
Political parties and leaders:
Anguilla National Alliance (ANA); Anguilla United Party (AUP), Hubert
HUGHES; Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and light
blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design
centered in the white band; a new flag may have been in use since 30
May 1990

@Anguilla, Economy

Overview:
Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on
lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances from
emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom in
tourism and construction. Development plans center around the
improvement of the infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist
facilities, and also light industry.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $56.5 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
7.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$6,800 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5% (1988 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$13.8 million
expenditures:
$15.2 million, including capital expenditures of $2.4 million (1992
est.)
Exports:
$556,000 (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
lobster and salt
partners:
NA
Imports:
$33.5 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
2,000 kW
production:
6 million kWh
consumption per capita:
862 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism, boat building, salt
Agriculture:
pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle,
poultry, fishing (including lobster)
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $38 million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
NA

@Anguilla, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
60 km
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Road Bay, Blowing Point
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1 (1,000 m at Wallblake Airport)
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
modern internal telephone system; 890 telephones; broadcast stations -
3 AM, 1 FM, no TV; radio relay microwave link to island of Saint
Martin

@Anguilla, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Antarctica, Geography

Location:
continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle
Map references:
Antarctic Region
Area:
total area:
14 million sq km (est.)
land area:
14 million sq km (est.)
comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
note:
second-smallest continent (after Australia)
Land boundaries:
none, but see entry on International disputes
Coastline:
17,968 km
Maritime claims:
none, but see entry on International Disputes
International disputes:
Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary below);
sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile,
France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen
Maud Land), and UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the
territorial claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves
(the US reserves the right to do so); no formal claims have been made
in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west
Climate:
severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance
from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because
of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate
climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and
average slightly below freezing
Terrain:
about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average
elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 4,897
meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria
Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross
Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of
the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of
the continent
Natural resources:
none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel,
platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found
in small, uncommercial quantities
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield, which protects
the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled
to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica since 1975 when
measurements were first taken
natural hazards:
katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high
interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau;
cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the
coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak
international agreements:
NA
Note:
the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent; during summer
more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is
received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable

@Antarctica, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are seasonally staffed
research stations
Summer (January) population:
over 4,115 total; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80,
Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32,
Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14,
Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa
79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565
(1989-90)
Winter (July) population:
over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73,
China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5, India 1, Japan 38,
South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA,
US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90)
Year-round stations:
42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2,
Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ 1,
Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, former USSR 6
(1990-91)
Summer only stations:
over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1,
Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1,
Sweden 2, UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5 (1989-90); note - the
disintegration of the former USSR has placed the status and future of
its Antarctic facilities in doubt; stations may be subject to closings
at any time because of ongoing economic difficulties
Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Antarctica
Digraph:
AY
Type:
Antarctic Treaty Summary:
The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force
on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of
Antarctica. Administration is carried out through consultative member
meetings - the 18th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Japan
in April 1993. Currently, there are 42 treaty member nations: 26
consultative and 16 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include
the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national
territory (some claims overlap) and 19 nonclaimant nations. The US and
some other nations that have made no claims have reserved the right to
do so. The US does not recognize the claims of others. The year in
parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full
consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was
an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina,
Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant
consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985),
Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy
(1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989),
Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay
(1985), the US, and Russia.
Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses,
are - Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988),
Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987),
Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea
(1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), and
Ukraine (1992).
Article 1:
area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as
weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment
may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose
Article 2:
freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue
Article 3:
free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN
and other international agencies
Article 4:
does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no
new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force
Article 5:
prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes
Article 6:
includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees
00 minutes south
Article 7:
treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation,
to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and
equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the introduction of
military personnel must be given
Article 8:
allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own
states
Article 9:
frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations
Article 10:
treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica
that are contrary to the treaty
Article 11:
disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or,
ultimately, by the ICJ
Article 12, 13, 14:
deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among
involved nations
Other agreements:
more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings
and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for the
Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the
Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation
of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources
agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently rejected; in 1991
the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was
signed and awaits ratification; this agreement provides for the
protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes
on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental impact
assessments, waste management, and protected areas; it also prohibits
all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific
research; nine parties have ratified Protocol as of April 1994
Legal system:
US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US
nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under jurisdiction
of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For
example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et
seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following
activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: The taking of
native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and
animals; entry into specially protected or scientific areas; the
discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US
of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic
Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and 1
year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce, Transportation,
and Interior share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541,
the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires expeditions from
the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and
Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520,
which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic
Treaty. For more information contact Permit Office, Office of Polar
Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230
(703-306-1031).
Overview:
No economic activity at present except for fishing off the coast and
small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

@Antarctica, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only at most coastal stations
Airports:
42 landing facilities at different locations operated by 15 national
governments party to the Treaty; one additional air facility operated
by commercial (nongovernmental) tourist organization; helicopter pads
at 28 of these locations; runways at 10 locations are gravel, sea ice,
glacier ice, or compacted snow surface suitable for wheeled fixed-wing
aircraft; no paved runways; 16 locations have snow-surface skiways
limited to use by ski-equipped planes--11 runways/skiways 1,000 to
3,000 m, 3 runways/skiways less than 1,000 m, 5 runways/skiways
greater than 3,000 m, and 7 of unspecified or variable length;
airports generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations
resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; airports do
not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective
governmental or non-governmental operating organization required for
landing

@Antarctica, Defense Forces

Note:
the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such
as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the
carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of
weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for
scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

@Antigua and Barbuda, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 420 km east-southeast
of Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
440 sq km
land area:
440 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes Redonda
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
153 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic
areas
Natural resources:
negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land use:
arable land:
18%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
16%
other:
59%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
insufficient freshwater resources
natural hazards:
subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling

@Antigua and Barbuda, People

Population:
64,762 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.59% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
17.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.44 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-5.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.11 years
male:
71.07 years
female:
75.26 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.67 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective:
Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic divisions:
black African, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian
Religions:
Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic
Languages:
English (official), local dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years of schooling (1960)
total population:
89%
male:
90%
female:
88%
Labor force:
30,000
by occupation:
commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)

@Antigua and Barbuda, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Antigua and Barbuda
Digraph:
AC
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Saint John's
Administrative divisions:
6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George,
Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence:
1 November 1981 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 November (1981)
Constitution:
1 November 1981
Legal system:
based on English common law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
head of government:
Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the governor general on the advice
of the prime minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
Senate:
17 member body appointed by the governor general
House of Representatives:
elections last held 8 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) ALP 11, UPP 5,
independent 1
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Lester Bryant BIRD; United Progressive
Party (UPP), Baldwin SPENCER
Other political or pressure groups:
United Progressive Party (UPP), headed by Baldwin SPENCER, a coalition
of three opposition political parties - the United National Democratic
Party (UNDP); the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM); and
the Progressive Labor Movement (PLM); Antigua Trades and Labor Union
(ATLU), headed by Noel THOMAS
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WCL,
WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Patrick Albert LEWIS
chancery:
Suite 4M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 362-5211 or 5166, 5122
FAX:
(202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general:
Miami
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda,
and, in his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires Bryant
J. SALTER
embassy:
Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's
mailing address:
FPO AA 34054-0001
telephone:
(809) 462-3505 or 3506
FAX:
(809) 462-3516
Flag:
red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the
flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top),
light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

@Antigua and Barbuda, Economy

Overview:
The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the most
important determinant of economic performance. During the period
1986-91, real GDP expanded at an annual average rate of about 6%.
Tourism makes a direct contribution to GDP of about 13% and also
affects growth in other sectors - particularly in construction,
communications, and public utilities. In 1992, reduced government
capital spending and private sector investment, dampened by recession
in the major world economies, slowed economic growth.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $368.5 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA
National product per capita:
$5,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
5% (1988 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$105 million
expenditures:
$161 million, including capital expenditures of $56 million (1992)
Exports:
$54.7 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live animals 4%,
machinery and transport equipment 17%
partners:
OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%
Imports:
$260.9 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
manufactures, chemicals, oil
partners:
US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%
External debt:
$250 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts for 8% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
52,100 kW
production:
95 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,482 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol,
household appliances)
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton, fruits,
vegetables, and livestock; other crops - bananas, coconuts, cucumbers,
mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments (1985-88), $10 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA
and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $50 million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Antigua and Barbuda, Communications

Railroads:
64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter gauge used almost
exclusively for handling sugarcane
Highways:
total:
240 km
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Saint John's
Merchant marine:
227 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 849,699 GRT/1,218,492 DWT, bulk
4, cargo 156, chemical tanker 11, container 37, liquified gas 2, oil
tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11
note:
a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
good automatic telephone system; 6,700 telephones; tropospheric
scatter links with Saba and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 2
FM, 2 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Antigua and Barbuda, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda
Police Force (including the Coast Guard)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of GDP (FY90/91)

@Arctic Ocean, Geography

Location:
body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle
Map references:
Arctic Region, Asia, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
14.056 million sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US; smallest of the
world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian
Ocean)
note:
includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East
Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea,
Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies
Coastline:
45,389 km
International disputes:
some maritime disputes (see littoral states); Svalbard is the focus of
a maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia
Climate:
polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow
annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous
darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers
characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak
cyclones with rain or snow
Terrain:
central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that
averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be
three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral
Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian
Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland);
the ice pack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more
than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin
interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen
Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the
Fram Basin
Natural resources:
sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil
and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)
Environment:
current issues:
endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile
ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or
damage
natural hazards:
ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island;
icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme
northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from
October to June
international agreements:
NA
Note:
major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the
Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to superstructure
icing from October to May; strategic location between North America
and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and
western Russia, floating research stations operated by the US and
Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50
centimeters over the frozen ocean and lasts about 10 months

@Arctic Ocean, Government

Digraph:
XQ

@Arctic Ocean, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources,
including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.

@Arctic Ocean, Communications

Ports:
Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)
Telecommunications:
no submarine cables
Note:
sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest
Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are important
seasonal waterways

@Argentina, Geography

Location:
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between
Chile and Uruguay
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,766,890 sq km
land area:
2,736,690 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Land boundaries:
total 9,665 km, Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km
Coastline:
4,989 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
not specified
territorial sea:
200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes:
short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute; short
section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims
British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims
British-administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands;
territorial claim in Antarctica
Climate:
mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terrain:
rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of
Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Natural resources:
fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore,
manganese, petroleum, uranium
Land use:
arable land:
9%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
52%
forest and woodland:
22%
other:
13%
Irrigated land:
17,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
erosion results from inadequate flood controls and improper land use
practices; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air pollution
in Buenos Aires and other major cites; water pollution in urban areas;
rivers becoming polluted due to increased pesticide and fertilizer use
natural hazards:
Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes;
pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the Pampas and
northeast; heavy flooding
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Climate
Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratfied - Biodiversity, Law of the
Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note:
second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic
location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South
Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

@Argentina, People

Population:
33,912,994 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.12% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
19.62 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.63 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
29.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.35 years
male:
68.06 years
female:
74.81 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.68 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Argentine(s)
adjective:
Argentine
Ethnic divisions:
white 85%, mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups 15%
Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant
2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%
Languages:
Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
95%
male:
96%
female:
95%
Labor force:
10.9 million
by occupation:
agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.)

@Argentina, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Argentine Republic
conventional short form:
Argentina
local long form:
Republica Argentina
local short form:
Argentina
Digraph:
AR
Type:
republic
Capital:
Buenos Aires
Administrative divisions:
23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 federal
district* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires; Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut;
Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito Federal*; Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La
Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza; Misiones; Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San
Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz; Santa Fe; Santiago del Estero; Tierra del
Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur; Tucuman
note:
the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica or Argentina's
claims to the Falkland Islands
Independence:
9 July 1816 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)
Constitution:
1 May 1853
Legal system:
mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President
(position vacant); election last held 14 May 1989 (next to be held
summer 1995); results - Carlos Saul MENEM was elected
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate:
elections last held May 1989, but provincial elections in late 1991
set the stage for indirect elections by provincial senators for
one-third of 48 seats in the national senate in May 1992; seats (48
total) - PJ 30, UCR 11, others 7
Chamber of Deputies:
elections last held NA October 1993 ( next to be held October 1995);
elections are held every two years and half of the total membership is
elected each time for four year terms; seats--(257 total) PJ 128, UCR
81, MODIN 7, UCD 5, other 36
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Political parties and leaders:
Justicialist Party (PJ), Carlos Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella
political organization; Radical Civic Union (UCR),Raul ALFONSIN,
moderately left-of-center party; Union of the Democratic Center (UCD),
Jorge AGUADO, conservative party; Intransigent Party (PI), Dr. Oscar
ALENDE, leftist party; Dignity and Independence Political Party
(MODIN), Aldo RICO, right-wing party; Grand Front (Frente Grande),
Carlos ALVAREZ, center-left coalition; several provincial parties
Other political or pressure groups:
Peronist-dominated labor movement; General Confederation of Labor
(CGT; Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Argentine
Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society
(large landowners' association); business organizations; students; the
Roman Catholic Church; the Armed Forces
Member of:
AG (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11,
G-15, G-19, G-24, AfDB, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, MINURSO, MTCR, OAS,
PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ,
UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Raul Enrique GRANILLO OCAMPO
chancery:
1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 939-6400 through 6403
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador James CHEEK (since 28 May 1993)
embassy:
4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
mailing address:
APO AA 34034
telephone:
[54] (1) 774-7611, 8811, 9911
FAX:
[54] (1) 775-4205
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light
blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human
face known as the Sun of May

@Argentina, Economy

Overview:
Argentina is rich in natural resources and has a highly literate
population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified
industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of mismanagement and
statist policies, the economy in the late 1980s was plagued with huge
external debts and recurring bouts of hyperinflation. Elected in 1989,
in the depths of recession, President MENEM has implemented a
comprehensive economic restructuring program that shows signs of
putting Argentina on a path of stable, sustainable growth. Argentina's
currency has traded at par with the US dollar since April 1991, and
inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 20 years. Argentines have
responded to the relative price stability by repatriating flight
capital and investing in domestic industry. Growth slowed somewhat in
1993 but Argentina still registered an impressive 6% advance, fueled
largely by inflows of foreign capital and strong domestic consumption
spending. The government's major short term objective is encouraging
exports, e.g., by reducing domestic costs of production. Much remains
to be done in the 1990s in dismantling the old statist barriers to
growth and in solidifying the recent economic gains.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $185 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.4% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$33.1 billion
expenditures:
$35.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1992)
Exports:
$12.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:

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