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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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@Iraq, Geography

Location:
Middle East, between Iran and Saudi Arabia
Map references:
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
437,072 sq km
land area:
432,162 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Land boundaries:
total 3,631 km, Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 242 km, Saudi
Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km
Coastline:
58 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still
trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes
from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation,
prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the
Shatt al Arab waterway; in April 1991 official Iraqi acceptance of UN
Security Council Resolution 687, which demands that Iraq accept the
inviolability of the boundary set forth in its 1963 agreement with
Kuwait, ending earlier claims to Bubiyan and Warbah islands or to all
of Kuwait; the 20 May 1993 final report of the UN Iraq/Kuwait Boundary
Demarcation Commission was welcomed by the Security Council in
Resolution 833 of 27 May 1993, which also reaffirmed that the
decisions of the commission on the boundary were final, bringing to a
completion the official demarcation of the Iraq-Kuwait boundary; Iraqi
officials still refuse to unconditionally recognize Kuwaiti
sovereignty or the inviolability of the UN demarcated border; periodic
disputes with upstream riparian Syria over Euphrates water rights;
potential dispute over water development plans by Turkey for the
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Climate:
mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers;
northernmost regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold
winters with occasionally heavy snows
Terrain:
mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains along
borders with Iran and Turkey
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Land use:
arable land:
12%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
9%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
75%
Irrigated land:
25,500 sq km (1989 est)
Environment:
current issues:
government water control projects drain inhabited marsh areas, drying
up or diverting the streams and rivers that support a sizable
population of Shi'a Muslims who have inhabited these areas for
thousands of years; the destruction of the natural habitat also poses
serious threats to the wildlife populations; damage to water treatment
and sewage facilities during Gulf war; inadequate supplies of potable
water; development of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon
agreements with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey); air and water
pollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion;
desertification
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified
- Environmental Modification

@Iraq, People

Population:
19,889,666 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.73% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
44.11 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.26 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
67.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.74 years
male:
64.87 years
female:
66.66 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.71 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Iraqi(s)
adjective:
Iraqi
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
Religions:
Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60-65%, Sunni 32-37%), Christian or other 3%
Languages:
Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
60%
male:
70%
female:
49%
Labor force:
4.4 million (1989)
by occupation:
services 48%, agriculture 30%, industry 22%
note:
severe labor shortage; expatriate labor force was about 1,600,000
(July 1990); since then, it has declined substantially

@Iraq, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Iraq
conventional short form:
Iraq
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah
local short form:
Al Iraq
Digraph:
IZ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Baghdad
Administrative divisions:
18 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah,
Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At
Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan,
Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
Independence:
3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British
administration)
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)
Constitution:
22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (provisional Constitution);
new constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted
Legal system:
based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law system
elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice President Taha
Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974); Vice President Taha Yasin
RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991)
head of government:
Prime Minister Ahmad Husayn Khudayir al-SAMARRAI (since 5 September
1993); Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Mikhail AZIZ (since NA 1979)
Revolutionary Command Council:
Chairman SADDAM Husayn, Vice Chairman Izzat IBRAHIM al-Duri
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Majlis al-Watani):
elections last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA); results -
Sunni Arabs 53%, Shi'a Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Christians 2% est.; seats
- (250 total) number of seats by party NA
note:
in northern Iraq, a "Kurdish Assembly" was elected in May 1992 and
calls for Kurdish self-determination within a federated Iraq; the
assembly is not recognized by the Baghdad government
Judicial branch:
Court of Cassation
Political parties and leaders:
Ba'th Party
Other political or pressure groups:
political parties and activity severely restricted; opposition to
regime from disaffected members of the Baath Party, Army officers, and
Shi'a religious and ethnic Kurdish dissidents; the Green Party
(government-controlled)
Member of:
ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Iraq has an Interest Section in the Algerian Embassy in Washington, DC
chancery:
Iraqi Interests Section, 1801 P Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 483-7500
FAX:
(202) 462-5066
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); note - operations have been temporarily suspended; a US
Interests Section is located in Poland's embassy in Baghdad
embassy:
Masbah Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad
mailing address:
P. O. Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad
telephone:
[964] (1) 719-6138 or 719-6139, 718-1840, 719-3791
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three
green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white
band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script -
Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the
middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf
crisis; similar to the flag of Syria that has two stars but no script
and the flag of Yemen that has a plain white band; also similar to the
flag of Egypt that has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

@Iraq, Economy

Overview:
The Ba'thist regime engages in extensive central planning and
management of industrial production and foreign trade while leaving
some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to private
enterprise. The economy has been dominated by the oil sector, which
has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In
the 1980s, financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the
eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran,
led the government to implement austerity measures and to borrow
heavily and later reschedule foreign debt payments. After the end of
hostilities in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with the
construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities.
Agricultural development remained hampered by labor shortages,
salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land reform and
collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although accorded
high priority by the government, also was under financial constraints.
Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international
economic embargoes, and military action by an international coalition
beginning in January 1991 drastically changed the economic picture.
Industrial and transportation facilities suffered severe damage and
have been only partially restored. Oil exports remain at less than 10%
of the previous level. Shortages of spare parts continue. Living
standards deteriorated even further in 1993 and early 1994; consumer
prices at least tripled in 1993. The UN-sponsored economic embargo has
reduced exports and imports and has contributed to the sharp rise in
prices. The government's policies of supporting large military and
internal security forces and of allocating resources to key supporters
of the regime have exacerbated shortages. In brief, per capita output
in 1993-94 is far below the 1989-90 level, but no precise estimate is
available.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $38 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$2,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
200% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
crude oil and refined products, fertilizer, sulfur
partners:
US, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, Netherlands, Spain (1990)
Imports:
$6.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
manufactures, food
partners:
Germany, US, Turkey, France, UK (1990)
External debt:
$45 billion (1989 est.), excluding debt of about $35 billion owed to
Arab Gulf states
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; manufacturing accounts for 10% of GNP (1989)
Electricity:
capacity:
7,300,000 kW available out of 9,902,000 kW due to Gulf war
production:
12.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
700 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum production and refining, chemicals, textiles, construction
materials, food processing
Agriculture:
accounted for 11% of GNP and 30% of labor force before the Gulf war;
principal products - wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other
fruit, cotton, wool; livestock - cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in
food output
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $647
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.9 billion
Currency:
1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 3.2 (fixed official rate since 1982);
black-market rate (May 1994) US$1 = 370 Iraqi dinars
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Iraq, Communications

Railroads:
2,457 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
Highways:
total:
34,700 km
paved:
17,500 km
unpaved:
improved earth 5,500 km; unimproved earth 11,700 km
Inland waterways:
1,015 km; Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for
about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 meters and is in use;
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections for shallow-draft
watercraft; Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable by shallow-draft craft
before closing in 1991 because of the Persian Gulf war
Pipelines:
crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas 1,360 km
Ports:
Umm Qasr reopened in November 1993; Khawr az Zubayr and Al Basrah have
been closed since 1980
Merchant marine:
37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 805,205 GRT/1,444,810 DWT, cargo
15, oil tanker 16, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo
1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3
note:
none of the Iraqi flag merchant fleet was trading internationally as
of 1 January 1993
Airports:
total:
118
usable:
105
with permanent-surface runways:
76
with runways over 3,659 m:
10
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
51
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
17
Telecommunications:
reconstitution of damaged telecommunication facilities began after
Desert Storm, most damaged facilities have been rebuilt; the network
consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio relay links; 632,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 16 AM, 1 FM, 13 TV; satellite earth
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1
Atlantic Ocean GORIZONT in the Intersputnik system and 1 ARABSAT;
coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and
Turkey, Kuwait line is probably non-operational

@Iraq, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army and Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border
Guard Force, Internal Security Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,428,193; fit for military service 2,487,319; reach
military age (18) annually 219,641 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GNP

@Ireland, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, in the North Atlantic Ocean, across the Irish Sea from
Great Britain
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
70,280 sq km
land area:
68,890 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total 360 km, UK 360 km
Coastline:
1,448 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall continental shelf
dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK
have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)
Climate:
temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters,
cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time
Terrain:
mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and
low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast
Natural resources:
zinc, lead, natural gas, petroleum, barite, copper, gypsum, limestone,
dolomite, peat, silver
Land use:
arable land:
14%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
71%
forest and woodland:
5%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution, especially of lakes, from agricultural runoff
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note:
strategic location on major air and sea routes between North American
and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 60
miles of Dublin

@Ireland, People

Population:
3,539,296 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.3% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
14.21 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.59 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.68 years
male:
72.85 years
female:
78.68 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.99 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Irishman(men), Irishwoman(men), Irish (collective plural)
adjective:
Irish
Ethnic divisions:
Celtic, English
Religions:
Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%, other 1% (1981)
Languages:
Irish (Gaelic), spoken mainly in areas located along the western
seaboard, English is the language generally used
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1981 est.)
total population:
98%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1.37 million
by occupation:
services 57.0%, manufacturing and construction 28%, agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 13.5%, energy and mining 1.5% (1992)

@Ireland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Ireland
Digraph:
EI
Type:
republic
Capital:
Dublin
Administrative divisions:
26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway,
Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth,
Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford,
Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow
Independence:
6 December 1921 (from UK)
National holiday:
Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March
Constitution:
29 December 1937; adopted 1 July 1937 by plebecite
Legal system:
based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous
concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November 1990); election last
held 9 November 1990 (next to be held November 1997); results - Mary
Bourke ROBINSON 52.8%, Brian LENIHAN 47.2%
head of government:
Prime Minister Albert REYNOLDS (since 11 February 1992)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by president with previous nomination of the prime
minister and approval of the House of Representatives
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas)
Senate (Seanad Eireann):
elections last held on NA February 1992 (next to be held February
1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total, 49
elected) Fianna Fail 26, Fine Gael 16, Labor 9, Progressive Democrats
2, Democratic Left 1, independents 6
House of Representatives (Dail Eireann):
elections last held on 25 November 1992 (next to be held by June
1995); results - Fianna Fail 39.1%, Fine Gael 24.5%, Labor Party
19.3%, Progressive Democrats 4.7%, Democratic Left 2.8%, Sinn Fein
1.6%, Workers' Party 0.7%, independents 5.9%; seats - (166 total)
Fianna Fail 68, Fine Gael 45, Labor Party 33, Progressive Democrats
10, Democratic Left 4, Greens 1, independents 5
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Left, Proinsias DE ROSSA; Fianna Fail, Albert REYNOLDS;
Labor Party, Richard SPRING; Fine Gael, John BRUTON; Communist Party
of Ireland, Michael O'RIORDAN; Sinn Fein, Gerry ADAMS; Progressive
Democrats, Desmond O'MALLEY
note:
Prime Minister REYNOLDS heads a coalition consisting of the Fianna
Fail and the Labor Party
Member of:
Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, EC,
ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO,
MTCR, NEA, NSG, OECD, ONUSAL, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNPROFRO, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WEU
(observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dermot A. GALLAGHER
chancery:
2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 462-3939
consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jean Kennedy SMITH
embassy:
42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[353] (1) 6687122
FAX:
[353] (1) 6689946
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange;
similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter and has the
colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar
to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist
side), white, and red

@Ireland, Economy

Overview:
The economy is small and trade dependent. Agriculture, once the most
important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for 37%
of GDP, about 80% of exports, and employs 28% of the labor force.
Since 1987, real GDP growth, led by exports, has averaged 4% annually.
Over the same period, inflation has fallen sharply and chronic trade
deficits have been transformed into annual surpluses. Unemployment
remains a serious problem, however, and job creation is the main focus
of government policy. To ease unemployment, Dublin aggressively courts
foreign investors and recently created a new industrial development
agency to aid small indigenous firms. Government assistance is
constrained by Dublin's continuing deficit reduction measures.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $46.3 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
2.7% (1993)
National product per capita:
$13,100 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.7% (1994 est.)
Unemployment rate:
16% (1994 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$16 billion
expenditures:
$16.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (1992
est.)
Exports:
$28.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial machinery, live
animals, animal products
partners:
EC 75% (UK 32%, Germany 13%, France 10%), US 9%
Imports:
$23.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
food, animal feed, data processing equipment, petroleum and petroleum
products, machinery, textiles, clothing
partners:
EC 66% (UK 41%, Germany 8%, Netherlands 4%), US 15%
External debt:
$17.6 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 11.5% (1992); accounts for 37% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
5,000,000 kW
production:
14.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
4,120 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and
crystal
Agriculture:
accounts for 8% of GDP and 13% of the labor force; principal crops -
turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; livestock - meat and
dairy products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food shortages include
bread grain, fruits, vegetables
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to the UK and
Netherlands
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA commitments (1980-89), $90 million
Currency:
1 Irish pound (#Ir) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Irish pounds (#Ir) per US$1 - 0.6978 (January 1994), 0.6816 (1993),
0.5864 (1992), 0.6190 (1991), 0.6030 (1990), 0.7472 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Ireland, Communications

Railroads:
Irish National Railways (CIE) operates 1,947 km 1.602-meter gauge,
government owned; 485 km double track; 37 km electrified
Highways:
total:
92,294 km
paved:
87,422 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 4,872 km
Inland waterways:
limited for commercial traffic
Pipelines:
natural gas 225 km
Ports:
Cork, Dublin, Waterford
Merchant marine:
53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 139,278 GRT/173,325 DWT, bulk 4,
cargo 32, chemical tanker 2, container 4, oil tanker 3, refrigerated
cargo 2, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 3
Airports:
total:
44
usable:
42
with permanent-surface runways:
14
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
7
Telecommunications:
modern system using cable and digital microwave circuits; 900,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 45 FM, 86 TV; 2 coaxial
submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Ireland, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Naval Service and Air Corps), National Police (Garda
Siochana)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 914,052; fit for military service 739,288; reach
military age (17) annually 33,809 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $500 million, 1.3% of GDP (1993)

@Israel

Header
Affiliation:
(also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
Note:
The territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included
in the data below. In keeping with the framework established at the
Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations are being
conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives, Syria, and
Jordan to determine the final status of the occupied territories. On
25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979
Israel-Egypt Peace treaty.

@Israel, Geography

Location:
Middle East, bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt
and Lebanon
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
20,770 sq km
land area:
20,330 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total 1,006 km, Egypt 255 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon
79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km
Coastline:
273 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
separated from Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank by the 1949 Armistice
Line; differences with Jordan over the location of the 1949 Armistice
Line that separates the two countries; the Gaza Strip and Jericho,
formerly occupied by Israel, are now administered by the Palestinian
Authority; other areas of the West Bank outside Jericho are Israeli
occupied; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli troops in
southern Lebanon since June 1982; water-sharing issues with Jordan
Climate:
temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
Terrain:
Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains;
Jordan Rift Valley
Natural resources:
copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand, sulfur, asphalt,
manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil
Land use:
arable land:
17%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
40%
forest and woodland:
6%
other:
32%
Irrigated land:
2,140 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
limited arable land and freshwater resources pose serious constraints;
deforestation; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions;
groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical
fertilizers, and pesticides
natural hazards:
sandstorms may occur during spring and summer
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Climate
Change, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation
Note:
there are 200 Jewish settlements and civilian land use sites in the
West Bank, 40 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 24 in the Gaza
Strip, and 25 in East Jerusalem (April 1994)

@Israel, People

Population:
5,050,850 (July 1994 est.)
note:
includes 110,500 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, 14,000 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 4,500 in the Gaza Strip, and 144,100
in East Jerusalem (1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.22% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
20.55 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.43 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
8.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.96 years
male:
75.86 years
female:
80.16 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.83 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Israeli(s)
adjective:
Israeli
Ethnic divisions:
Jewish 83%, non-Jewish 17% (mostly Arab)
Religions:
Judaism 82%, Islam 14% (mostly Sunni Muslim), Christian 2%, Druze and
other 2%
Languages:
Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English
most commonly used foreign language
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1983)
total population:
92%
male:
95%
female:
89%
Labor force:
1.9 million (1992)
by occupation:
public services 29.3%, industry 22.1%, commerce 13.9%, finance and
business 10.4%, personal and other services 7.4%, construction 6.5%,
transport, storage, and communications 6.3%, agriculture, forestry,
and fishing 3.5%, other 0.6% (1992)

@Israel, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
State of Israel
conventional short form:
Israel
local long form:
Medinat Yisra'el
local short form:
Yisra'el
Digraph:
IS
Type:
republic
Capital:
Jerusalem
note:
Israel proclaimed Jerusalem its capital in 1950, but the US, like
nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv
Administrative divisions:
6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem,
Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Independence:
14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British
administration)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 14 May 1948 (Israel declared independence on 14 May
1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in
April or May)
Constitution:
no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are
filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the basic laws of
the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law
Legal system:
mixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in
personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; in
December 1985, Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no
longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Ezer WEIZMAN (since 13 May 1993) election last held 24 March
1993 (next to be held NA March 1999); results - Ezer WEIZMAN elected
by Knesset
head of government:
Prime Minister Yitzhak RABIN (since NA July 1992)
cabinet:
Cabinet; selected from and approved by the Knesset
Legislative branch:
unicameral
parliament (Knesset):
elections last held NA June 1992 (next to be held by NA 1996); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) Labor Party 44,
Likud bloc 32, Meretz 12, Tzomet 8, National Religious Party 6, Shas
6, United Torah Jewry 4, Democratic Front for Peace and Equality
(Hadash) 3, Moledet 3, Arab Democratic Party 2; note - in 1994 three
new parties were formed, Yi'ud (from Tzomet), Histadrut List (from the
Labor Party), and Peace Guard (from Moledet), resulting in the
following new distribution of seats - Labor Party 41, Likud bloc 32,
Meretz 12, National Religious Party 6, Shas 6, Tzomet 5, United Torah
Jewry 4, Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (Hadash) 3, Yi'ud 3,
Histadrut List 3, Moledet 2, Arab Democratic Party 2, Peace Guard 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
members of the government:
Labor Party, Prime Minister Yitzhak RABIN; MERETZ, Minister of
Communications Shulamit ALONI
not in coalition, but voting with the government:
SHAS, Arieh DERI; Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (Hadash),
Hashim MAHAMID; Arab Democratic Party, Abd al Wahab DARAWSHAH;
Histadrut List, Haim RAMON
opposition parties:
Likud Party, Binyamin NETANYAHU; Tzomet, Rafael EITAN; National
Religious Party, Zevulun HAMMER; United Torah Jewry, Avraham SHAPIRA;
Moledet, Rehavam ZEEVI; Yi'ud, Gonen SEGEV; Peace Guard, Shoul GUTMAN
note:
Israel currently has a coalition government comprising 3 parties that
hold 56 seats of the Knesset's 120 seats
Other political or pressure groups:
Gush Emunim, Jewish nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the
West Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now, critical of government's West
Bank/Gaza Strip and Lebanon policies
Member of:
AG (observer), CCC, CE (observer), CERN (oberver), EBRD, ECE, FAO,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer),
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Itamar RABINOVICH
chancery:
3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 364-5500
FAX:
(202) 364-5610
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
Philadelphia, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward DJEREJIAN (expected to resign in August 1994)
embassy:
71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv
mailing address:
PSC 98, Box 100, Tel Aviv; APO AE 09830
telephone:
[972] (3) 517-4338
FAX:
[972] (3) 663-449
Flag:
white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the
Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal
blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag

@Israel, Economy

Overview:
Israel has a market economy with substantial government participation.
It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and
military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has
intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the
past 20 years. Industry employs about 22% of Israeli workers,
construction 6.5%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.5%, and
services most of the rest. Diamonds, high-technology equipment, and
agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are leading exports.
Israel usually posts current account deficits, which are covered by
large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half
of the government's external debt is owed to the United States, which
is its major source of economic and military aid. To earn needed
foreign exchange, Israel has been targeting high-technology niches in
international markets, such as medical scanning equipment. The influx
of Jewish immigrants from the former USSR, which topped 450,000 during
the period 1990-93, increased unemployment, intensified housing
problems, and strained the government budget. At the same time, the
immigrants bring to the economy valuable scientific and professional
expertise. Economic problems have eased as immigration has declined,
but activity has slowed as the economy shifts from housing to
export-driven growth.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $65.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$13,350 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10.4% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$33.4 billion
expenditures:
$36.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $9.4 billion (FY93)
Exports:
$14.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, cut diamonds, chemicals, textiles and
apparel, agricultural products, metals
partners:
US, EC, Japan
Imports:
$20.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, oil, other
productive inputs, consumer goods
partners:
US, EC
External debt:
$24.8 billion (December 1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.5% (1993 est.); accounts for about 30% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
5,835,000 kW
production:
21.84 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
4,600 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food processing, diamond cutting and polishing, textiles and apparel,
chemicals, metal products, military equipment, transport equipment,
electrical equipment, miscellaneous machinery, potash mining,
high-technology electronics, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for about 7% of GDP; largely self-sufficient in food
production, except for grains; principal products - citrus and other
fruits, vegetables, cotton; livestock products - beef, dairy, poultry
Illicit drugs:
increasingly concerned about cocaine and heroin abuse and trafficking
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $18.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.8
billion
Currency:
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot
Exchange rates:
new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.9760 (February 1994), 2.8301
(1993), 2.4591 (1992), 2.2791 (1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

@Israel, Communications

Railroads:
600 km 1.435-meter gauge, single track; diesel operated
Highways:
total:
13,300 km
paved:
13,300 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 708 km; petroleum products 290 km; natural gas 89 km
Ports:
Ashdod, Haifa
Merchant marine:
33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 637,097 GRT/737,762 DWT, cargo
8, container 22, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
note:
Israel also maintains a significant flag of convenience fleet, which
is normally at least as large as the Israeli flag fleet; the Israeli
flag of convenience fleet typically includes all of its oil tankers
Airports:
total:
55
usable:
48
with permanent-surface runways:
30
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
13
Telecommunications:
most highly developed in the Middle East although not the largest;
good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; 1,800,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 21 FM, 20 TV; 3 submarine
cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT

@Israel, Defense Forces

Branches:
Israel Defense Forces (including ground, naval, and air components)
note:
historically, there have been no separate Israeli military services
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,257,345; females age 15-49 1,280,899; males fit for
military service 1,026,699; females fit for military service
1,049,998; males reach military age (18) annually 47,297 (1994 est.);
females reach military age (18) annually 45,214 (1994 est.); both
sexes are liable for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $12.5 billion, 18% of GDP (1993)

@Italy, Geography

Location:
Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean
Sea
Map references:
Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
301,230 sq km
land area:
294,020 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Arizona
note:
includes Sardinia and Sicily
Land boundaries:
total 1,899.2 km, Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican
City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199 km, Switzerland 740 km
Coastline:
4,996 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Terrain:
mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Natural resources:
mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling natural gas and crude oil
reserves, fish, coal
Land use:
arable land:
32%
permanent crops:
10%
meadows and pastures:
17%
forest and woodland:
22%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
31,000 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide;
coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural
effluents; acid rain damaging lakes
natural hazards:
regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes,
volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of
the Sea
Note:
strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as
southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

@Italy, People

Population:
58,138,394 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.21% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
10.79 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.71 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.64 years
male:
74.44 years
female:
81.04 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.39 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Italian(s)
adjective:
Italian
Ethnic divisions:
Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and
Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians
in the south), Sicilians, Sardinians
Religions:
Roman Catholic 98%, other 2%
Languages:
Italian, German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly
German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle
d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the
Trieste-Gorizia area)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
97%
male:
98%
female:
96%
Labor force:
23.988 million
by occupation:
services 58%, industry 32.2%, agriculture 9.8% (1988)

@Italy, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Italian Republic
conventional short form:
Italy
local long form:
Repubblica Italiana
local short form:
Italia
former:
Kingdom of Italy
Digraph:
IT
Type:
republic
Capital:
Rome
Administrative divisions:
20 regions (regioni, singular - regione); Abruzzi, Basilicata,
Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio,
Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna,
Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto
Independence:
17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed)
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)
Constitution:
1 January 1948
Legal system:
based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law influence; appeals
treated as trials de novo; judicial review under certain conditions in
Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age, universal (except in senatorial elections, where
minimum age is 25)
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Oscar Luigi SCALFARO (since 28 May 1992)
head of government:
Prime Minister Silvio BERLUSCONI (since 11 May 1994)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Parlamento)
Senate (Senato della Repubblica):
elections last held 27-28 March 1994 (next expected to be held by
spring 2001); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (326
total; 315 elected, 11 appointed senators-for-life) PDS 61, Northern
League 60, National Alliance 48, Forza Italia 36, Popular Party 31,
Communist Refounding 18, Greens and The Network 13, Socialist Party
13, Christian Democratic Center 12, Democratic Alliance 8, Christian
Socialists 5, Pact for Italy 4, Radical Party 1, others 5
Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati):
elections last held 27-28 March 1994 (next expected to be held by
spring 2001); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (630
total) Northern League 117, PDS 114, Forza Italia 113, National
Alliance 109, Communist Refounding 39, Christian Democratic Center 33,
Popular Party 33, Greens and The Network 20, Democratic Alliance 18,
Socialist Party 16, Pact for Italy 13, Christian Socialists 5
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale)
Political parties and leaders:
Rightists:
Forza Italia, Silvio BERLUSCONI; National Alliance (was Italian Social
Movement - MSI - until January 1994), Gianfranco FINI, party
secretary; Lega Nord (Northern League), Umberto BOSSI, president
Leftists:
Democratic Party of the Left (PDS - was Communist Party, or PCI, until
January 1991), Achille OCCHETTO, secretary; Communist Refounding,
Fausto BERTINOTTI; Greens, Carlo RIPA di MEARA; Radical Party, Marco
PANNELLA; Italian Socialist Party, Ottaviano DELTURCO; The Network,
Leoluca ORLANDO; Christian Socialists, Ermanno GORRIERI
Centrists:
Pact for Italy, Mario SEGNI; Popular Party, Rosa JERVOLINO; Christian
Democratic Center, Pier Ferdinando CASINI
Other political or pressure groups:
the Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations
(CGIL - formerly Communist dominated, CISL - Christian Democratic, and
UIL - Social Democratic, Socialist, and Republican); Italian
manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria,
Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori,
Confagricoltura)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, AsDB, BIS, CCC, CDB
(non-regional), CE, CEI, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB,
ESA, FAO, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IEA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG,
OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Boris BIANCHERI-CHIAPPORI
chancery:
1601 Fuller Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 328-5500
consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia,
San Francisco
consulate(s):
Detroit, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Reginald BARTHOLOMEW
embassy:
Via Veneto 119/A, 00187-Rome
mailing address:
PSC 59, Box 100, Rome; APO AE 09624
telephone:
[39] (6) 46741
FAX:
[39] (6) 488-2672
consulate(s) general:
Florence, Milan, Naples
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red;
similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist
side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote
d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white,
and green

@Italy, Economy

Overview:
Since World War II the Italian economy has changed from one based on
agriculture into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the
same total and per capita output as France and the UK. The country is
still divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private
companies, and an undeveloped agricultural south, dominated by large
public enterprises. Services account for 48% of GDP, industry 35%,
agriculture 4%, and public administration 13%. Most raw materials
needed by industry and over 75% of energy requirements must be
imported. After growing at an annual average rate of 3% in 1983-90,
growth slowed to about 1% in 1991 and 1992 and fell by 0.7% in 1993.
In the second half of 1992, Rome became unsettled by the prospect of
not qualifying to participate in EC plans for economic and monetary
union later in the decade; thus it finally began to address its huge
fiscal imbalances. Thanks to the determination of Prime Ministers
AMATO and CIAMPI, the government adopted a fairly stringent budget for
1993 and 1994, abandoned its highly inflationary wage indexation
system, and started to scale back its extremely generous social
welfare programs, including pension and health care benefits. Monetary
officials were forced to withdraw the lira from the European monetary
system in September 1992 when it came under extreme pressure in
currency markets. For the 1990s, Italy faces the problems of
refurbishing a tottering communications system, curbing pollution in
major industrial centers, and adjusting to the new competitive forces
accompanying the ongoing economic integration of the European Union.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $967.6 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
-0.7% (1993)
National product per capita:
$16,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.2% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
11.3% (January 1994)
Budget:
revenues:
$302 billion
expenditures:
$391 billion, including capital expenditures of $48 billion (1993
est.)
Exports:
$178.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
metals, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles,
transportation equipment, chemicals, other
partners:
EC 58.3%, US 6.8%, OPEC 5.1% (1992)
Imports:
$188.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
industrial machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, petroleum,
metals, food, agricultural products
partners:
EC 58.8%, OPEC 6.1%, US 5.5% (1992)
External debt:
$67 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -2.8% (1993 est.); accounts for almost 35% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
58,000,000 kW
production:
235 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
4,060 kWh (1992)
Industries:
machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor
vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Agriculture:
accounts for about 4% of GDP and about 9.8% of the work force;
self-sufficient in foods other than meat, dairy products, and cereals;
principal crops - fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets,
soybeans, grain, olives; fish catch of 525,000 metric tons in 1990
Illicit drugs:
important gateway country for Latin American cocaine and Southwest
Asian heroin entering the European market
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $25.9 billion
Currency:
1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi
Exchange rates:
Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,700.2 (January 1994), 1,573.7 (1993),
1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Italy, Communications

Railroads:
20,011 km total; 16,066 km 1.435-meter government-owned standard gauge
(8,999 km electrified); 3,945 km privately owned - 2,100 km
1.435-meter standard gauge (1,155 km electrified) and 1,845 km
0.950-meter narrow gauge (380 km electrified)
Highways:
total:
298,000 km
paved:
270,000 km (including nearly 7,000 km of expressways)
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 23,000 km; earth 5,000 km
Inland waterways:
2,400 km for various types of commercial traffic, although of limited
overall value
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural gas 19,400 km
Ports:
Cagliari (Sardinia), Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples, Palermo
(Sicily), Taranto, Trieste, Venice
Merchant marine:
474 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,055,779 GRT/8,924,779 DWT,
bulk 50, cargo 72, chemical tanker 34, combination bulk 1, combination
ore/oil 5, container 20, liquefied gas 39, multifunction large-load
carrier 1, oil tanker 129, passenger 8, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 62, short-sea passenger 34, specialized tanker
10, vehicle carrier 7
Airports:
total:
137
usable:
132
with permanent-surface runways:
92
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
36
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
39
Telecommunications:
modern, well-developed, fast; 25,600,000 telephones; fully automated
telephone, telex, and data services; high-capacity cable and microwave
radio relay trunks; broadcast stations - 135 AM, 28 (1,840 repeaters)
FM, 83 (1,000 repeaters) TV; international service by 21 submarine
cables, 3 satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT with 3
Atlantic Ocean antennas and 2 Indian Ocean antennas; also participates
in INMARSAT and EUTELSAT systems

@Italy, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 14,921,411; fit for military service 12,982,445; reach
military age (18) annually 403,017 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $16.1 billion, 1.3% of GDP (1992)

@Jamaica, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the northern Caribbean Sea, about 160 km south of Cuba
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
10,990 sq km
land area:
10,830 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,022 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Natural resources:
bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Land use:
arable land:
19%
permanent crops:
6%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland:
28%
other:
29%
Irrigated land:
350 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; water pollution
natural hazards:
subject to hurricanes (especially July to November)
international agreements:
party to - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but
not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main
sea lanes for Panama Canal

@Jamaica, People

Population:
2,555,064 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.02% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
21.69 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.62 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
16.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.36 years
male:
72.16 years
female:
76.68 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.41 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Jamaican(s)
adjective:
Jamaican
Ethnic divisions:
African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, East Indian and Afro-East Indian
3%, white 3.2%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%, other 1.2%
Religions:
Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United
Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other, including some
spiritual cults 39.1% (1982)
Languages:
English, Creole
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1990 est.)
total population:
98%
male:
98%
female:
99%
Labor force:
1,062,100
by occupation:
services 41%, agriculture 22.5%, industry 19%, unemployed 17.5% (1989)

@Jamaica, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Jamaica
Digraph:
JM
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Kingston
Administrative divisions:
14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint
Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James,
Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland
Independence:
6 August 1962 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day (first Monday in August) (1962)
Constitution:
6 August 1962
Legal system:
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Sir Howard COOKE (since 1 August 1991)
head of government:
Prime Minister P. J. PATTERSON (since 30 March 1992); Deputy Prime
Minister Seymour MULLINGS (since NA)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime
minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament
Senate:
consists of a 21-member body appointed by the governor general
House of Representatives:
elections last held 30 March 1993 (next to be held by February 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total) PNP 52, JLP
8
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
People's National Party (PNP) P. J. PATTERSON; Jamaica Labor Party
(JLP), Edward SEAGA
Other political or pressure groups:
Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists); New
Beginnings Movement (NBM)
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-19, G-77, GATT, G-15, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard Leighton BERNAL
chancery:
Suite 355, 1850 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone:
(202) 452-0660
FAX:
(202) 452-0081
consulate(s) general:
Miami and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lacy A. WRIGHT, Jr.
embassy:
Jamaica Mutual Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, 3rd floor, Kingston
mailing address:
use Embassy street address
telephone:
(809) 929-4850 through 4859
FAX:
(809) 926-6743
Flag:
diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green
(top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)

@Jamaica, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on sugar, bauxite, and tourism. In September
1988, Hurricane Gilbert inflicted severe damage on crops and the
electric power system, a sharp but temporary setback to the economy.
By October 1989 the economic recovery from the hurricane was largely
complete, and real growth was up to about 3% for 1989. In 1991,
however, growth dropped to 0.2% as a result of the US recession, lower
world bauxite prices, and monetary instability. In 1992, growth was
1.2%, supported by a recovery in tourism and stabilization of the
Jamaican dollar in the second half of 1992.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.2% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,200 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
30% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15.4% (1992)
Budget:
revenues:
$600 million
expenditures:
$736 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
alumina, bauxite, sugar, bananas, rum
partners:
US 40%, UK 14%, Germany 10%, Canada 10%, Norway 7%
Imports:
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
fuel, other raw materials, construction materials, food, transport
equipment, other machinery and equipment
partners:
US 53%, UK 5%, Venezuela 6%, Germany 5%, Japan 4.0%
External debt:
$4.5 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2% (1990); accounts for almost 25% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
1,127,000 kW
production:
2.736 trillion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,090 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism, bauxite mining, textiles, food processing, light manufactures
Agriculture:
accounts for about 7% of GDP, 23% of work force, and 17% of exports;
commercial crops - sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes,
vegetables; livestock and livestock products include poultry, goats,
milk; not self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy products
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine from Central and South America to
North America and Europe; illicit cultivation of cannabis; government
has an active cannabis eradication program
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.2 billion; other
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6 billion
Currency:
1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1 -32.758 (31 December 1993), 22.960
(1992), 12.116 (1991), 7.184 (1990), 5.7446 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Jamaica, Communications

Railroads:
370 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track
Highways:
total:
18,200 km
paved:
12,600 km
unpaved:
gravel 3,200 km; improved earth 2,400 km
Pipelines:
petroleum products 10 km
Ports:
Kingston, Montego Bay, Port Antonio
Merchant marine:
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,618 GRT/16,215 DWT, bulk 2, oil
tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
Airports:
total:
40
usable:
27
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
fully automatic domestic telephone network; 127,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 10 AM, 17 FM, 8 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables

@Jamaica, Defense Forces

Branches:
Jamaica Defense Force (including Ground Forces, Coast Guard and Air
Wing), Jamaica Constabulary Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 664,122; fit for military service 469,982; reach
military age (18) annually 26,103 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $19.3 million, 1% of GDP (FY91/92)

@Jan Mayen

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of Norway)

@Jan Mayen, Geography

Location:
Nordic State, Northern Europe, in the North Atlantic Ocean, north of
the Arctic Circle about 590 km north-northeast of Iceland, between the
Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea
Map references:
Arctic Region
Area:
total area:
373 sq km
land area:
373 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
124.1 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
10 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
4 nm
International disputes:
dispute between Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in Arctic
Ocean between Greenland and Jan Mayen has been settled by the
International Court of Justice
Climate:
arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog
Terrain:
volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers; Beerenberg is the highest
peak, with an elevation of 2,277 meters
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
volcanic activity resumed in 1970
international agreements:
NA
Note:
barren volcanic island with some moss and grass

@Jan Mayen, People

Population:
no permanent inhabitants; note - there are personnel who man the LORAN
C base and the weather and coastal services radio station

@Jan Mayen, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Jan Mayen
Digraph:
JN
Type:
territory of Norway
Capital:
none; administered from Oslo, Norway, through a governor (sysselmann)
resident in Longyearbyen (Svalbard)
Independence:
none (territory of Norway)

@Jan Mayen, Economy

Overview:
Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable natural resources.
Economic activity is limited to providing services for employees of
Norway's radio and meteorological stations located on the island.
Electricity:
capacity:
15,000 kW
production:
40 million kWh
consumption per capita:
NA (1992)

@Jan Mayen, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
radio and meteorological station

@Jan Mayen, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Norway

@Japan, Geography

Location:
Eastern Asia, off the southeast coast of Russia and east of the Korean
peninsula
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
377,835 sq km
land area:
374,744 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than California
note:
includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima,

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