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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 18 out of 46

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Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Howland Island
Digraph:
HQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

@Howland Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Howland Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle
of the west coast
Airports:
airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on the
round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan - they left
Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the
airstrip is no longer serviceable
Note:
Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast that
was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been
rebuilt in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart

@Howland Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US
Coast Guard

@Hungary, Geography

Location:
Central Europe, between Slovakia and Romania
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe
Area:
total area:
93,030 sq km
land area:
92,340 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
total 1,989 km, Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia
and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 82
km, Ukraine 103 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Slovakia
Climate:
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling plains
Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils
Land use:
arable land:
50.7%
permanent crops:
6.1%
meadows and pastures:
12.6%
forest and woodland:
18.3%
other:
12.3%
Irrigated land:
1,750 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution; industrial and municipal pollution of Lake Balaton
natural hazards:
levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every
year
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note:
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between
Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and
Mediterranean basin

@Hungary, People

Population:
10,319,113 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.03% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
12.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.72 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
12.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.37 years
male:
67.37 years
female:
75.58 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Hungarian(s)
adjective:
Hungarian
Ethnic divisions:
Hungarian 89.9%, Gypsy 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian
0.7%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other
7.5%
Languages:
Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
99%
male:
99%
female:
98%
Labor force:
5.4 million
by occupation:
services, trade, government, and other 44.8%, industry 29.7%,
agriculture 16.1%, construction 7.0% (1991)

@Hungary, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Hungary
conventional short form:
Hungary
local long form:
Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form:
Magyarorszag
Digraph:
HU
Type:
republic
Capital:
Budapest
Administrative divisions:
38 counties (megyek, singular - megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros);
Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen,
Budapest*, Csongrad, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Fejer, Gyor,
Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely,
Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc,
Nagykanizsa, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Pest, Somogy, Sopron,
Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szolnok, Szombathely,
Tatabanya, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala, Zalaegerszeg
Independence:
1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
National holiday:
St. Stephen's Day (National Day), 20 August (commemorates the founding
of Hungarian state circa 1000 A.D.)
Constitution:
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18
October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and
constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also
established the principle of parliamentary oversight
Legal system:
in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based on Western
model
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously interim
president from 2 May 1990); election last held 3 August 1990 (next to
be held NA 1995); results - President GONCZ elected by parliamentary
vote; note - President GONCZ was elected by the National Assembly with
a total of 295 votes out of 304 as interim President from 2 May 1990
until elected President
head of government:
Prime Minister Peter BOROSS (since 12 December 1993 on the death of
Jozsef ANTALL); new prime minister will probably be Gyula HORN
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly on
recommendation of the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Orszaggyules):
elections last held on 8 and 29 May 1994 (next to be held spring
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (386 total)
Hungarian Socialist Party 209, Alliance of Free Democrats 70,
Hungarian Democratic Forum 37, Independent Smallholders 26, Christian
Democratic People's Party 22, Federation of Young Democrats 20, other
2
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Forum, Sandor LESZAK, chairman; Independent Smallholders
(FKGP), Jozsef TORGYAN, president; Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP),
Gyula HORN, president; Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP), Dr.
Lazlo SURJAN, president; Federation of Young Democrats (FIDESZ),
Viktor ORBAN, chairman; Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ), Ivan PETO,
chairman
note:
the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party (MSZMP) renounced
Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) in October
1989; there is still a small MSZMP
Member of:
Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, COCOM (cooperating), CSCE,
EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-9, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM
(guest), NSG, OAS (observer), PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Pal TAR
chancery:
3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 362-6730
FAX:
(202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Donald BLINKEN
embassy:
V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest
mailing address:
Am Embassy, Unit 1320, Budapest; APO AE 09213
telephone:
[36] (1) 112-6450
FAX:
[36] (1) 132-8934
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

@Hungary, Economy

Overview:
Hungary is still in the midst of a difficult transition from a command
to a market economy. Its economic reforms during the Communist era
gave it a head start on this process, particularly in terms of
attracting foreign investors - Hungary has accounted for about half of
all foreign direct investment in Eastern Europe since 1989.
Nonetheless, the economy continued to contract in 1993, with real GDP
falling perhaps 1%. Although the privatization process has lagged, in
December 1993 Hungary carried out the largest privatization yet in
Eastern Europe, selling a controlling interest in the Matav
telecommunications firm to private investors - including a 30% share
to a US-German consortium for $875 million. Overall, about half of GDP
now originates in the private sector. Unemployment rose to about 13%
in 1993 while inflation remained above 20%, and falling exports pushed
the trade deficit to about $3 billion. The government hopes that
economic recovery in Western Europe in 1994 will boost exports, lower
the trade deficit, and help jump-start the economy. The budget,
however, is likely to remain a serious concern; depressed tax revenue
pushed up the budget deficit in 1993.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $57 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
23% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
13% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$10.2 billion
expenditures:
$12.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$8.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
raw materials, semi-finished goods, chemicals 39.6%, machinery 14.5%,
consumer goods 22.3%, food and agriculture 20.0%, fuels and energy
3.6% (January-June 1993)
partners:
EC 49.8% (Germany 27.8%, Italy 9.5%), Austria 10.7%, the FSU 13.1%,
Eastern Europe 9.8% (1992)
Imports:
$12.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
fuels and energy 13.9%, raw materials, semi-finished goods, chemicals
35.9%, machinery 22.4%, consumer goods 21.8%, food and agriculture
6.0% (January-June 1993)
partners:
EC 42.8% (Germany 23.6%, Italy 6.3%), Austria 14.4%, the FSU 16.8%,
Eastern Europe 9.2%
External debt:
$24.7 billion (November 1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
7,200,000 kW
production:
30 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
3,000 kWh (1992)
Industries:
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles,
chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), buses, automobiles
Agriculture:
including forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 16% of employment;
highly diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops -
wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock - hogs,
cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in food output
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southeast Asia heroin transiting the Balkan
route
Economic aid:
recipient:
assistance pledged by OECD countries since 1989 about $9 billion
Currency:
1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler
Exchange rates:
forints per US$1 - 93.46 (September 1993), 92.5 (1993), 78.99 (1992),
74.74 (1991), 63.21 (1990), 59.07 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Hungary, Communications

Railroads:
7,765 km total; 7,508 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 222 km narrow
gauge (mostly 0.760-meter), 35 km 1.520-meter broad gauge; 1,236 km
double track, 2,249 km electrified; all government owned (1990)
Highways:
total:
130,224 km
paved:
61,948 km
unpaved:
68,276 km (1988)
Inland waterways:
1,622 km (1988)
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)
Ports:
Budapest and Dunaujvaros are river ports on the Danube; coastal
outlets are Rostock (Germany), Gdansk (Poland), Gdynia (Poland),
Szczecin (Poland), Galati (Romania), and Braila (Romania)
Merchant marine:
10 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) and 1 bulk totaling 46,121
GRT/61,613 DWT
Airports:
total:
126
usable:
65
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
18
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
31
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
automatic telephone network based on microwave radio relay system;
1,128,800 phones (1991); telephone density is at 19.4 per 100
inhabitants; 49% of all phones are in Budapest; 608,000 telephones on
order (1991); 12-15 year wait for a phone; 14,213 telex lines (1991);
broadcast stations - 32 AM, 15 FM, 41 TV (8 Soviet TV repeaters); 4.2
million TVs (1990); 1 satellite ground station using INTELSAT and
Intersputnik

@Hungary, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guard, Territorial
Defense
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,636,888; fit for military service 2,105,628; reach
military age (18) annually 90,134 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
66.5 billion forints, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of
defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results

@Iceland, Geography

Location:
Nordic State, Northern Europe, in the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Greenland and Norway
Map references:
Arctic Region, Europe, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
103,000 sq km
land area:
100,250 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Kentucky
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
4,988 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Ireland, and the
UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall
area)
Climate:
temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters;
damp, cool summers
Terrain:
mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast
deeply indented by bays and fiords
Natural resources:
fish, hydropower, geothermal power, diatomite
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
1%
other:
78%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution from fertilizer runoff; inadequate wastewater
treatment
natural hazards:
subject to earthquakes and volcanic activity
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Environmental
Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Note:
strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European
country; more land covered by glaciers than in all of continental
Europe

@Iceland, People

Population:
263,599 (July 1994 est.)
note:
population data estimates based on average growth rate may differ
slightly from official population data because of volatile migration
rates
Population growth rate:
0.9% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
16.41 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.72 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
78.83 years
male:
76.57 years
female:
81.21 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.11 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Icelander(s)
adjective:
Icelandic
Ethnic divisions:
homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and Celts
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, none
1% (1988)
Languages:
Icelandic
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.)
total population:
100%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
127,900
by occupation:
commerce, transportation, and services 60.0%, manufacturing 12.5%,
fishing and fish processing 11.8%, construction 10.8%, agriculture
4.0% (1990)

@Iceland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Iceland
conventional short form:
Iceland
local long form:
Lyoveldio Island
local short form:
Island
Digraph:
IC
Type:
republic
Capital:
Reykjavik
Administrative divisions:
23 counties (syslar, singular - sysla) and 14 independent towns*
(kaupstadhir, singular - kaupstadhur); Akranes*, Akureyri*,
Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-Hunavatnssysla,
Austur-Skaftafellssysla, Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla,
Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*,
Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla,
Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-la,
Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla, Reykjavik*,
Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*, Skagafjardharsysla,
Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla, Sudhur-Mulasysla,
Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*, Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
Vestur-Hunavatnssysla, Vestur-Isafjardharsysla,
Vestur-Skaftafellssysla
Independence:
17 June 1944 (from Denmark)
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic, 17 June (1944)
Constitution:
16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944
Legal system:
civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1 August 1980); election last
held on 29 June 1988 (next scheduled for June 1996); results - there
was no election in 1992 as President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR was
unopposed
head of government:
Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament (Althing):
elections last held on 20 April 1991 (next to be held by April 1995);
results - Independence Party 38.6%, Progressive Party 18.9%, Social
Democratic Party 15.5%, People's Alliance 14.4%, Womens List 8.3%,
Liberals 1.2%, other 3.1%; seats - (63 total) Independence 26,
Progressive 13, Social Democratic 10, People's Alliance 9, Womens List
5
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Haestirettur)
Political parties and leaders:
Independence Party (conservative), David ODDSSON; Progressive Party,
Steingrimur HERMANNSSON; Social Democratic Party, Jon Baldvin
HANNIBALSSON; People's Alliance (left socialist), Olafur Ragnar
GRIMSSON; Women's List
Member of:
Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA,
NIB, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO,
WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Einar BENEDIKTSSON
chancery:
2022 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-6653 through 6655
FAX:
(202) 265-6656
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Parker W. BORG
embassy:
Laufasvegur 21, Box 40, Reykjavik
mailing address:
US Embassy, PSC 1003, Box 40, Reykjavik; FPO AE 09728-0340
telephone:
[354] (1) 629100
FAX:
[354] (1) 629139
Flag:
blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Iceland, Economy

Overview:
Iceland's Scandinavian-type economy is basically capitalistic, but
with an extensive welfare system, relatively low unemployment, and
comparatively even distribution of income. The economy is heavily
dependent on the fishing industry, which provides nearly 75% of export
earnings and employs 12% of the workforce. In the absence of other
natural resources - except energy - Iceland's economy is vulnerable to
changing world fish prices. Iceland's economy has been in recession
since 1988. The recession continued in 1993 due to a third year of
cutbacks in fishing quotas as well as falling world prices for the
country's main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and
ferrosilicon. Real GDP declined 3.3% in 1992 and rose slightly, by
0.4%, in 1993. The center-right government's economic goals include
reducing the budget and current account deficits, limiting foreign
borrowing, containing inflation, revising agricultural and fishing
policies, diversifying the economy, and privatizing state-owned
industries. The recession has led to a wave of bankruptcies and
mergers throughout the economy, as well as the highest unemployment of
the post-World War II period. Inflation, previously a serious problem,
declined from double digit rates in the 1980s to only 3.7% in 1992-93.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.2 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
0.4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$16,000 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
4.5% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.8 billion
expenditures:
$1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $191 million (1992)
Exports:
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum, ferrosilicon,
diatomite
partners:
EC 68% (UK 25%, FRG 12%), US 11%, Japan 8% (1992)
Imports:
$1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products,
foodstuffs, textiles
partners:
EC 53% (Germany 14%, Denmark 10%, UK 9%), Norway 14%, US 9% (1992)
External debt:
$3.9 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.75% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
1,063,000 kW
production:
5.165 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
19,940 kWh (1992)
Industries:
fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon production,
geothermal power
Agriculture:
accounts for about 15% of GDP; fishing is most important economic
activity, contributing nearly 75% to export earnings; principal crops
- potatoes, turnips; livestock - cattle, sheep; self-sufficient in
crops; fish catch of about 1.1 million metric tons in 1992
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1 million
Currency:
1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar
Exchange rates:
Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1 - 72.971 (January 1994), 67.603
(1993), 57.546 (1992), 58.996 (1991), 58.284 (1990), 57.042 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Iceland, Communications

Highways:
total:
12,537 km
paved:
2,690 km
unpaved:
gravel, earth 9,847 km
Ports:
Reykjavik, Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Keflavik, Seydhisfjordhur,
Siglufjordhur, Vestmannaeyjar
Merchant marine:
8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 33,212 GRT/47,359 DWT, cargo 2,
chemical tanker 1, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2
Airports:
total:
90
usable:
84
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
12
Telecommunications:
adequate domestic service; coaxial and fiber-optical cables and
microwave radio relay for trunk network; 140,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 5 AM, 147 (transmitters and repeaters) FM, 202
(transmitters and repeaters) TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station carries all international traffic; a second
INTELSAT earth station is scheduled to be operational in 1993

@Iceland, Defense Forces

Branches:
Police, Coast Guard
note:
no armed forces, Iceland's defense is provided by the US-manned
Icelandic Defense Force (IDF) headquartered at Keflavik
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 70,074; fit for military service 62,197
Defense expenditures:
none

@India, Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal,
between Bangladesh and Pakistan
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
3,287,590 km2
land area:
2,973,190 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundaries:
total 14,103 km, Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km,
China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Coastline:
7,000 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
boundaries with Bangladesh and China; status of Kashmir with Pakistan;
water-sharing problems with downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the
Ganges and Pakistan over the Indus
Climate:
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrain:
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along
the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Natural resources:
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese,
mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds,
petroleum, limestone
Land use:
arable land:
55%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
23%
other:
17%
Irrigated land:
430,390 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air
pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water
pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; huge
and rapidly growing population is overstraining natural resources
natural hazards:
droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common; subject to
earthquakes (a quake measuring 6.4 on the Richter scale occurred near
Hyderabad killing several thousand people and causing extensive damage
in late September 1993)
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber,
Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note:
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade
routes

@India, People

Population:
919,903,056 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.82% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
28.45 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.29 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
78.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
58.58 years
male:
58.09 years
female:
59.09 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.48 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Indian(s)
adjective:
Indian
Ethnic divisions:
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%
Religions:
Hindu 80%, Muslim 14%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist 0.7%, Jains
0.5%, other 0.4%
Languages:
English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for
national, political, and commercial communication, Hindi the national
language and primary tongue of 30% of the people, Bengali (official),
Telugu (official), Marathi (official), Tamil (official), Urdu
(official), Gujarati (official), Malayalam (official), Kannada
(official), Oriya (official), Punjabi (official), Assamese (official),
Kashmiri (official), Sindhi (official), Sanskrit (official),
Hindustani a popular variant of Hindu/Urdu, is spoken widely
throughout northern India
note:
24 languages each spoken by a million or more persons; numerous other
languages and dialects, for the most part mutually unintelligible
Literacy:
age 7 and over can read and write (1991 est.)
total population:
52.11%
male:
63.86%
female:
39.42%
Labor force:
314.751 million (1990)
by occupation:
agriculture 65% (1993 est.)

@India, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of India
conventional short form:
India
Digraph:
IN
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
New Delhi
Administrative divisions:
25 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*,
Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Dadra
and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*,
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland,
Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura,
Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Independence:
15 August 1947 (from UK)
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 26 January (1950)
Constitution:
26 January 1950
Legal system:
based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative
acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 25 July 1992); Vice President
Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN (since 21 August 1992)
head of government:
Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha RAO (since 21 June 1991)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on recommendation of
the prime minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Sansad)
Council of States (Rajya Sabha):
body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 appointed by
the president, the remainder chosen by the elected members of the
state and territorial assemblies
People's Assembly (Lok Sabha):
elections last held 21 May, 12 and 15 June 1991 (next to be held by
November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (545
total, 543 elected, 2 appointed) Congress (I) Party 245, Bharatiya
Janata Party 119, Janata Dal Party 39, Janata Dal (Ajit Singh) 20,
CPI/M 35, CPI 14, Telugu Desam 13, AIADMK 11, Samajwadi Janata Party
5, Shiv Sena 4, RSP 4, BSP 1, Congress (S) Party 1, other 23, vacant 9
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Congress (I) Party, P. V. Narasimha RAO, president; Bharatiya Janata
Party (BJP), L.K. ADVANI; Janata Dal Party, Chandra SHEKHAR; Janata
Dal (Ajit Singh), Ajit SINGH; Communist Party of India/Marxist
(CPI/M), Harkishan Singh SURJEET; Communist Party of India (CPI),
Indrajit GUPTA; Telugu Desam (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh), N.
T. Rama RAO; All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK; a
regional party in Tamil Nadu), Jayaram JAYALALITHA; Samajwadi Party
(SP, formerly Samajwadi Janata Party), Mulayam Singh YADAV
(President), Om Prakash CHAUTALA, Devi LAL; Shiv Sena, Bal THACKERAY;
Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Tridip CHOWDHURY; Bahujana Samaj
Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM; Congress (S) Party, leader NA; Communist
Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Vinod MISHRA; Dravida
Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party in Tamil Nadu), M. KARUNANIDHI;
Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the
Punjab; National Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and
Kashmir), Farooq ABDULLAH
Other political or pressure groups:
various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional
autonomy; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations,
including Adam Sena, Ananda Marg, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya
Swayamsevak Sangh
Member of:
AG (observer), AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-19, AfDB,
G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAS (observer), ONUSAL, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Siddhartha Shankar RAY
chancery:
2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-7000
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate Frank WISNER
embassy:
Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri 110021, New Delhi
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[91] (11) 600651
FAX:
[91] (11) 687-2028
consulate(s) general:
Bombay, Calcutta, Madras
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a
blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to
the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white
band

@India, Economy

Overview:
India's economy is a mixture of traditional village farming, modern
agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a
multitude of support services. Faster economic growth in the 1980s
permitted a significant increase in real per capita private
consumption. A large share of the population, perhaps as much as 40%,
remains too poor to afford an adequate diet. Financial strains in 1990
and 1991 prompted government austerity measures that slowed industrial
growth but permitted India to meet its international payment
obligations without rescheduling its debt. Policy reforms since 1991
have extended earlier economic liberalization and greatly reduced
government controls on production, trade, and investment. US and other
foreign firms are increasing their investment in India. In January
1994, international financial reserves were comfortably high.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.17 trillion (FY94 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.8% (FY94 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,300 (FY94 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$29.6 billion
expenditures:
$45.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $11.2 billion (FY93)
Exports:
$21.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
gems and jewelry, clothing, engineering goods, chemicals, leather
manufactures, cotton yarn, and fabric
partners:
US 18.9%, Germany 7.8%, Italy 7.8%, (FY93)
Imports:
$22 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
crude oil and petroleum products, gems, fertilizer, chemicals,
machinery
partners:
US 9.8%, Belgium 8.4%, Germany 7.6% (FY93)
External debt:
$90.1 billion (March 1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2% (1993 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
82,000,000 kW
production:
310 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
340 kWh (1992)
Industries:
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment,
cement, mining, petroleum, machinery
Agriculture:
accounts for about 40% of GDP and employs 65% of labor force;
principal crops - rice, wheat, oilseeds, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane,
potatoes; livestock - cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
catch of about 3 million metric tons ranks India among the world's top
10 fishing nations
Illicit drugs:
licit producer of opium poppy for the pharmaceutical trade, but some
opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; major transit
country for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries;
illicit producer of hashish; minor production of illicit opium
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $31.7
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $315 million; USSR (1970-89),
$11.6 billion; Eastern Europe (1970-89), $105 million
Currency:
1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise
Exchange rates:
Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1 - 31.370 (January 1994), 30.493 (1993),
25.918 (1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@India, Communications

Railroads:
61,850 km total (1986); 33,553 km 1.676-meter broad gauge, 24,051 km
1.000-meter gauge, 4,246 km narrow gauge (0.762 meter and 0.610
meter); 12,617 km is double track; 6,500 km is electrified
Highways:
total:
1.97 million km
paved:
960,000 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, earth 1.01 million km (1989)
Inland waterways:
16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels
Pipelines:
crude oil 3,497 km; petroleum products 1,703 km; natural gas 902 km
(1989)
Ports:
Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Kandla, Madras, New Mangalore, Port Blair
(Andaman Islands)
Merchant marine:
297 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,236,902 GRT/10,369,948 DWT,
bulk 111, cargo 81, chemical tanker 9, combination bulk 2, combination
ore/oil 7, container 7, liquefied gas 6, oil tanker 66,
passenger-cargo 6, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1
Airports:
total:
337
usable:
288
with permanent-surface runways:
208
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
59
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
92
Telecommunications:
domestic telephone system is poor providing only one telephone for
about 200 persons on average; long distance telephoning has been
improved by a domestic satellite system which also carries TV;
international service is provided by 3 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations and by submarine cables to Malaysia and the United Arab
Emirates; broadcast stations - 96 AM, 4 FM, 274 TV (government
controlled)

@India, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Security or Paramilitary Forces (including
Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, and Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 247,948,906; fit for military service 145,881,705;
reach military age (17) annually 9,408,586 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $6.0 billion, 2.4% of GDP (FY93/94)

@Indian Ocean, Geography

Location:
body of water between Africa, Asia, Australia, and Antarctica
Map references:
Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
73.6 million sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than eight times the size of the US; third-largest ocean
(after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger than the
Arctic Ocean)
note:
includes Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of
Malacca, Great Australian Bight, Gulf of Oman, Mozambique Channel, and
other tributary water bodies
Coastline:
66,526 km
International disputes:
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to
October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November
in the north Indian Ocean and January/February in the south Indian
Ocean
Terrain:
surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular system of
currents) in the south Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface
currents in the north Indian Ocean, low atmospheric pressure over
southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest
monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high
pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in
the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and currents;
ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided
by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and
Ninety East Ridge; maximum depth is 7,258 meters in the Java Trench
Natural resources:
oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel aggregates, placer
deposits, polymetallic nodules
Environment:
current issues:
endangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, and
whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of
Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait;
ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme south near Antarctica
from May to October

@Indian Ocean, Government

Digraph:
XO

@Indian Ocean, Economy

Overview:
The Indian Ocean provides major sea routes connecting the Middle East,
Africa, and East Asia with Europe and the Americas. It carries a
particularly heavy traffic of petroleum and petroleum products from
the oil fields of the Persian Gulf and Indonesia. Its fish are of
great and growing importance to the bordering countries for domestic
consumption and export. Fishing fleets from Russia, Japan, Korea, and
Taiwan also exploit the Indian Ocean, mainly for shrimp and tuna.
Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being tapped in the offshore areas
of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Western Australia. An estimated 40%
of the world's offshore oil production comes from the Indian Ocean.
Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore placer deposits are
actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India, South
Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
Industries:
based on exploitation of natural resources, particularly fish,
minerals, oil and gas, fishing, sand and gravel

@Indian Ocean, Communications

Ports:
Bombay (India), Calcutta (India), Madras (India), Colombo (Sri Lanka),
Durban (South Africa), Fremantle (Australia), Jakarta (Indonesia),
Melbourne (Australia), Richards Bay (South Africa)
Telecommunications:
submarine cables from India to United Arab Emirates and Malaysia, and
from Sri Lanka to Djibouti and Indonesia

@Indonesia, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, between Malaysia and Australia
Map references:
Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,919,440 sq km
land area:
1,826,440 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 2,602 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Coastline:
54,716 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with
Portugal and not recognized by the UN; two islands in dispute with
Malaysia
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile
soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
67%
other:
15%
Irrigated land:
75,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air
pollution in urban areas
natural hazards:
occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Marine Life Conservation
Note:
archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator;
strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean
to Pacific Ocean

@Indonesia, People

Population:
200,409,741 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.59% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
24.45 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
67.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
60.74 years
male:
58.7 years
female:
62.88 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.8 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Indonesian(s)
adjective:
Indonesian
Ethnic divisions:
Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other
26%
Religions:
Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%,
other 1% (1985)
Languages:
Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official), English, Dutch,
local dialects the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
77%
male:
84%
female:
68%
Labor force:
67 million
by occupation:
agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%, construction 4%, transport and
communications 3% (1985 est.)

@Indonesia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form:
Indonesia
local long form:
Republik Indonesia
local short form:
Indonesia
former name:
Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies
Digraph:
ID
Type:
republic
Capital:
Jakarta
Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special
regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1
special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali,
Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah,
Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah,
Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara
Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara,
Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara,
Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*
Independence:
17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949,
Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitution:
August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional
Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous
concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Vice President
Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO (since 11 March 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of Representatives:
(Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) elections last held on 8 June 1992
(next to be held NA 1997); results - GOLKAR 68%, PPP 17%, PDI 15%;
seats - (500 total, 400 elected, 100 military representatives
appointed) GOLKAR 282, PPP 62, PDI 56
note:
the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or
MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly elected members who meet
every five years to elect the president and vice president and,
theoretically, to determine national policy
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)
Political parties and leaders:
GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on functional groups), Lt. Gen.
(Ret.) HARMOKO, general chairman; Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI -
federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties), Megawati
SUKARNOPUTRI, chairman; Development Unity Party (PPP, federation of
former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan METAREUM, chairman
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC,
OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Arifin SIREGAR
chancery:
2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 775-5200
FAX:
(202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, New York, and Los Angeles
consulate(s):
San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert L. BARRY
embassy:
Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Box 1, Jakarta
mailing address:
APO AP 96520
telephone:
[62] (21) 360-360
FAX:
[62] (21) 386-2259
consulate(s):
Medan, Surabaya
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag
of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which
is white (top) and red

@Indonesia, Economy

Overview:
Indonesia is a mixed economy with some socialist institutions and
central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and
private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural wealth, yet, with
a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a poor country.
Real GDP growth in 1985-93 averaged about 6%, quite impressive, but
not sufficient to both slash underemployment and absorb the 2.3
million workers annually entering the labor force. Agriculture,
including forestry and fishing, is an important sector, accounting for
21% of GDP and over 50% of the labor force. The staple crop is rice.
Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly
self-sufficient. Plantation crops - rubber and palm oil - and textiles
and plywood are being encouraged for both export and job generation.
Industrial output now accounts for almost 40% of GDP and is based on a
supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas,
timber, metals, and coal. Foreign investment has also boosted
manufacturing output and exports in recent years. Indeed, the
economy's growth is highly dependent on the continuing expansion of
nonoil exports. Japan remains Indonesia's most important customer and
supplier of aid. Rapid growth in the money supply in 1989-90 prompted
Jakarta to implement a tight monetary policy in 1991, forcing the
private sector to go to foreign banks for investment financing. Real
interest rates remained above 10% and off-shore commercial debt grew.
The growth in off-shore debt prompted Jakarta to limit foreign
borrowing beginning in late 1991. Despite the continued problems in
moving toward a more open financial system and the persistence of a
fairly tight credit situation, GDP growth in 1992 and 1993 has matched
the government target of 6%-7% annual growth.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $571 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3% official rate; underemployment 45% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$32.8 billion
expenditures:
$32.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $12.9 billion (FY95)
Exports:
$38.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
petroleum and gas 28%, clothing and fabrics 15%, plywood 11%, footwear
4% (1992)
partners:
Japan 32%, US 13%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 6% (1992)
Imports:
$28.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery 37%, semi-finished goods 16%, chemicals 14%, raw materials
10%, transport equipment 7%, food stuffs 6%, petroleum products 4%,
consumer goods 3% (1992)
partners:
Japan 22%, US 14%, Germany 8%, South Korea 7%, Singapore 6%, Australia
5%, Taiwan 5% (1992)
External debt:
$100 billion (1994 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 11.6% (1989 est.); accounts 35% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
11,600,000 kW
production:
38 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
200 kWh (1990)
Industries:
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, mining, cement, chemical
fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber
Agriculture:
accounts for 21% of GDP; subsistence food production; small-holder and
plantation production for export; main products are rice, cassava,
peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical
products, poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade, but not
a major player; government actively eradicating plantings and
prosecuting traffickers
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $25.9
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $175 million
Currency:
1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen (sen no longer used)
Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 2,116.9 (January 1994), 2,087.1
(1993), 2,029.9 (1992), 1,950.3 (1991), 1,842.8 (1990), 1,770.1 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Indonesia, Communications

Railroads:
6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km 0.750-meter gauge,
78 km 0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km electrified; all
government owned
Highways:
total:
119,500 km
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
undifferentiated:
provincial 34,180 km; district 73,508 km; state 11,812 km
Inland waterways:
21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan
10,460 km, Sulawesi 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km
(1989)
Ports:
Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Ujungpandang, Semarang,
Surabaya
Merchant marine:
430 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,893,830 GRT/2,768,294 DWT,
bulk 26, cargo 256, chemical tanker 7, container 11, liquefied gas 6,
livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 83, passenger 4, passenger-cargo 13,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 7,
vehicle carrier 4
Airports:
total:
444
usable:
414
with permanent-surface runways:
122
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
11
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
68
Telecommunications:
interisland microwave system and HF police net; domestic service fair,
international service good; radiobroadcast coverage good; 763,000
telephones (1986); broadcast stations - 618 AM, 38 FM, 9 TV; satellite
earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT earth station; and 1 domestic satellite communications
system

@Indonesia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 54,518,490; fit for military service 32,175,853; reach
military age (18) annually 2,201,295 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.1 billion, 1.5% of GNP (FY93/94 est.)

@Iran, Geography

Location:
Middle East, between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea
Map references:
Asia, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1.648 million sq km
land area:
1.636 million sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total 5,440 km, Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan (north)
432 km, Azerbaijan (northwest) 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km,
Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km
Coastline:
2,440 km
note:
Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive fishing zone:
50 nm in the Gulf of Oman; continental shelf limit, continental shelf
boundaries, or median lines in the Persian Gulf
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still
trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes
from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation,
prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the
Shatt al Arab waterway; Iran occupies two islands in the Persian Gulf
claimed by the UAE: Tunb as Sughra (Arabic), Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek
(Persian) or Lesser Tunb, and Tunb al Kubra (Arabic), Jazireh-ye
Tonb-e Bozorg (Persian) or Greater Tunb; it jointly administers with
the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE, Abu Musa
(Arabic) or Jazireh-ye Abu Musa (Persian); in 1992 the dispute over
Abu Musa and the Tunb islands became more acute when Iran unilaterally
tried to control the entry of third country nationals into the UAE
portion of Abu Musa island, Tehran subsequently backed off in the face
of significant diplomatic support for the UAE in the region; periodic
disputes with Afghanistan over Helmand water rights
Climate:
mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
Terrain:
rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains;
small, discontinuous plains along both coasts
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead,
manganese, zinc, sulfur
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
27%
forest and woodland:
11%
other:
54%
Irrigated land:
57,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions,
refinery operations, and industry; deforestation; overgrazing;
desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; shortages of
drinking water
natural hazards:
periodic droughts
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the
Sea, Marine Life Conservation

@Iran, People

Population:
65,615,474 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.46% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
42.43 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.83 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
60.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.66 years
male:
64.7 years
female:
66.68 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.33 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Iranian(s)
adjective:
Iranian
Ethnic divisions:
Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab
3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Shi'a Muslim 95%, Sunni Muslim 4%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and
Baha'i 1%
Languages:
Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%,
Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Baloch 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
54%
male:
64%
female:
43%
Labor force:
15.4 million
by occupation:
agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21%
note:
shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.)

@Iran, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Islamic Republic of Iran
conventional short form:
Iran
local long form:
Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
local short form:
Iran
Digraph:
IR
Type:
theocratic republic
Capital:
Tehran
Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan); Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari,
Azarbayjan-e Khavari, Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari,
Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Khorasan,
Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi,
Mazandaran, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan
Independence:
1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)
National holiday:
Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)
Constitution:
2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and
eliminate the prime ministership
Legal system:
the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government
Suffrage:
15 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
supreme leader and functional chief of state:
Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since
4 June 1989); supreme leader (velayat-e faqih)
head of government:
President Ali Akbar Hashemi-RAFSANJANI (since 3 August 1989); election
last held June 1993 (next to be held June-July 1997); results - Ali
Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI was elected with 63% of the vote
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; selected by the president with legislative
approval
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Islamic Consultative Assembly:
(Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami) elections last held 8 April 1992 (next to
be held April 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(270 seats total) number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
there are at least 76 licensed parties; the three most important are -
Tehran Militant Clergy Association, Mohammad Reza MAHDAVI-KANI;
Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi MAHDAVI-KARUBI and Mohammad Asqar
MUSAVI-KHOINIHA; Fedaiyin Islam Organization, Sadeq KHALKHALI
Other political or pressure groups:
groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Hizballah,
Hojjatiyeh Society, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim
Students Following the Line of the Imam; armed political groups that
have been almost completely repressed by the government include
Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People's Fedayeen, Kurdish
Democratic Party; the Society for the Defense of Freedom
Member of:
CCC, CP, ESCAP, ECO, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Iran has an Interests Section in the Pakistani Embassy in Washington,
DC
chancery:
Iranian Interests Section, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20007
telephone:
(202) 965-4990
US diplomatic representation:
protecting power in Iran is Switzerland
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the
national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red
is centered in the white band; Allah Alkbar (God is Great) in white
Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green
band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band

@Iran, Economy

Overview:
Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of
oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale
private trading and service ventures. Over the past several years, the
government has introduced several measures to liberalize the economy
and reduce government intervention, but most of these changes have
moved slowly because of political opposition. Iran has faced
increasingly severe financial difficulties in 1992-93 due to an import
surge since 1989 and general financial mismanagement. At yearend 1993
the Iranian Government estimated that it owed foreign creditors about
$30 billion; an estimated $8 billion of this debt was in arrears.
Earnings from oil exports--which provide over 90% of Iran's export
revenues--are providing less relief to Iran than usual because of
declining oil prices. Estimated overall growth was a robust 6.3% in
1992 and a moderate 3% in 1993.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $303 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,780 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
30% (September 1992-September 1993)
Unemployment rate:
30% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$15.5 billion (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities:
petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides
partners:
Japan, Italy, France, Netherlands, Belgium/Luxembourg, Spain, and
Germany
Imports:
$23.7 billion (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
commodities:
machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs,
pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products
partners:
Germany, Japan, Italy, UK, France
External debt:
$30 billion (December 1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3% (1993 est.); accounts for almost 30% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
15,649,000 kW
production:
43.6 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
710 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other building
materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable
oil production), metal fabricating
Agriculture:
accounts for about 20% of GDP; principal products - wheat, rice, other
grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool,
caviar; not self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and international
drug trade; net opiate importer but also a key transshipment point for
Southwest Asian heroin to Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$1.675 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $976 million
note:
aid fell sharply following the 1979 revolution
Currency:
1 Iranian rial (IR) = 10 tomans
Exchange rates:
Iranian rials (IR) per US$1 - 1,748.86 (January 1994), 1,267.77
(1993), 65.552 (1992), 67.505 (1991); note - in March 1993 the Iranian
government announced a new single-parity exchange rate system with a
new official rate of 1,538 rials per dollar; there is also a black
market rate of 2200 rials per US$1 (December 1993)
Fiscal year:
21 March - 20 March

@Iran, Communications

Railroads:
4,852 km total; 4,760 km 1.432-meter gauge, 92 km 1.676-meter gauge;
480 km under construction from Bafq to Bandar-e 'Abbas, rail
construction from Bafq to Sirjan has been completed and is
operational; section from Sirjan to Bandar-e 'Abbas still under
construction
Highways:
total:
140,200 km
paved:
42,694 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 46,866 km; improved earth 49,440 km; unimproved
earth 1,200 km
Inland waterways:
904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for
about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 meters and is in use
Pipelines:
crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural gas 4,550 km
Ports:
Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war), Bandar
Beheshti, Bandar-e 'Abbas, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni,
Bandar-e Torkeman (Caspian Sea port), Khorramshahr (repaired after
being largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war) has been in
limited operation since November 1992
Merchant marine:
139 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,480,000 GRT/8,332,667 DWT,
bulk 48, cargo 41, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 2, liquefied
gas 1, oil tanker 31, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8,
short-sea passenger 1
Airports:
total:
219
usable:
193
with permanent-surface runways:
80
with runways over 3,659 m:
17
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
18
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
70
Telecommunications:
microwave radio relay extends throughout country; system centered in
Tehran; 2,143,000 telephones (35 telephones per 1,000 persons);
broadcast stations - 77 AM, 3 FM, 28 TV; satellite earth stations - 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; HF radio and
microwave radio relay to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan,
and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber optic cable to UAE

@Iran, Defense Forces

Branches:
Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense
Force, Revolutionary Guards (including Basij militia and own ground,
air, and naval forces), Law Enforcement Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 14,382,216; fit for military service 8,555,760; reach
military age (21) annually 600,630 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
according to official Iranian data, Iran spent 1,785 billion rials,
including $808 million in hard currency in 1992 and budgeted 2,507
billion rials, including $850 million in hard currency for 1993 (est.)
note:
conversion of rial expenditures into US dollars using the prevailing
exchange rate could produce misleading results

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