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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Guinea-Bissau
conventional short form:
Guinea-Bissau
local long form:
Republica de Guine-Bissau
local short form:
Guine-Bissau
former:
Portuguese Guinea
Digraph:
PU
Type:
republic formerly highly centralized, multiparty since mid-1991
Capital:
Bissau
Administrative divisions:
9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau,
Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali
Independence:
10 September 1974 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 10 September (1974)
Constitution:
16 May 1984, amended 4 May 1991 (currently undergoing revision to
liberalize popular participation in the government)
Legal system:
NA
Suffrage:
15 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President of the Council of State Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA (assumed
power 14 November 1980 and was elected President of Council of State
on 16 May 1984); election last held 19 June 1989 (next to be held 3
July 1994); results - Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA was reelected without
opposition by the National People's Assembly
Council of State:
this body is elected by the National People's Assembly from among its
own members to legislate between sessions of the National People's
Assembly
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National People's Assembly:
(Assembleia Nacional Popular) elections last held 15 June 1989 (next
to be held 3 July 1994); results - PAIGC was the only party; seats -
(150 total) PAIGC 150
Judicial branch:
none; there is a Ministry of Justice in the Council of Ministers
Political parties and leaders:
African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde
(PAIGC), President Joao Bernardo VIEIRA, leader; Democratic Social
Front (FDS), Rafael BARBOSA, leader; Bafata Movement, Domingos
Fernandes GARNER, leader; Democratic Front (FD), Aristides MENEZES,
leader
note:
PAIGC is still the major party (of 10 parties) and controls all
aspects of the government
Member of:
ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Alfredo Lopes CABRAL
chancery:
918 16th Street NW, Mezzanine Suite, Washington, DC 20006
telephone:
(202) 872-4222
FAX:
(202) 872-4226
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roger A. McGUIRE
embassy:
Barrio de Penha, Bissau
mailing address:
C.P. 297, 1067 Bissau Codex, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau
telephone:
[245] 25-2273, 25-2274, 25-2275, 25-2276
FAX:
[245] 25-2282
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical
red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star
centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of
Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Cape Verde, which has the black star
raised above the center of the red band and is framed by two corn
stalks and a yellow clam shell

@Guinea-Bissau, Economy

Overview:
Guinea-Bissau ranks among the poorest countries in the world, with a
per capita GDP of roughly $800. Agriculture and fishing are the main
economic activities. Cashew nuts, peanuts, and palm kernels are the
primary exports. Exploitation of known mineral deposits is unlikely at
present because of a weak infrastructure and the high cost of
development.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $860 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA
National product per capita:
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
55% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$33.6 million
expenditures:
$44.8 million, including capital expenditures of $570,000 (1991 est.)
Exports:
$20.4 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
cashews, fish, peanuts, palm kernels
partners:
Portugal, Spain, Senegal, India, Nigeria
Imports:
$63.5 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, transport equipment, petroleum products, machinery and
equipment
partners:
Portugal, Netherlands, China, Germany, Senegal
External debt:
$462 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.1% (1991 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
22,000 kW
production:
30 million kWh
consumption per capita:
30 kWh (1991)
Industries:
agricultural processing, beer, soft drinks
Agriculture:
accounts for over 45% of GDP, nearly 100% of exports, and 90% of
employment; rice is the staple food; other crops include corn, beans,
cassava, cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, and cotton; not
self-sufficient in food; fishing and forestry potential not fully
exploited
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $49 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $615
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $41 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $68 million
Currency:
1 Guinea-Bissauan peso (PG) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Guinea-Bissauan pesos (PG) per US$1 - 11,850 (December 1993), 10,082
(1993), 6,934 (1992), 3,659 (1991), 2,185 (1990), 1,810 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Guinea-Bissau, Communications

Highways:
total:
3,218 km
paved:
bituminous 2,698 km
unpaved:
earth 520 km
Inland waterways:
scattered stretches are important to coastal commerce
Ports:
Bissau
Airports:
total:
32
usable:
16
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
poor system of radio relay, open-wire lines, and radiocommunications;
3,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 1 TV

@Guinea-Bissau, Defense Forces

Branches:
People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP; including Army, Navy, Air
Force), paramilitary force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 243,715; fit for military service 139,161
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $9.3 million, 5%-6% of GDP (1987)

@Guyana, Geography

Location:
Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between
Suriname and Venezuela
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
214,970 sq km
land area:
196,850 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Idaho
Land boundaries:
total 2,462 km, Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km, Venezuela 743 km
Coastline:
459 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 nm or the outer edge of continental margin
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
all of the area west of the Essequibo River claimed by Venezuela;
Suriname claims area between New (Upper Courantyne) and
Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy
seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)
Terrain:
mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
Natural resources:
bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
83%
other:
8%
Irrigated land:
1,300 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
water pollution from sewage and agricultural and industrial chemicals;
deforestation
natural hazards:
flash floods a constant threat during rainy seasons
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratifed - Biodiversity, Climate
Change

@Guyana, People

Population:
729,425 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.75% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
19.95 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-20.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
48.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
64.9 years
male:
61.66 years
female:
68.3 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.29 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Guyanese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Guyanese
Ethnic divisions:
East Indian 51%, black and mixed 43%, Amerindian 4%, European and
Chinese 2%
Religions:
Christian 57%, Hindu 33%, Muslim 9%, other 1%
Languages:
English, Amerindian dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1990 est.)
total population:
95%
male:
98%
female:
96%
Labor force:
268,000
by occupation:
industry and commerce 44.5%, agriculture 33.8%, services 21.7%
note:
public-sector employment amounts to 60-80% of the total labor force
(1985)

@Guyana, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Co-operative Republic of Guyana
conventional short form:
Guyana
former:
British Guiana
Digraph:
GY
Type:
republic
Capital:
Georgetown
Administrative divisions:
10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East
Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice,
Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper
Takutu-Upper Essequibo
Independence:
26 May 1966 (from UK)
National holiday:
Republic Day, 23 February (1970)
Constitution:
6 October 1980
Legal system:
based on English common law with certain admixtures of Roman-Dutch
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Executive President Cheddi JAGAN (since 5 October 1992); First Vice
President Sam HINDS (since 5 October 1992); election last held on 5
October 1992; results - Cheddi JAGAN was elected president since he
was leader of the party with the most votes in the National Assembly
elections
head of government:
Prime Minister Sam HINDS (since 5 October 1992)
cabinet:
Cabinet of Ministers; appointed by the president, responsible to the
legislature
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly:
elections last held on 5 October 1992 (next to be held in 1997);
results - PPP 53.4%, PNC 42.3%, WPA 2%, TUF 1.2%; seats - (65 total,
53 elected) PPP 36, PNC 26, WPA 2, TUF 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Judicature
Political parties and leaders:
People's Progressive Party (PPP), Cheddi JAGAN; People's National
Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond HOYTE;; People's National Congress (PNC),
Hugh Desmond HOYTE; Working People's Alliance (WPA), Eusi KWAYANA,
Rupert ROOPNARINE; Democratic Labor Movement (DLM), Paul TENNASSEE;
People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Llewellyn JOHN; National
Democratic Front (NDF), Joseph BACCHUS; The United Force (TUF),
Manzoor NADIR; United Republican Party (URP), Leslie RAMSAMMY;
National Republican Party (NRP), Robert GANGADEEN; Guyana Labor Party
(GLP), Nanda GOPAUL
Other political or pressure groups:
Trades Union Congress (TUC); Guyana Council of Indian Organizations
(GCIO); Civil Liberties Action Committee (CLAC)
note:
the latter two organizations are small and active but not well
organized
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dr. Ali Odeen ISHMAEL
chancery:
2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-6900 through 6903
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador George F. Jones
embassy:
99-100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingstown, Georgetown
mailing address:
P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown
telephone:
[592] (2) 54900 through 54909 and 57960 through 57969
FAX:
[592] (2) 58497
Flag:
green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
superimposed on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow black
border between the red and yellow, and a narrow white border between
the yellow and the green

@Guyana, Economy

Overview:
Guyana, one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere, has
pushed ahead strongly in 1991-93, at 7% average annual growth rate.
Favorable factors include recovery in the key agricultural and mining
sectors, a more favorable atmosphere for business initiative, a more
realistic exchange rate, a sharp drop in the inflation rate, and the
continued support of international organizations. Serious underlying
economic problems will continue. Electric power has been in short
supply and constitutes a major barrier to future gains in national
output. The government will have to persist in efforts to control
external debt and inflation and to extend the privatization program.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
8.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (1993
Unemployment rate:
12% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$121 million
expenditures:
$225 million, including capital expenditures of $50 million (1990
est.)
Exports:
$400 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
sugar, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses
partners:
UK 33%, US 31%, Canada 9%, France 5%, Japan 3%, (1992)
Imports:
$520 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food
partners:
US 37%, Trinidad and Tobago 13%, UK 11%, Italy 8%, Japan 5% (1992)
External debt:
$1.9 billion including arrears (1992 est)
Industrial production:
growth rate 11% (1991 est.); accounts for about 11% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
253,500 kW
production:
276 million kWh
consumption per capita:
370 kWh (1992)
Industries:
bauxite mining, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp),
textiles, gold mining
Agriculture:
most important sector, accounting for 25% of GDP and about half of
exports; sugar and rice are key crops; development potential exists
for fishing and forestry; not self-sufficient in food, especially
wheat, vegetable oils, and animal products
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $116 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $325
million; Communist countries 1970-89, $242 million
Currency:
1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1 - 130.7 (January 1994), 126.7 (1993),
125.0 (1992), 111.8 (1991), 39.533 (1990), 27.159 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Guyana, Communications

Railroads:
no public railroads; about 100 km of narrow gauge industrial railroads
to transport minerals, including bauxite
Highways:
total:
7,665 km
paved:
550 km
unpaved:
gravel 5,000 km; earth 2,115 km
Inland waterways:
6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice, Demerara, and
Essequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100
km, and 80 km, respectively
Ports:
Georgetown, New Amsterdam
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,317 GRT/2,558 DWT
Airports:
total:
53
usable:
48
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
12
Telecommunications:
fair system with radio relay network; over 27,000 telephones;
tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 3
FM, no TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Guyana, Defense Forces

Branches:
Guyana Defense Force (GDF; including the Ground Forces, Coast Guard
and Air Corps), Guyana People's Militia (GPM), Guyana National Service
(GNS)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 197,802; fit for military service 150,072
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Haiti, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the northern Caribbean Sea, about 90 km southeast of
Cuba
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
27,750 sq km
land area:
27,560 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 275 km, Dominican Republic 275 km
Coastline:
1,771 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims US-administered Navassa Island
Climate:
tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Terrain:
mostly rough and mountainous
Natural resources:
bauxite
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
13%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
45%
Irrigated land:
750 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion
natural hazards:
lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms
from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes
international agreements:
party to - Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note:
shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third
is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

@Haiti, People

Population:
6,491,450 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.63% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
39.72 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
18.78 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-4.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
108.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
45.11 years
male:
43.45 years
female:
46.85 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.94 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Haitian(s)
adjective:
Haitian
Ethnic divisions:
black 95%, mulatto and European 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 80% (of which an overwhelming majority also practice
Voodoo), Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%,
other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)
Languages:
French (official) 10%, Creole
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
53%
male:
59%
female:
47%
Labor force:
2.3 million
by occupation:
agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%
note:
shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)

@Haiti, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Haiti
conventional short form:
Haiti
local long form:
Republique d'Haiti
local short form:
Haiti
Digraph:
HA
Type:
republic
Capital:
Port-au-Prince
Administrative divisions:
9 departments, (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite,
Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
Independence:
1 January 1804 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
Constitution:
constitution approved March 1987, suspended June 1988, most articles
reinstated March 1989; October 1991, government claims to be observing
the Constitution
Legal system:
based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE (since 7 February 1991), ousted in a
coup in September 1991, but still recognized by international
community as Chief of State; election last held 16 December 1990 (next
to be held by December 1995); results - Rev. Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE
67.5%, Marc BAZIN 14.2%, Louis DEJOIE 4.9%
head of government:
acting Prime Minister Robert MALVAL (since August 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet; chosen by prime minister in consultation with the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Senate:
elections last held 18 January 1993, widely condemned as illegitimate
(next to be held December 1994); results - percent of vote NA; seats -
(27 total) FNCD 12, ANDP 8, PAIN 2, MRN 1, RDNP 1, PNT 1, independent
2
Chamber of Deputies:
elections last held 16 December 1990, with runoff held 20 January 1991
(next to be held by December 1994); results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (83 total) FNCD 27, ANDP 17, PDCH 7, PAIN 6, RDNP 6, MDN 5,
PNT 3, MKN 2, MODELH 2, MRN 1, independents 5, other 2
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)
Political parties and leaders:
National Front for Change and Democracy (FNCD), including National
Congress of Democratic Movements (CONACOM), Victor BENOIT, and
National Cooperative Action Movement (MKN), Volvick Remy JOSEPH;
Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti (MIDH), Marc
BAZIN; National Progressive Revolutionary Party (PANPRA), Serge
GILLES; National Patriotic Movement of November 28 (MNP-28), Dejean
BELIZAIRE; National Agricultural and Industrial Party (PAIN), Louis
DEJOIE; Movement for National Reconstruction (MRN), Rene THEODORE;
Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Joseph DOUZE; Assembly of
Progressive National Democrats (RDNP), Leslie MANIGAT; National Party
of Labor (PNT), Thomas DESULME; Mobilization for National Development
(MDN), Hubert DE RONCERAY; Democratic Movement for the Liberation of
Haiti (MODELH), Francois LATORTUE; Haitian Social Christian Party
(PSCH), Gregoire EUGENE; Movement for the Organization of the Country
(MOP), Gesner COMEAU and Jean MOLIERE
Other political or pressure groups:
Democratic Unity Confederation (KID); Roman Catholic Church;
Confederation of Haitian Workers (CTH); Federation of Workers Trade
Unions (FOS); Autonomous Haitian Workers (CATH); National Popular
Assembly (APN); Revolutionary Front for Haitian Advancement and
Progress (FRAPH)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, CARICOM (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jean CASIMIR
chancery:
2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-4090 through 4092
FAX:
(202) 745-7215
consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William Lacy SWING
embassy:
Harry Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince
telephone:
[509] 22-0354, 22-0368, 22-0200, or 22-0612
FAX:
[509] 23-1641
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white
rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked
by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT
LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)

@Haiti, Economy

Overview:
About 75% of the population live in abject poverty. Agriculture is
mainly small-scale subsistence farming and employs nearly
three-fourths of the work force. The majority of the population does
not have ready access to safe drinking water, adequate medical care,
or sufficient food. Few social assistance programs exist, and the lack
of employment opportunities remains one of the most critical problems
facing the economy, along with soil erosion and political instability.
Trade sanctions applied by the Organization of American States in
response to the September 1991 coup against President ARISTIDE have
further damaged the economy. Output continued to drop in 1993 although
not as sharply as in 1992.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $5.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-13% (FY92 est.)
National product per capita:
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20% (FY92 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25%-50% (1991)
Budget:
revenues:
$300 million
expenditures:
$416 million, including capital expenditures of $145 million (1990
est.)
Exports:
$135 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
light manufactures 65%, coffee 19%, other agriculture 8%, other 8%
partners:
US 84%, Italy 4%, France 3%, other industrial countries 6%, less
developed countries 3% (1987)
Imports:
$423 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%, petroleum
products 14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%
partners:
US 64%, Netherlands Antilles 5%, Japan 5%, France 4%, Canada 3%,
Germany 3% (1987)
External debt:
$838 million (December 1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate -2% (1991 est.); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
217,000 kW
production:
480 million kWh
consumption per capita:
75 kWh (1992)
Industries:
sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement manufacturing,
tourism, light assembly industries based on imported parts
Agriculture:
accounts for 28% of GDP and employs around 70% of work force; mostly
small-scale subsistence farms; commercial crops - coffee, mangoes,
sugarcane, wood; staple crops - rice, corn, sorghum; shortage of wheat
flour
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana en route to the US and
Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $700 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $770
million
Currency:
1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
gourdes (G) per US$1 - 12.00 (1 July 1993), 8.4 (December 1991), fixed
rate of 5.000 through second quarter of 1991
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

@Haiti, Communications

Railroads:
40 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge, single-track, privately owned
industrial line
Highways:
total:
4,000 km
paved:
950 km
unpaved:
otherwise improved 900 km; unimproved earth 2,150 km
Inland waterways:
negligible; less than 100 km navigable
Ports:
Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitien; six minor ports
Airports:
total:
14
usable:
11
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
domestic facilities barely adequate, international facilities slightly
better; 36,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 33 AM, no FM, 4 TV, 2
shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Haiti, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Police), Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,313,265; fit for military service 709,712; reach
military age (18) annually 62,488 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 1.5% of GDP (1988 est.)

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of Australia)

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the Indian Ocean, 4,100 km southwest of Australia
Map references:
Antarctic Region
Area:
total area:
412 sq km
land area:
412 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
101.9 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
antarctic
Terrain:
Heard Island - bleak and mountainous, with an quiescent volcano;
McDonald Islands - small and rocky
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
primarily used for research stations

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands, People

Population:
uninhabited

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands
conventional short form:
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Digraph:
HM
Type:
territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for Environment,
Sport, and Territories
Capital:
none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Holy See (Vatican City), Geography

Location:
Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome - central Italy
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total area:
0.44 sq km
land area:
0.44 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 3.2 km, Italy 3.2 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry
summers (May to September)
Terrain:
low hill
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution, Environmental Modification
Note:
urban; landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state;
outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo
(the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

@Holy See (Vatican City), People

Population:
821 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.15% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
NA
Death rate:
NA
Net migration rate:
NA
Infant mortality rate:
NA
Life expectancy at birth:
NA
Total fertility rate:
NA
Nationality:
noun:
none
adjective:
none
Ethnic divisions:
Italians, Swiss
Religions:
Roman Catholic
Languages:
Italian, Latin, various other languages
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay workers who live
outside the Vatican

@Holy See (Vatican City), Government

Names:
conventional long form:
The Holy See (State of the Vatican City)
conventional short form:
Holy See (Vatican City)
local long form:
Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano)
local short form:
Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano)
Digraph:
VT
Type:
monarchical-sacerdotal state
Capital:
Vatican City
Independence:
11 February 1929 (from Italy)
National holiday:
Installation Day of the Pope, 22 October (1978) (John Paul II)
note:
Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978
Constitution:
Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)
Legal system:
NA
Suffrage:
limited to cardinals less than 80 years old
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYLA; since 16 October 1978); election
last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the
current pope); results - Karol WOJTYLA was elected for life by the
College of Cardinals
head of government:
Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo Cardinal SODANO (since NA 1991)
cabinet:
Pontifical Commission; appointed by Pope
Legislative branch:
unicameral Pontifical Commission
Judicial branch:
none; normally handled by Italy
Political parties and leaders:
none
Other political or pressure groups:
none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Member of:
CSCE, IAEA, ICFTU, IMF (observer), INTELSAT, IOM (observer), ITU, OAS
(observer), UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WIPO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Agostino CACCIAVILLAN
chancery:
3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 333-7121
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Raymond L. FLYNN
embassy:
Villino Pacelli, Via Aurelia 294, 00165 Rome
mailing address:
PSC 59, APO AE 09624
telephone:
[396] 46741
FAX:
[396] 638-0159
Flag:
two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed
keys of Saint Peter and the papal miter centered in the white band

@Holy See (Vatican City), Economy

Overview:
This unique, noncommercial economy is supported financially by
contributions (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman Catholics throughout
the world, the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for
admission to museums, and the sale of publications. The incomes and
living standards of lay workers are comparable to, or somewhat better
than, those of counterparts who work in the city of Rome.
Budget:
revenues:
$86 million
expenditures:
$178 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
5,000 kW standby
production:
power supplied by Italy
consumption per capita:
NA (1992)
Industries:
printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff
uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities
Currency:
1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi
Exchange rates:
Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1 - 1,700.2 (January 1994), 1,573.7 (1993),
1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989); note -
the Vatican lira is at par with the Italian lira which circulates
freely
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Holy See (Vatican City), Communications

Railroads:
850 m, 750-mm gauge (links with Italian network near the Rome station
of Saint Peter's)
Highways:
none; all city streets
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, no TV; 2,000-line automatic telephone
exchange; no communications satellite systems

@Holy See (Vatican City), Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are posted
at entrances to the Vatican City

@Honduras, Geography

Location:
Middle America, between Guatemala and Nicaragua
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
112,090 sq km
land area:
111,890 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
total 1,520 km, Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km
Coastline:
820 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
land boundary dispute with El Salvador mostly resolved by 11 September
1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision; ICJ referred the
maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca to an earlier agreement in
this century and advised that some tripartite resolution among El
Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be required
Climate:
subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Terrain:
mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Natural resources:
timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal,
fish
Land use:
arable land:
14%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
30%
forest and woodland:
34%
other:
20%
Irrigated land:
900 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the
clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation
and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper
land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining
activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of
freshwater) with heavy metals as well as several rivers and streams
natural hazards:
subject to frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; damaging
hurricanes and floods along Caribbean coast
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Tropical Timber

@Honduras, People

Population:
5,314,794 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.73% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
34.97 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.22 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
45.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.6 years
male:
65.23 years
female:
70.08 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.71 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Honduran(s)
adjective:
Honduran
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (mixed Indian and European) 90%, Indian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant minority
Languages:
Spanish, Indian dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
73%
male:
76%
female:
71%
Labor force:
1.3 million
by occupation:
agriculture 62%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%, construction 3%,
other 6% (1985)

@Honduras, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Honduras
conventional short form:
Honduras
local long form:
Republica de Honduras
local short form:
Honduras
Digraph:
HO
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tegucigalpa
Administrative divisions:
18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida,
Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco
Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira,
Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution:
11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982
Legal system:
rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of English
common law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Carlos Roberto REINA Idiaquez (since 27 January 1994);
election last held on 28 November 1993 (next to be held November
1997); results - Carlos Roberto REINA Idiaquez (PLH) 53%, Oswaldo
RAMOS Soto (PNH) 41%, other 6%
cabinet:
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Congress (Congreso Nacional):
elections last held on 27 November 1993 (next to be held November
1997); results - PNH 53%, PLH 41%, PDCH 1.0%, PINU-SD 2.5%, other
2.5%; seats - (134 total) PNH 55, PLH 77, PINU-SD 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)
Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Party (PLH), Rafael PINEDA Ponce, president; National Party
(PN) has two factions: Movimiento Nacional de Reivindication
Callejista (Monarca), Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS, and Oswaldista,
Oswaldo RAMOS Soto, presidential candidate; National Innovation and
Unity Party (PINU), Olban VALLADARES, president; Christian Democratic
Party (PDCH), Efrain DIAZ Arrivillaga, president
Other political or pressure groups:
National Association of Honduran Campesinos (ANACH); Honduran Council
of Private Enterprise (COHEP); Confederation of Honduran Workers
(CTH); National Union of Campesinos (UNC); General Workers
Confederation (CGT); United Federation of Honduran Workers (FUTH);
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH);
Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations (CCOP)
Member of:
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LAIA (observer), LORCS, MINURSO, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Rene Arturo BENDANA
chancery:
3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 966-7702, 2604, 5008, 4596
FAX:
(202) 966-9751
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San
Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s):
Boston, Detroit, and Jacksonville
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William PRYCE
embassy:
Avenida La Paz, Tegucigalpa
mailing address:
American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
telephone:
[504] 32-3120
FAX:
[504] 32-0027
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five
blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white
band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic
of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and
Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round
emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA
CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of
Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the word REPUBLICA
DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the
white band

@Honduras, Economy

Overview:
Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Agriculture, the most important sector of the economy, accounts for
more than 25% of GDP, employs 62% of the labor force, and produces
two-thirds of exports. Productivity remains low. Industry, still in
its early stages, employs nearly 9% of the labor force, accounts for
15% of GDP, and generates 20% of exports. The service sectors,
including public administration, account for 50% of GDP and employ 20%
of the labor force. Basic problems facing the economy include rapid
population growth, high unemployment, a lack of basic services, a
large and inefficient public sector, and the dependence of the export
sector mostly on coffee and bananas, which are subject to sharp price
fluctuations. A far-reaching reform program initiated by former
President CALLEJAS in 1990 is beginning to take hold. In 1993 the
large fiscal deficit emerged as a key economic problem, the result of
improvident state spending.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $10 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.7% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,950 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
13% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10%; underemployed 30%-40% (1992)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.4 billion
expenditures:
$1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $511 million (1990
est.)
Exports:
$850 million (f.o.b., 1993 est)
commodities:
bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, meat, lumber
partners:
US 53%, Germany 11%, Belgium 8%, UK 5%
Imports:
$1.1 billion (c.i.f. 1993 est)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, chemical products, manufactured
goods, fuel and oil, foodstuffs
partners:
US 50%, Mexico 8%, Guatemala 6%
External debt:
$2.8 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.8% (1990 est.); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
575,000 kW
production:
2 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
390 kWh (1992)
Industries:
agricultural processing (sugar and coffee), textiles, clothing, wood
products
Agriculture:
most important sector, accounting for more than 25% of GDP, more than
60% of the labor force, and two-thirds of exports; principal products
include bananas, coffee, timber, beef, citrus fruit, shrimp; importer
of wheat
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine; illicit producer of cannabis,
cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1
billion
Currency:
1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
lempiras (L) per US$1 - 7.2600 (December 1993), 7.2600 (1993), 5.8300
(1992), 5.4000 (1991); 2.0000 (fixed rate until 1991) 5.70 parallel
black-market rate (November 1990); the lempira was allowed to float in
1992
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Honduras, Communications

Railroads:
785 km total; 508 km 1.067-meter gauge, 277 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
total:
8,950 km
paved:
1,700 km
unpaved:
otherwise improved 5,000 km; unimproved earth 2,250 km
Inland waterways:
465 km navigable by small craft
Ports:
Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo
Merchant marine:
270 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 831,856 GRT/1,248,186 DWT, bulk
25, cargo 177, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 1, container 7,
liquified gas 1, oil tanker 22, passenger 2, passenger-cargo 2,
refrigerated cargo 20, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger
2, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 1
note:
a flag of convenience registry; Russia owns 14 ships under the
Honduran flag
Airports:
total:
160
usable:
133
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
14
Telecommunications:
inadequate system with only 7 telephones per 1,000 persons;
international services provided by 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations and the Central American microwave radio relay system;
broadcast stations - 176 AM, no FM, 7 SW, 28 TV

@Honduras, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Public Security Forces
(FUSEP)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,229,777; fit for military service 732,866; reach
military age (18) annually 60,445 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $42.8 million, about 1.3% of GDP (1993
est.)

@Hong Kong

Header
Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

@Hong Kong, Geography

Location:
Eastern Asia, on the southeast coast of China bordering the South
China Sea
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,040 sq km
land area:
990 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than six times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 30 km, China 30 km
Coastline:
733 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
3 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring
through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Terrain:
hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Natural resources:
outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
12%
other:
79%
Irrigated land:
20 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
air and water pollution from rapid urbanization
natural hazards:
occasional typhoons
international agreements:
NA
Note:
more than 200 islands

@Hong Kong, People

Population:
5,548,754 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.09% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
12.16 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.85 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
80.09 years
male:
76.67 years
female:
83.71 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.37 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Chinese
adjective:
Chinese
Ethnic divisions:
Chinese 95%, other 5%
Religions:
eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%
Languages:
Chinese (Cantonese), English
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1971)
total population:
77%
male:
90%
female:
64%
Labor force:
2.8 million (1990)
by occupation:
manufacturing 28.5%, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and
hotels 27.9%, services 17.7%, financing, insurance, and real estate
9.2%, transport and communications 4.5%, construction 2.5%, other 9.7%
(1989)

@Hong Kong, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Hong Kong
Abbreviation:
HK
Digraph:
HK
Type:
dependent territory of the UK scheduled to revert to China in 1997
Capital:
Victoria
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK; the UK signed an agreement with
China on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China on 1 July 1997;
in the joint declaration, China promises to respect Hong Kong's
existing social and economic systems and lifestyle)
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)
Constitution:
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice; new Basic
Law approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997
Legal system:
based on English common law
Suffrage:
direct election 21 years of age; universal for permanent residents
living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years;
indirect election limited to about 100,000 professionals of electoral
college and functional constituencies
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government:
Governor Chris PATTEN (since 9 July 1992); Chief Secretary Anson CHAN
Fang On-Sang (since 29 November 1993)
cabinet:
Executive Council; appointed by the governor
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Council:
indirect elections last held 12 September 1991 and direct elections
were held for the first time 15 September 1991 (next to be held in
September 1995 when the number of directly-elected seats increases to
20); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total; 21
indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 18 directly elected,
18 appointed by governor, 3 ex officio members); indirect elections -
number of seats by functional constituency NA; direct elections - UDHK
12, Meeting Point 3, ADPL 1, other 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
United Democrats of Hong Kong, Martin LEE, chairman; Democratic
Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong, TSANG Yuk-shing, chairman;
Hong Kong Democratic Foundation, Dr. Patrick SHIU Kin-ying, chairman
note:
in April 1994, the United Democrats of Hong Kong and Meeting Point
merged to form the "Democratic Party;" the merger becomes effective in
October 1994
Other political or pressure groups:
Liberal Party, Allen LEE, chairman; Meeting Point, Anthony CHEUNG
Bing-leung, chairman; Association for Democracy and People's
Livelihood, Frederick FUNG Kin Kee, chairman; Liberal Democratic
Federation, HU Fa-kuang, chairman; Federation of Trade Unions
(pro-China), LEE Chark-tim, president; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade
Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Confederation of Trade Unions
(pro-democracy), LAU Chin-shek, chairman; Hong Kong General Chamber of
Commerce; Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Federation
of Hong Kong Industries; Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong
Kong; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union, CHEUNG Man-kwong,
president; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic
Movement in China, Szeto WAH, chairman
note:
in April 1994, the United Democrats of Hong Kong and Meeting Point
merged to form the "Democratic Party;" the merger becomes effective in
October 1994
Member of:
COCOM (cooperating), APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP (associate), GATT, ICFTU,
IMO (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL,
WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Consul General Richard MUELLER
consulate general:
26 Garden Road, Hong Kong
mailing address:
PSC 464, Box 30, Hong Kong, or FPO AP 96522-0002
telephone:
[852] 523-9011
FAX:
[852] 845-1598
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with the
Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of
the flag; the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below
a crown) held by a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon
(representing China) with another lion above the shield and a banner
bearing the words HONG KONG below the shield

@Hong Kong, Economy

Overview:
Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy with few tariffs or
nontariff barriers. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw
materials must be imported. Manufacturing accounts for about 17% of
GDP. Goods and services exports account for about 50% of GDP. Real GDP
growth averaged a remarkable 8% in 1987-88, slowed to 3.0% in 1989-90,
and picked up to 4.2% in 1991, 5.0% in 1992, and 5.2% in 1993.
Unemployment, which has been declining since the mid-1980s, is now
about 2%. A shortage of labor continues to put upward pressure on
prices and the cost of living. Short-term prospects remain bright so
long as major trading partners continue to be reasonably prosperous.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $119 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5.2% (1993)
National product per capita:
$21,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.5% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
2.3% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$19.2 billion
expenditures:
$19.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94)
Exports:
$145.1 billion (including re-exports of $104.2 billion )(f.o.b., 1993
est.)
commodities:
clothing, textiles, yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical appliances,
watches and clocks, toys
partners:
China 32%, US 23%, Germany 5%, Japan 5%, UK 3% (1993 est.)
Imports:
$149.6 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures,
petroleum
partners:
China 36%, Japan 19%, Taiwan 9%, US 7% (1993 est.)
External debt:
none (1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
9,566,000 kW
production:
29.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
4,980 kWh (1992)
Industries:
textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches,
clocks
Agriculture:
minor role in the economy; local farmers produce 26% fresh vegetables,
27% live poultry; 8% of land area suitable for farming
Illicit drugs:
a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade; transshipment and major
financial and money-laundering center
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $152 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $923
million
Currency:
1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$ - 7.800 (1993), 7.741 (1992), 7.771
(1991), 7.790 (1990), 7.800 (1989); note - linked to the US dollar at
the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Hong Kong, Communications

Railroads:
35 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned
Highways:
total:
1,100 km
paved:
794 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, earth 306 km
Ports:
Hong Kong
Merchant marine:
201 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 6,972,233 GRT/11,965,809 DWT,
bulk 105, cargo 23, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 2, combination
ore/oil 6, container 29, liquefied gas 7, oil tanker 16, refrigerated
cargo 7, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 2
note:
a flag of convenience registry; ships registered in Hong Kong fly the
UK flag, and an estimated 500 Hong Kong-owned ships are registered
elsewhere
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international
services; 3,000,000 telephones; microwave transmission links and
extensive optical fiber transmission network; broadcast stations - 6
AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) repeater
station and 1 British Forces Broadcasting Service repeater station;
2,500,000 radio receivers; 1,312,000 TV sets (1,224,000 color TV
sets); satellite earth stations - 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 2
Indian Ocean INTELSAT; coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; links to 5
international submarine cables providing access to ASEAN member
nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

@Hong Kong, Defense Forces

Branches:
Headquarters of British Forces, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Royal
Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,636,397; fit for military service 1,251,901; reach
military age (18) annually 42,044 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989 est.); this
represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending itself, the
remainder being paid by the UK
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Howland Island

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

@Howland Island, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 2,575 km southwest of
Honolulu, just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and
Australia
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
1.6 sq km
land area:
1.6 sq km
comparative area:
about 2.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
6.4 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain:
low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow
fringing reef; depressed central area
Natural resources:
guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
5%
other:
95%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
lacks freshwater
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; small area of trees in the center; primarily a nesting,
roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
wildlife; feral cats

@Howland Island, People

Population:
uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942 after
Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US
military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public
entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to
scientists and educators

@Howland Island, Government

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