Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 15 out of 46

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.1 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7.8 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Georgian statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-35% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,390 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
40.5% per month (2nd half 1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
officially less than 5% but real unemployment may be up near 20%, with
even larger numbers of underemployed workers; real unemployment may be
up near 20% with even larger numbers of underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products; diverse types
of machinery; ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles; chemicals; fuel
re-exports
partners:
Russia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan (1992)
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
fuel, grain and other foods, machinery and parts, transport equipment
partners:
Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey (1993)
External debt:
$100 million to $200 million (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -27% (1993); accounts for 36% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
4,875,000 kW
production:
15.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,835 kWh (1992)
Industries:
heavy industrial products include raw steel, rolled steel, airplanes;
machine tools, foundry equipment, electric locomotives, tower cranes,
electric welding equipment, machinery for food preparation and meat
packing, electric motors, process control equipment, instruments;
trucks, tractors, and other farm machinery; light industrial products,
including cloth, hosiery, and shoes; chemicals; wood-working
industries; the most important food industry is wine
Agriculture:
accounts for 41% of GDP; accounted for 97% of former USSR citrus
fruits and 93% of former USSR tea; important producer of grapes; also
cultivates vegetables and potatoes; dependent on imports for grain,
dairy products, sugar; small livestock sector
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for domestic
consumption; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western
Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
heavily dependent on US for humanitarian grain shipments; EC granted
around $70 million in trade credits in 1992 and another $40 million in
1993; Turkey granted $50 million in 1993; smaller scale credits
granted by Russia and China
Currency:
coupons introduced in April 1993 to be followed by introduction of the
lari at undetermined future date; in July 1993 use of the Russian
ruble was banned
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Georgia, Communications

Railroads:
1,570 km, does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
total:
33,900 km
paved and gravelled:
29,500 km
unpaved:
earth 4,400 km (1990)
Pipelines:
crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440 km (1992)
Ports:
coastal - Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi
Merchant marine:
41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 575,823 GRT/882,110 DWT, bulk
cargo 14, oil tanker 27
Airports:
total:
37
usable:
27
with permanent-surface runways:
14
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
4
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
poor telephone service; as of mid-1993, 672,000 telephone lines
providing 14 lines per 100 persons; 339,000 unsatisfied applications
for telephones (31 December 1990); international links via landline to
CIS members and Turkey; low capacity satellite earth station and
leased international connections via the Moscow international gateway
switch with other countries; international electronic mail and telex
service available
Note:
transportation network is disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal
activities, and fuel shortages

@Georgia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Navy, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,362,818; fit for military service 1,081,624; reach
military age (18) annually 42,881 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GNP
Note:
Georgian forces are poorly organized and not fully under the
government's control

@Germany, Geography

Location:
Central Europe, bordering the North Sea between France and Poland
Map references:
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
356,910 sq km
land area:
349,520 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Montana
note:
includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the German
Democratic Republic, and Berlin following formal unification on 3
October 1990
Land boundaries:
total 3,621 km, Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km,
Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km,
Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km
Coastline:
2,389 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm in North Sea and Schleswig-Holstein coast of Baltic Sea (extends,
at one point, to 16 nm in the Helgolander Bucht); 12 nm in remainder
of Baltic Sea
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers;
occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity
Terrain:
lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Natural resources:
iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas,
salt, nickel
Land use:
arable land:
34%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
16%
forest and woodland:
30%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
4,800 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries in the southeast
and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts (the result of continued use
of leaded fuels) contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting
from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; heavy pollution in
the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in
eastern Germany
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
Note:
strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to
the Baltic Sea

@Germany, People

Population:
81,087,506 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.36% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
11.04 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.89 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.34 years
male:
73.22 years
female:
79.64 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.47 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
German(s)
adjective:
German
Ethnic divisions:
German 95.1%, Turkish 2.3%, Italians 0.7%, Greeks 0.4%, Poles 0.4%,
other 1.1% (made up largely of people fleeing the war in the former
Yugoslavia)
Religions:
Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or other 18%
Languages:
German
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1977 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
36.75 million
by occupation:
industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53% (1987)

@Germany, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form:
Germany
local long form:
Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form:
Deutschland
Digraph:
GM
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
Berlin
note:
the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of years
with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several
ministries
Administrative divisions:
16 states (laender, singular - land); Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern,
Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern,
Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland,
Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringen
Independence:
18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones
of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following
World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany)
proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French
zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7
October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West
Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four power
rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991
National holiday:
German Unity Day (Day of Unity), 3 October (1990)
Constitution:
23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united
German people 3 October 1990
Legal system:
civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER (since 1 July 1984); note -
presidential elections were held on 23 May 1994; Roman HERZOG was the
winner and will be inaugurated 1 July 1994
head of government:
Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president upon the proposal of the
chancellor
Legislative branch:
bicameral chamber (no official name for the two chambers as a whole)
Federal Assembly (Bundestag):
last held 2 December 1990 (next to be held by 16 October 1994);
results - CDU 36.7%, SPD 33.5%, FDP 11.0%, CSU 7.1%, Green Party (West
Germany) 3.9%, PDS 2.4%, Republikaner 2.1%, Alliance 90/Green Party
(East Germany) 1.2%, other 2.1%; seats - (662 total) CDU 268, CSU 51,
SPD 239, FDP 79, PDS 17, Greens/Alliance '90 8; elected by direct
popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional
representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or 3 direct
mandates to gain representation
Federal Council (Bundesrat):
State governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6
votes depending on size and are required to vote as a block; current
composition: votes - (68 total) SPD-led states 37, CDU-led states 31
Judicial branch:
Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut KOHL, chairman; Christian
Social Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL, chairman; Free Democratic Party
(FDP), Klaus KINKEL, chairman; Social Democratic Party (SPD), Rudolf
SCHARPING, chairman; Alliance '90/Greens, Ludger VOLMER, Marianne
BIRTHLER, co-chairmen; Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS), Lothar
BISKY, chairman; Republikaner, Franz SCHOENHUBER; National Democratic
Party (NPD), Guenter DECKERT; Communist Party (DKP), Rolf PRIEMER
Other political or pressure groups:
expellee, refugee, and veterans groups
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC,
CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA,
FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNHCR, UNOMIG,
UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Immo STABREIT
chancery:
4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 298-4000
FAX:
(202) 298-4249
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
York, San Francisco, Seattle
consulate(s):
Manila (Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands) and Wellington
(America Samoa)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard C. HOLBROOKE
embassy:
Deichmanns Avenue 29, 53170 Bonn
mailing address:
Unit 21701, Bonn; APO AE 09080
telephone:
[49] (228) 3391
FAX:
[49] (228) 339-2663
branch office:
Berlin
consulate(s) general:
Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow

@Germany, Economy

Overview:
With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, prospects
seemed bright for a fairly rapid incorporation of East Germany into
the highly successful West German economy. The Federal Republic,
however, continues to experience difficulties in integrating and
modernizing eastern Germany, and the tremendous costs of unification
pushed western Germany into its deepest recession since World War II.
The western German economy shrank by 1.9% in 1993 as the Bundesbank
maintained high interest rates to offset the inflationary effects of
large government deficits and high wage settlements. Eastern Germany
grew by 7.1% in 1993 but this was from a shrunken base. Despite
government transfers to the east amounting to nearly $110 billion
annually, a self-sustaining economy in the region is still some years
away. The bright spots are eastern Germany's construction,
transportation, telecommunications, and service sectors, which have
experienced strong growth. Western Germany has an advanced market
economy and is a world leader in exports. It has a highly urbanized
and skilled population that enjoys excellent living standards,
abundant leisure time, and comprehensive social welfare benefits.
Western Germany is relatively poor in natural resources, coal being
the most important mineral. Western Germany's world-class companies
manufacture technologically advanced goods. The region's economy is
mature: services and manufacturing account for the dominant share of
economic activity, and raw materials and semimanufactured goods
constitute a large portion of imports. In recent years, manufacturing
has accounted for about 31% of GDP, with other sectors contributing
lesser amounts. Gross fixed investment in 1993 accounted for about
20.5% of GDP. GDP in the western region is now $19,400 per capita, or
78% of US per capita GDP. Eastern Germany's economy appears to be
changing from one anchored on manufacturing into a more
service-oriented economy. The German government, however, is intent on
maintaining a manufacturing base in the east and is considering a
policy for subsidizing industrial cores in the region. Eastern
Germany's share of all-German GDP is only 8% and eastern productivity
is just 30% that of the west even though eastern wages are at roughly
70% of western levels. The privatization agency for eastern Germany,
Treuhand, has privatized more than 90% of the 13,000 firms under its
control and will likely wind down operations in 1994. Private
investment in the region continues to be lackluster, resulting
primarily from the deepening recession in western Germany and
excessively high eastern wages. Eastern Germany has one of the world's
largest reserves of low-grade lignite coal but little else in the way
of mineral resources. The quality of statistics from eastern Germany
is improving, yet many gaps remain; the federal government began
producing all-German data for select economic statistics at the start
of 1992. The most challenging economic problem is promoting eastern
Germany's economic reconstruction - specifically, finding the right
mix of fiscal, monetary, regulatory, and tax policies that will spur
investment in eastern Germany - without destabilizing western
Germany's economy or damaging relations with West European partners.
The government hopes a "solidarity pact" among labor unions, business,
state governments, and the SPD opposition will provide the right mix
of wage restraints, investment incentives, and spending cuts to
stimulate eastern recovery. Finally, the homogeneity of the German
economic culture has been changed by the admission of large numbers of
immigrants.
National product:
Germany:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.331 trillion (1993)
western:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.218 trillion (1993)
eastern:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $112.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
Germany:
-1.2% (1993)
western:
-1.9% (1993)
eastern:
7.1% (1993)
National product per capita:
Germany:
$16,500 (1993)
western:
$19,400 (1993)
eastern:
$6,300 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
western:
4.2% (1993)
eastern:
8.9% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
western:
8.1% (December 1993)
eastern:
15.4% (December 1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$918 billion
expenditures:
$972 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$392 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
manufactures 89.0% (including machines and machine tools, chemicals,
motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 5.4%,
raw materials 2.2%, fuels 1.3% (1922)
partners:
EC 51.3% (France 11.1%, Netherlands 8.3%, Italy 8.2%, UK 7.9%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7.5%), EFTA 13.3%, US 6.8%, Eastern Europe 5.0%,
OPEC 3.3% (1993)
Imports:
$374.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
manufactures 74.9%, agricultural products 10.3%, fuels 7.4%, raw
materials 5.5% (1992)
partners:
EC 49.7 (France 11.0%, Netherlands 9.2%, Italy 8.8%, UK 6.6%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 6.7%), EFTA 12.7%, US 5.9%, Japan 5.2%, Eastern
Europe 4.8%, OPEC 2.6% (1993)
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
western:
growth rate -7% (1993)
eastern:
growth rate $NA
Electricity:
capacity:
134,000,000 kW
production:
580 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
7,160 kWh (1992)
Industries:
western:
among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement,
chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics; food and
beverages
eastern:
metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine
building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining
Agriculture:
western:
accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock
include potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle,
pigs, poultry; net importer of food
eastern:
accounts for about 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
principal crops - wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit;
livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins;
net importer of food
Illicit drugs:
source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors;
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American
cocaine for West European markets
Economic aid:
western-donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.5 billion
eastern-donor:
bilateral to non-Communist less developed countries (1956-89) $4
billion
Currency:
1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige
Exchange rates:
deutsche marks (DM) per US$1 - 1.7431 (January 1994), 1.6533 (1993),
1.5617 (1992), 1.6595 (1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Germany, Communications

Railroads:
western:
31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter standard
gauge (12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified); 4,022 km
nongovernment owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
(214 km electrified) and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km electrified)
eastern:
14,025 km total; 13,750 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 275 km
1.000-meter or other narrow gauge; 3,830 (est.) km 1.435-meter
standard gauge double-track; 3,475 km overhead electrified (1988)
Highways:
total:
625,600 km (1991 est.); western - 501,000 km (1990 est.); eastern -
124,600 km (1988 est.)
paved:
543,200 km, including 10,814 km of expressways; western - 495,900 km,
including 8,959 km of expressways; eastern - 47,300 km, including
1,855 km of expressways
unpaved:
82,400 km; western - 5,000 km earth; eastern - 77,400 km gravel and
earth
Inland waterways:
western:
5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric-ton
capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel
Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea
eastern:
2,319 km (1988)
Pipelines:
crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km; natural gas 97,564 km
(1988)
Ports:
coastal - Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden, Bremen, Hamburg,
Kiel, Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven, Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Sassnitz;
inland - 31 major on Rhine and Elbe rivers
Merchant marine:
485 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,541,441 GRT/5,835,511 DWT,
barge carrier 7, bulk 11, cargo 241, chemical tanker 20, combination
bulk 6, combination ore/oil 5, container 132, liquefied gas tanker 16,
oil tanker 7, passenger 3, railcar carrier 5, refrigerated cargo 7,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 20, short-sea passenger 5
note:
the German register includes ships of the former East and West Germany
Airports:
total:
590
usable:
583
with permanent-surface runways:
308
with runways over 3,659 m:
5
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
85
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
97
Telecommunications:
western:
highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of the
country; fully adequate in all respects; 40,300,000 telephones;
intensively developed, highly redundant cable and microwave radio
relay networks, all completely automatic; broadcast stations - 80 AM,
470 FM, 225 (6,000 repeaters) TV; 6 submarine coaxial cables;
satellite earth stations - 12 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT antennas, 2
Indian Ocean INTELSAT antennas, EUTELSAT, and domestic systems; 2 HF
radiocommunication centers; tropospheric links
eastern:
badly needs modernization; 3,970,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
23 AM, 17 FM, 21 TV (15 Soviet TV repeaters); 6,181,860 TVs; 6,700,000
radios; 1 satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT and
Intersputnik systems

@Germany, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 20,253,482; fit for military service 17,506,468; reach
military age (18) annually 418,124 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $37.3 billion, 2% of GDP (1993)

@Ghana, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Cote
d'Ivoire and Togo
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
238,540 sq km
land area:
230,020 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total 2,093 km, Burkina 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
Coastline:
539 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and
humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain:
mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Natural resources:
gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber
Land use:
arable land:
5%
permanent crops:
7%
meadows and pastures:
15%
forest and woodland:
37%
other:
36%
Irrigated land:
80 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
recent drought in north severely affecting agricultural activities;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat
destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; limited
supply of safe drinking water
natural hazards:
dry, dusty, harmattan winds occur from January to March
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the
Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Marine Life Conservation
Note:
Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake; northeasterly
harmattan wind (January to March)

@Ghana, People

Population:
17,225,185 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.09% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
44.13 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.27 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
83.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
55.52 years
male:
53.58 years
female:
57.52 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.15 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ghanaian(s)
adjective:
Ghanaian
Ethnic divisions:
black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe
13%, Ga 8%), European and other 0.2%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8%
Languages:
English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba,
Ewe, and Ga)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
60%
male:
70%
female:
51%
Labor force:
3.7 million
by occupation:
agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry 18.7%, sales and clerical
15.2%, services, transportation, and communications 7.7%, professional
3.7%
note:
48% of population of working age (1983)

@Ghana, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Ghana
conventional short form:
Ghana
former:
Gold Coast
Digraph:
GH
Type:
constitutional democracy
Capital:
Accra
Administrative divisions:
10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra,
Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Independence:
6 March 1957 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Constitution:
new constitution approved 28 April 1992
Legal system:
based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
universal at 18
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 3 November 1992) election last
held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA)
cabinet:
Cabinet; president nominates members subject to approval by the
Parliament
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly:
elections last held 29 December 1992 (next to be held NA)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Congress, Jerry John Rawlings; New Patriotic
Party, Albert Adu BOAHEN; People's Heritage Party, Alex Erskine;
various other smaller parties
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ekwow SPIO-GARBRAH
chancery:
3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 686-4520
FAX:
(202) 686-4527
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kenneth L. BROWN
embassy:
Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra
mailing address:
P. O. Box 194, Accra
telephone:
[233] (21) 775348, 775349, 775297 or 775298
FAX:
[233] (21) 776008
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a
large black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of
Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

@Ghana, Economy

Overview:
Supported by substantial international assistance, Ghana has been
implementing a steady economic rebuilding program since 1983,
including moves toward privatization and relaxation of government
controls. The agriculture sector consists largely of small traditional
farm holdings, rain-fed for the most part. Heavily dependent on cocoa,
gold, and timber exports, economic growth so far has not spread
substantially to other areas of the economy. The costs of sending
peacekeeping forces to Liberia and preparing for the transition to a
democratic government have boosted government expenditures and
undercut structural adjustment reforms. Ghana opened a stock exchange
in 1990 and plans to float 5% of its stake in Ashanti Goldfields
Corporation, which would make the exchange the largest in sub-Saharan
Africa outside of South Africa.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $25 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.9% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
10% (1991)
Budget:
revenues:
$1 billion
expenditures:
$905 million, including capital expenditures of $200 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$1 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
cocoa 40%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum
partners:
Germany 31%, US 12%, UK 11%, Netherlands 6%, Japan 5% (1991)
Imports:
$1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods, capital
equipment
partners:
UK 22%, US 11%, Germany 9%, Japan 6%
External debt:
$4.6 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate in manufacturing (1992); accounts for almost 15% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
1,180,000 kW
production:
4.49 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
290 kWh (1991)
Industries:
mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum, food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 43% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); the major
cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops - rice, coffee, cassava,
peanuts, corn, shea nuts, timber; normally self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; transit
hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin destined for the US and
Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $455 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.6
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $78 million; Communist
countries (1970-89) $106 million
Currency:
1 new cedi (C) = 100 pesewas
Exchange rates:
new cedis per US$1 - 713.00 (October 1993), 437.09 (1992), 367.83
(1991), 326.33 (1990), 270.00 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Ghana, Communications

Railroads:
953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 km double track; railroads
undergoing major renovation
Highways:
total:
32,250 km
paved:
concrete, bituminous 6,084 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 26,166 km
Inland waterways:
Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation
for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial
and feeder waterways
Pipelines:
none
Ports:
Tema, Takoradi
Merchant marine:
5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 46,289 GRT/61,606 DWT, cargo 4,
refrigerated cargo 1
Airports:
total:
11
usable:
11
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
6
Telecommunications:
poor to fair system handled primarily by microwave radio relay links;
42,300 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 4 (8 translators)
TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Ghana, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, Civil Defense
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 3,867,183; fit for military service 2,159,769; reach
military age (18) annually 170,283 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $30 million, less than 1% of GDP (1989
est.)

@Gibraltar

Header
Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

@Gibraltar, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links
the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, on the southern
coast of Spain
Map references:
Africa, Europe
Area:
total area:
6.5 sq km
land area:
6.5 sq km
comparative area:
about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 1.2 km, Spain 1.2 km
Coastline:
12 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
3 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
source of occasional friction between Spain and the UK
Climate:
Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Terrain:
a narrow coastal lowland borders The Rock
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
natural freshwater sources are meager, so large concrete or natural
rock water catchments collect rain water
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North
Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

@Gibraltar, People

Population:
31,684 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.58% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
15.37 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.33 years
male:
73.44 years
female:
79.19 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.33 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Gibraltarian(s)
adjective:
Gibraltar
Ethnic divisions:
Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, Spanish
Religions:
Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England 8%, other 3%),
Moslem 8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)
Languages:
English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian,
Portuguese, Russian
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers)
note:
UK military establishments and civil government employ nearly 50% of
the labor force

@Gibraltar, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Gibraltar
Digraph:
GI
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Gilbraltar
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March)
Constitution:
30 May 1969
Legal system:
English law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects resident six months
or more
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
and Commander in Chief Gen. Sir John CHAPPLE (since NA March 1993)
head of government:
Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since 25 March 1988)
Gibraltar Council:
advises the governor
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed from the elected members of the
Assembly by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of Assembly:
elections last held on 16 January 1992 (next to be held January 1996);
results - SL 73.3%; seats - (18 total, 15 elected) number of seats by
party NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party (SL), Joe BOSSANO; Gibraltar Labor
Party/Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights (GCL/AACR),
leader NA; Gibraltar Social Democrats, Peter CARUANA; Gibraltar
National Party, Joe GARCIA
Other political or pressure groups:
Housewives Association; Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives
Organization
Member of:
INTERPOL (subbureau)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a
three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from
the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band

@Gibraltar, Economy

Overview:
The British military presence has been severely reduced and now only
contributes about 11% to the local economy. The financial sector
accounts for 15% of GDP; tourism and shipping services fees also
generate income. Because more than 70% of the economy is in the public
sector, changes in government spending have a major impact on the
level of employment. Construction workers are particularly affected
when government expenditures are cut.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $182 million (FY87)
National product real growth rate:
5% (FY87)
National product per capita:
$4,600 (FY87)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$136 million
expenditures:
$139 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY88)
Exports:
$82 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
(principally re-exports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other
8%
partners:
UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG
Imports:
$258 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
partners:
UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands
External debt:
$318 million (1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
47,000 kW
production:
200 million kWh
consumption per capita:
6,740 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce; support to large
UK naval and air bases; transit trade and supply depot in the port;
light manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral waters,
candy, beer, and canned fish
Agriculture:
none
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $800,000; Western (non-US)
countries and ODA bilateral commitments (1992-93), $2.5 million
Currency:
1 Gibraltar pound (#G) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Gibraltar pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6658 (1993),
0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989); note - the
Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Gibraltar, Communications

Railroads:
1.000-meter-gauge system in dockyard area only
Highways:
total:
50 km
paved:
50 km
Pipelines:
none
Ports:
Gibraltar
Merchant marine:
29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 496,898 GRT/857,140 DWT, bulk 5,
cargo 4, chemical tanker 2, container 1, oil tanker 16, refrigerated
cargo 1
note:
a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international
radiocommunication and microwave facilities; 9,400 telephones;
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@Gibraltar, Defense Forces

Branches:
British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Glorioso Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(possession of France)

@Glorioso Islands, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the Indian Ocean just north of Madagascar
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total area:
5 sq km
land area:
5 sq km
comparative area:
about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
note:
includes Ile Glorieuse, Ile du Lys, Verte Rocks, Wreck Rock, and South
Rock
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
35.2 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
NA
Natural resources:
guano, coconuts
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (all lush vegetation and coconut palms)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
subject to periodic cyclones
international agreements:
NA

@Glorioso Islands, People

Population:
uninhabited

@Glorioso Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Glorioso Islands
local long form:
none
local short form:
Iles Glorieuses
Digraph:
GO
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic,
resident in Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
none (possession of France)

@Glorioso Islands, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Glorioso Islands, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runsways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1

@Glorioso Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@Greece, Geography

Location:
Balkan State, Southern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between
Turkey and Bulgaria
Map references:
Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
131,940 sq km
land area:
130,800 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Alabama
Land boundaries:
total 1,210 km, Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 228 km
Coastline:
13,676 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
6 nm, but Greece has threatened to claim 12 nm
International disputes:
air, continental shelf, and territorial water disputes with Turkey in
Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; dispute with The Former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia over name and symbol implying territorial claim
Climate:
temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain:
mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas or
chains of islands
Natural resources:
bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble
Land use:
arable land:
23%
permanent crops:
8%
meadows and pastures:
40%
forest and woodland:
20%
other:
9%
Irrigated land:
11,900 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution; water pollution
natural hazards:
subject to severe earthquakes
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Environmental
Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not
ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea
Note:
strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to
Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of
about 2,000 islands

@Greece, People

Population:
10,564,630 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.84% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
10.5 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.32 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
7.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.71 years
male:
75.2 years
female:
80.35 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.45 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Greek(s)
adjective:
Greek
Ethnic divisions:
Greek 98%, other 2%
note:
the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece
Religions:
Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%
Languages:
Greek (official), English, French
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
93%
male:
98%
female:
89%
Labor force:
4.083 million
by occupation:
services 48%, agriculture 24%, industry 28% (1993)

@Greece, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Hellenic Republic
conventional short form:
Greece
local long form:
Elliniki Dhimokratia
local short form:
Ellas
former:
Kingdom of Greece
Digraph:
GR
Type:
presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum
8 December 1974
Capital:
Athens
Administrative divisions:
52 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos); Aitolia kai Akarnania,
Akhaia, Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Dhrama,
Evritania, Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia,
Imathia, Ioannina, Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia,
Kerkira, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia,
Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia,
Pella, Pieria, Piraievs, Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai,
Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos,
autonomous region: Agion Oros (Mt. Athos)
Independence:
1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 March (1821) (proclamation of the war of
independence)
Constitution:
11 June 1975
Legal system:
based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal,
and administrative courts
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Konstantinos KARAMANLIS (since 5 May 1990); election last
held 4 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - Konstantinos
KARAMANLIS was elected by Parliament
head of government:
Prime Minister Andreas PAPANDREOU (since 10 October 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime
minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Vouli ton Ellinon):
elections last held 10 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October
1997); results - PASOK 46.88%, ND 39.30%, Political Spring 4.87%, KKE
4.54%, and Progressive Left Coalition 2.94%; seats - (300 total) PASOK
170, ND 111, Political Spring 10, KKE 9
Judicial branch:
Supreme Judicial Court, Special Supreme Tribunal
Political parties and leaders:
New Democracy (ND; conservative), Miltiades EVERT; Panhellenic
Socialist Movement (PASOK), Andreas PAPANDREOU; Progressive Left
Coalition, Maria DAMANAKI; Democratic Renewal (DIANA), Konstantinos
STEFANOPOULOS; Communist Party (KKE), Aleka PAPARIGA;
Ecologist-Alternative List, leader rotates; Political Spring, Antonis
SAMARAS
Member of:
Australian Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC,
ECE, EIB, FAO, G-6, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNOMIG, UNOSOM, UPU, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Loucas TSILAS
chancery:
2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-5800
FAX:
(202) 939-5824
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
Francisco
consulate(s):
New Orleans
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Thomas M.T. NILES
embassy:
91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10160 Athens
mailing address:
PSC 108, Athens; APO AE 09842
telephone:
[30] (1) 721-2951 or 721-8401
FAX:
[30] (1) 645-6282
consulate(s) general:
Thessaloniki
Flag:
nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is
a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross;
the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the
country

@Greece, Economy

Overview:
Greece has a mixed capitalist economy with the basic entrepreneurial
system overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist system that enlarged the
public sector from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70% in 1989. Since
then, the public sector has been reduced to about 60% of GDP. Tourism
continues as a major source of foreign exchange, and agriculture is
self-sufficient except for meat, dairy products, and animal
feedstuffs. Over the last decade, real GDP growth has averaged 1.6% a
year, compared with the European Union average of 2.2%. Inflation is
four times the EU average, and the national debt has reached 140% of
GDP, the highest in the EU. Prime Minister PAPANDREOU will probably
only make limited progress correcting the economy's problems of high
inflation, large budget deficit, and decaying infrastructure. His
economic program suggests that although he will shun his expansionary
policies of the 1980s, he will avoid tough measures needed to slow
inflation or reduce the state's role in the economy. He has limited
the previous government's privatization plans, for example, and has
called for generous welfare spending and real wage increases. In 1994,
the GDP growth rate is likely to remain low, and inflation probably
will accelerate, remaining the highest in the EU. PAPANDREOU'S failure
to improve the country's economic performance will further strain
relations with the EU. Since Greece's accession to the then EC in
1981, Athens' heavy reliance on EU aid - amounting to about 6% of
Greek GDP annually - and its poor use of Union funds have riled
Brussels. Its ailing economy will continue to be a drag on European
economic and monetary union.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $93.2 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1993)
National product per capita:
$8,900 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
14.4% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
9.5% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$28.3 billion
expenditures:
$37.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.2 billion (1994)
Exports:
$6 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
manufactured goods 53%, foodstuffs 34%, fuels 5%
partners:
Germany 23%, Italy 18%, France 7%, UK 7%, US 4% (1992)
Imports:
$23.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
manufactured goods 72%, foodstuffs 15%, fuels 10%
partners:
Germany 20%, Italy 14%, France 8%, Netherlands 7%, Japan 6% (1992)
External debt:
$23.1 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.3% (1992); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
10,500,000 kW
production:
36.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
3,610 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, mining, petroleum
Agriculture:
including fishing and forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 24% of the
labor force; principal products - wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets,
olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; self-sufficient in food
except meat, dairy products, and animal feedstuffs
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and limited opium; mostly for domestic
production; serves as a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling
cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the
West and precursor chemicals to the East; transshipment point for
Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $525 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.39
billion
Currency:
1 drachma (Dr) = 100 lepta
Exchange rates:
drachmae (Dr) per US$1 - 250.28 (January 1994), 229.26 (1993), 190.62
(1992), 182.27 (1991), 158.51 (1990), 162.42 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Greece, Communications

Railroads:
2,479 km total; 1,565 km 1,435-mm standard gauge, of which 36 km
electrified and 100 km double track; 892 km 1,000-mm gauge; 22 km
750-mm narrow gauge; all government owned
Highways:
total:
38,938 km
paved:
16,090 km
unpaved:
crushed stone, gravel 13,676 km; improved earth 5,632 km; unimproved
earth 3,540 km
Inland waterways:
80 km; system consists of three coastal canals; including the Corinth
Canal (6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of Corinth connecting the Gulf
of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and shortens the sea voyage from the
Adriatic to Piraievs (Piraeus) by 325 km; and three unconnected rivers
Pipelines:
crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km
Ports:
Piraievs (Piraeus), Thessaloniki
Merchant marine:
1,059 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,343,367 GRT/54,249,294
DWT, bulk 453, cargo 117, chemical tanker 20, combination bulk 23,
combination ore/oil 38, container 36, liquefied gas 6, livestock
carrier 1, oil tanker 251, passenger 15, passenger-cargo 2,
refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 17, short-sea passenger
65, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1
note:
ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships under the registry of
Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, Malta, and The Bahamas
Airports:
total:
78
usable:
77
with permanent-surface runways:
63
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
24
Telecommunications:
adequate, modern networks reach all areas; 4,080,000 telephones;
microwave radio relay carries most traffic; extensive open-wire
network; submarine cables to off-shore islands; broadcast stations -
29 AM, 17 (20 repeaters) FM, 361 TV; tropospheric links, 8 submarine
cables; 1 satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean antenna), and EUTELSAT systems

@Greece, Defense Forces

Branches:
Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force, National Guard,
Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,645,859; fit for military service 2,025,212; reach
military age (21) annually 74,484 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $4.0 billion, 5.4% of GDP (1993)

@Greenland

Header
Affiliation:
(part of the Danish realm)

@Greenland, Geography

Location:
Northern North America, in the North Atlantic Ocean, between Canada
and Norway
Map references:
Arctic Region, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,175,600 sq km
land area:
383,600 sq km (ice free)
comparative area:
slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
44,087 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
dispute betwen Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in Arctic
Ocean between Greenland and Jan Mayen has been settled by the
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
Climate:
arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Terrain:
flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous,
barren, rocky coast
Natural resources:
zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, cryolite, uranium, fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
99%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe;
sparse population confined to small settlements along coast;
continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island

@Greenland, People

Population:
57,040 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.94% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
18.6 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.43 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
26.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
66.91 years
male:
62.55 years
female:
71.28 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.29 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Greenlander(s)
adjective:
Greenlandic
Ethnic divisions:
Greenlander 86% (Eskimos and Greenland-born Caucasians), Danish 14%
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran
Languages:
Eskimo dialects, Danish
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
22,800
by occupation:
largely engaged in fishing, hunting, sheep breeding

@Greenland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Greenland
local long form:
none
local short form:
Kalaallit Nunaat
Digraph:
GL
Type:
part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
division
Capital:
Nuuk (Godthab)
Administrative divisions:
3 municipalities (kommuner, singular - kommun); Nordgronland,
Ostgronland, Vestgronland
Independence:
none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
division)
National holiday:
Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Constitution:
5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Legal system:
Danish
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High
Commissioner Torben Hede PEDERSEN (since NA)
head of government:
Home Rule Chairman Lars Emil JOHANSEN (since 15 March 1991)
cabinet:
Landsstyre; formed from the Landsting on basis of strength of parties
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament (Landsting):
elections last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be held 5 March 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) Siumut 11,
Atassut Party 8, Inuit Ataqatigiit 5, Center Party 2, Polar Party 1
Danish Folketing:
last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994);
Greenland elects two representatives to the Folketing; results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) Siumut 1, Atassut 1
Judicial branch:
High Court (Landsret)
Political parties and leaders:
two-party ruling coalition; Siumut (a moderate socialist party that
advocates more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from
Denmark), Lars Emil JOHANSEN, chairman; Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA; a
Marxist-Leninist party that favors complete independence from Denmark
rather than home rule), Arqaluk LYNGE; Atassut Party (a more
conservative party that favors continuing close relations with
Denmark), leader NA; Polar Party (conservative-Greenland nationalist),
Lars CHEMNITZ; Center Party (a new nonsocialist protest party), leader
NA
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
US diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk
slightly to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is
red, the bottom half is white

@Greenland, Economy

Overview:
Greenland's economic situation at present is difficult. Unemployment
is increasing, and prospects for economic growth in the immediate
future are dim. Following the closing of the Black Angel lead and zinc
mine in 1989, Greenland became almost completely dependent on fishing
and fish processing, the sector accounting for 95% of exports.
Prospects for fisheries are not bright, as the important shrimp
catches will at best stabilize and cod catches have dropped.
Resumption of mining and hydrocarbon activities is not around the
corner, thus leaving only tourism with some potential for the near
future. The public sector in Greenland, i.e., the central government
and its commercial entities and the municipalities, plays a dominant
role in Greenland accounting for about two-thirds of total employment.
About half the government's revenues come from grants from the Danish
Government.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $500 million (1988)
National product real growth rate:
-10% (1990)
National product per capita:
$9,000 (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
9% (1990 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$381 million
expenditures:
$381 million, including capital expenditures of $36 million (1989)
Exports:
$340.6 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
fish and fish products 95%
partners:
Denmark 79%, Benelux 9%, Germany 5%
Imports:
$403 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
manufactured goods 28%, machinery and transport equipment 24%, food
and live animals 12.4%, petroleum products 12%
partners:
Denmark 65%, Norway 8.8%, US 4.6%, Germany 3.8%, Japan 3.8%, Sweden
2.4%
External debt:
$480 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
84,000 kW
production:
176 million kWh
consumption per capita:
3,060 kWh (1992)
Industries:
fish processing (mainly shrimp), lead and zinc mining, handicrafts,
some small shipyards, potential for platinum and gold mining
Agriculture:

Book of the day:
Facebook Google Reddit StumbleUpon Twitter Pinterest