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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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kept French interest rates high despite France's low inflation.
Although the pace of economic integration within the European
Community has slowed down, integration presumably will remain a major
force shaping the fortunes of the various economic sectors.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.05 trillion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
-0.7% (1993)
National product per capita:
$18,200 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.1% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
12.2% (May 1994)
Budget:
revenues:
$220.5 billion
expenditures:
$249.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $47 billion (1993
budget)
Exports:
$270.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs,
agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles and clothing
partners:
Germany 18.6%, Italy 11.0%, Spain 11.0%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.1%, UK
8.8%, Netherlands 7.9%, US 6.4%, Japan 2.0%, former USSR 0.7% (1991
est.)
Imports:
$250.2 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural products, chemicals,
iron and steel products
partners:
Germany 17.8%, Italy 10.9%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.9%, Spain 8.8%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 8.5%, UK 7.5%, Japan 4.1%, former USSR 1.3% (1991
est.)
External debt:
$300 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -4.3% (1993)
Electricity:
capacity:
110 million kW
production:
426 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
7,430 kWh (1992)
Industries:
steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft,
electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); one of the
world's top five wheat producers; other principal products - beef,
dairy products, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes;
self-sufficient for most temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats
and oils and tropical produce, but overall net exporter of farm
products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among world's top 20
countries and is all used domestically
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1 billion
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@France, Communications

Railroads:
French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,322 km 1,435-mm standard
gauge; 12,434 km electrified, 15,132 km double or multiple track; 99
km of various gauges (1,000-mm), privately owned and operated
Highways:
total:
1,510,750 km
paved:
747,750 km (including 7,450 km of controlled access divided highway)
unpaved:
763,000 km
Inland waterways:
14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled
Pipelines:
crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km
Ports:
coastal - Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Cherbourg, Dunkerque,
Fos-Sur-Mer, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes, Sete, Toulon; inland - Rouen
Merchant marine:
124 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,226,175 GRT/5,109,375 DWT,
bulk 9, cargo 10, chemical tanker 8, container 21, liquefied gas 6,
multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 37, passenger 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 21, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 3
note:
France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships in the
Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and French
Polynesia
Airports:
total:
472
usable:
461
with permanent-surface runways:
258
with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
37
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
136
Telecommunications:
highly developed; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks;
large-scale introduction of optical-fiber systems; satellite systems
for domestic traffic; 39,200,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 41
AM, 800 (mostly repeaters) FM, 846 (mostly repeaters) TV; 24 submarine
coaxial cables; 2 INTELSAT earth stations (with total of 5 antennas -
2 for the Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 3 for the Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT); HF radio communications with more than 20 countries;
INMARSAT service; EUTELSAT TV service

@France, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Naval Air), Air Force, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 14,717,461; fit for military service 12,265,874; reach
military age (18) annually 376,485 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $33.0 billion, 3.3% of GDP (1993)

@French Guiana

Header
Affiliation:
(overseas department of France)

@French Guiana, Geography

Location:
Northern South America, bordering on the North Atlantic Ocean between
Suriname and Brazil
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
91,000 sq km
land area:
89,150 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
total 1,183 km, Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km
Coastline:
378 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both
headwaters of the Lawa)
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
Natural resources:
bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar, kaolin, fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
82%
other:
18%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
mostly an unsettled wilderness

@French Guiana, People

Population:
139,299 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
4.27% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
25.83 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.67 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
21.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
15.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.2 years
male:
71.93 years
female:
78.63 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.5 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
French Guianese (singular and plural)
adjective:
French Guianese
Ethnic divisions:
black or mulatto 66%, Caucasian 12%, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian
12%, other 10%
Religions:
Roman Catholic
Languages:
French
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population:
82%
male:
81%
female:
83%
Labor force:
23,265
by occupation:
services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry 21.2%, agriculture
18.2% (1980)
Names:
conventional long form:
Department of Guiana
conventional short form:
French Guiana
local long form:
none
local short form:
Guyane
Digraph:
FG
Type:
overseas department of France
Capital:
Cayenne
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
none (overseas department of France)
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French legal system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government:
Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA 1992); President of the General
Council Elie CASTOR (since NA); President of the Regional Council
Antoine KARAM (22 March 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council and a unicameral Regional Council
General Council:
elections last held 25 September and 8 October 1988 (next to be held
NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (19 total) PSG 12,
URC 7
Regional Council:
elections last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (31 total) PSG 16
French Senate:
elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PSG 1
French National Assembly:
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) RPR 1,
independent 1
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeals (highest local court based in Martinique with
jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana)
Political parties and leaders:
Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Elie CASTRO; Conservative Union for
the Republic (UPR), Leon BERTRAND; Rally for the Center Right (URC);
Rally for the Republic (RPR); Guyana Democratic Front (FDG), Georges
OTHILY; Walwari Committee, Christine TAUBIRA-DELANON
Member of:
FZ, WCL
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (overseas department of France)
US diplomatic representation:
none (overseas department of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

@French Guiana, Economy

Overview:
The economy is tied closely to that of France through subsidies and
imports. Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing and
forestry are the most important economic activities, with exports of
fish and fish products (mostly shrimp) accounting for more than 60% of
total revenue in 1992. The large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not
fully exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry that provides
sawn logs for export. Cultivation of crops - rice, cassava, bananas,
and sugar cane - is limited to the coastal area, where the population
is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily dependent on imports
of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem, particularly
among younger workers.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $421 million (1986)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$4,390 (1986)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.1% (1987)
Unemployment rate:
13% (1990)
Budget:
revenues:
$735 million
expenditures:
$735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1987)
Exports:
$59 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence
partners:
France 52%, Spain 15%, US 5% (1992)
Imports:
$1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods, producer goods,
petroleum
partners:
France 77%, Germany 11%, US 5% (1992)
External debt:
$1.2 billion (1988)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
92,000 kW
production:
185 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,450 kWh (1992)
Industries:
construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining
Agriculture:
some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn, manioc, cocoa,
bananas, sugar; livestock - cattle, pigs, poultry
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.51 billion
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@French Guiana, Communications

Highways:
total:
680 km
paved:
510 km
unpaved:
improved, unimproved earth 170 km
Inland waterways:
460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river and coastal
steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft
Ports:
Cayenne
Airports:
total:
10
usable:
10
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
fair open-wire and microwave radio relay system; 18,100 telephones;
broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7 FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@French Guiana, Defense Forces

Branches:
French Forces, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 40,506; fit for military service 26,394
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@French Polynesia

Header
Affiliation:
(overseas territory of France)

@French Polynesia, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia halfway between Australia and South America
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
3,941 sq km
land area:
3,660 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
2,525 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but moderate
Terrain:
mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs
Natural resources:
timber, fish, cobalt
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
19%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
31%
other:
44%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
occasional cyclonic storms in January
international agreements:
NA
Note:
includes five archipelagoes; Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the
three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others
are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Nauru

@French Polynesia, People

Population:
215,129 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.25% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
27.75 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.27 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
14.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.54 years
male:
68.14 years
female:
73.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.31 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
French Polynesian(s)
adjective:
French Polynesian
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%, metropolitan French 4%
Religions:
Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%
Languages:
French (official), Tahitian (official)
Literacy:
age 14 and over but definition of literacy not available (1977)
total population:
98%
male:
98%
female:
98%
Labor force:
76,630 employed (1988)

@French Polynesia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of French Polynesia
conventional short form:
French Polynesia
local long form:
Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise
local short form:
Polynesie Francaise
Digraph:
FP
Type:
overseas territory of France since 1946
Capital:
Papeete
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order
administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there
are 5 archipelagic divisions named Archipel des Marquises, Archipel
des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles du Vent, and Iles Sous-le-Vent
note:
Clipperton Island is administered by France from French Polynesia
Independence:
none (overseas territory of France)
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
based on French system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); High Commissioner
of the Republic Michel JAU (since NA February 1992)
head of government:
President of the Territorial Government of French Polynesia Gaston
FLOSSE (since 10 May 1991); Deputy to the French Assembly and
President of the Territorial Assembly Jean JUVENTIN (since NA November
1992); Territorial Vice President and Minister of Health Michel
BUILLARD (since 12 September 1991)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of the
Assembly for approval by them to serve as ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Territorial Assembly:
elections last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (41 total) People's
Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 18, Polynesian Union Party 12, New
Fatherland Party 7, other 4
French Senate:
elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) party
NA
French National Assembly:
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA March
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total)
People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 2
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, Court of the First Instance, Court of Administrative
Law
Political parties and leaders:
People's Rally for the Republic (Tahoeraa Huiraatira), Gaston FLOSSE;
Polynesian Union Party includes Te Tiarama, Alexandre LEONTIEFF, and
Pupu Here Ai'a Te Nuneao Ia Ora, Jean JUVENTIN; New Fatherland Party
(Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON; Polynesian Liberation Front (Tavini
Huiraatira), Oscar TEMARU; Independent Party (Ia Mana Te Nunaa), James
SALMON; other small parties
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (overseas territory of France)
US diplomatic representation:
none (overseas territory of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

@French Polynesia, Economy

Overview:
Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in the region,
French Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one in
which a high proportion of the work force is either employed by the
military or supports the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about
20% of GDP and is a primary source of hard currency earnings.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$7,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
10% (1990 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$614 million
expenditures:
$957 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)
Exports:
$88.9 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla, shark meat
partners:
France 54%, US 17%, Japan 17%
Imports:
$765 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
fuels, foodstuffs, equipment
partners:
France 53%, US 11%, Australia 6%, NZ 5%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
75,000 kW
production:
275 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,330 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts
Agriculture:
coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit; poultry, beef,
dairy products
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.95 billion
Currency:
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 107.63
(January 1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.00
(1990), 115.99 (1989); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@French Polynesia, Communications

Highways:
total:
600 km (1982)
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Papeete, Bora-bora
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,127 GRT/6,710 DWT,
passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1
note:
a captive subset of the French register
Airports:
total:
43
usable:
41
with permanent-surface runways:
23
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
12
Telecommunications:
33,200 telephones; 84,000 radio receivers; 26,400 TV sets; broadcast
stations - 5 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@French Polynesia, Defense Forces

Branches:
French forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie
Note:
defense is responsibility of France

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Header
Affiliation:
(overseas territory of France)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the southern Indian Ocean, about equidistant
between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia
Map references:
Antarctic Region, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
7,781 sq km
land area:
7,781 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware
note:
includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles
Crozet; excludes Terre Adelie claim of about 500,000 sq km in
Antarctica that is not recognized by the US
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,232 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm from Iles Kerguelen only
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Terre Adelie claim in Antarctica is not recognized by the US
Climate:
antarctic
Terrain:
volcanic
Natural resources:
fish, crayfish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes
international agreements:
NA
Note:
remote location in the southern Indian Ocean

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are researchers whose numbers
vary from 150 in winter (July) to 200 in summer (January)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands
conventional short form:
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
local long form:
Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises
local short form:
Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises
Digraph:
FS
Type:
overseas territory of France since 1955; governed by High
Administrator Bernard de GOUTTES (since May 1990), who is assisted by
a 7-member Consultative Council and a 12-member Scientific Council
Capital:
none; administered from Paris, France
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order
administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there
are 3 districts named Ile Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul
et Amsterdam; excludes Terre Adelie claim in Antarctica that is not
recognized by the US
Independence:
none (overseas territory of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological and
geophysical research stations and French and other fishing fleets. The
fishing catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are exported
to France and Reunion.
Budget:
revenues:
$17.5 million
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Communications

Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Merchant marine:
21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 441,962 GRT/813,779 DWT, bulk 3,
cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, liquified gas 2, multifunction large load
carrier 1, oil tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo
4
note:
a captive subset of the French register
Telecommunications:
NA

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@Gabon, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator between
the Congo and Equatorial Guinea
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
267,670 sq km
land area:
257,670 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Colorado
Land boundaries:
total 2,551 km, Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km, Equatorial Guinea 350
km
Coastline:
885 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial Guinea because of disputed
sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay
Climate:
tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south
Natural resources:
petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland:
78%
other:
2%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; poaching
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed,
but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

@Gabon, People

Population:
1,139,006 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.46% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
28.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
13.9 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
94.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
54.67 years
male:
51.88 years
female:
57.53 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.97 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Gabonese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Gabonese
Ethnic divisions:
Bantu tribes including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira,
Bapounou, Bateke), Africans and Europeans 100,000, including 27,000
French
Religions:
Christian 55-75%, Muslim less than 1%, animist
Languages:
French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
61%
male:
74%
female:
48%
Labor force:
120,000 salaried
by occupation:
agriculture 65.0%, industry and commerce 30.0%, services 2.5%,
government 2.5%
note:
58% of population of working age (1983)

@Gabon, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Gabonese Republic
conventional short form:
Gabon
local long form:
Republique Gabonaise
local short form:
Gabon
Digraph:
GB
Type:
republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized
1990)
Capital:
Libreville
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga,
Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem
Independence:
17 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Renovation Day, 12 March (1968) (Gabonese Democratic Party
established)
Constitution:
adopted 14 March 1991
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court;
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967); election last
held on 5 December 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - President
Omar BONGO was reelected with 51% of the vote
head of government:
Prime Minister Casimir OYE-MBA (since 3 May 1990)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister in consultation
with the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale):
elections last held on 21 and 28 October and 4 November 1990 (next to
be held by NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120
total) PDG 62, Morena-Bucherons/RNB 19, PGP 18, National Recovery
Movement (Morena-Original) 7, APSG 6, USG 4, CRP 1, independents 3
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG, former sole party), Jaques ADIAHENOT,
Secretary General; National Recovery Movement - Lumberjacks
(Morena-Bucherons/RNB), Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE, leader; Gabonese Party
for Progress (PGP), Pierre-Louis AGONDHO-OKAWE, President; National
Recovery Movement (Morena-Original), Pierre ZONGUE-NGUEMA, Chairman;
Association for Socialism in Gabon (APSG), leader NA; Gabonese
Socialist Union (USG), leader NA; Circle for Renewal and Progress
(CRP), leader NA; Union for Democracy and Development (UDD), leader
NA; Rally of Democrats (RD), leader NA; Forces of Change for
Democratic Union, leader NA
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAU,
OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Paul BOUNDOUKOU-LATHA
chancery:
2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 797-1000
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Joseph C. WILSON IV
embassy:
Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville
mailing address:
B. P. 4000, Libreville
telephone:
(241) 762003/4, or 743492
FAX:
[241] 745-507
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue

@Gabon, Economy

Overview:
Notwithstanding its serious ongoing economic problems, Gabon enjoys a
per capita income more than twice that of most nations of sub-Saharan
Africa. Gabon depended on timber and manganese until oil was
discovered offshore in the early 1970s. The oil sector now accounts
for 50% of GNP. Real growth was feeble in 1992 and Gabon continues to
face weak prices for its timber, manganese, and uranium exports.
Despite an abundance of natural wealth, and a manageable rate of
population growth, the economy is hobbled by poor fiscal management.
In 1992, the fiscal deficit widened to 2.4% of GDP, and Gabon failed
to settled arrears on its bilateral debt, leading to a cancellation of
rescheduling agreements with official and private creditors.
Devaluation of the local currency by 50% in January 1994 could set off
an inflationary spiral if the government fails to reign in spending
and grants large wage increases to an already overpaid public sector
workforce.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $5.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$1.3 billion
expenditures:
$1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $272 million (1992
est.)
Exports:
$2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est)
commodities:
crude oil 80%, timber 9%, manganese 7%, uranium 2%
partners:
France 48%, US 15%, Germany 2%, Japan 2%
Imports:
$702 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products, construction
materials, manufactures, machinery
partners:
France 64%, African countries 7%, US 5%, Japan 3%
External debt:
$4.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -10% (1988 est.); accounts for 8% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
315,000 kW
production:
995 million kWh
consumption per capita:
920 kWh (1991)
Industries:
petroleum, food and beverages, lumbering and plywood, textiles, mining
- manganese, uranium, gold, cement
Agriculture:
accounts for 9% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cash crops -
cocoa, coffee, palm oil; livestock not developed; importer of food;
small fishing operations provide a catch of about 20,000 metric tons;
okoume (a tropical softwood) is the most important timber product
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $68 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90),
$2.342 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $27 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Gabon, Communications

Railroads:
649 km 1.437-meter standard-gauge single track (Transgabonese
Railroad)
Highways:
total:
7,500 km
paved:
560 km
unpaved:
crushed stone 960 km; earth 5,980 km
Inland waterways:
1,600 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km
Ports:
Owendo, Port-Gentil, Libreville
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,562 GRT/25,330 DWT
Airports:
total:
70
usable:
59
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
22
Telecommunications:
adequate system of cable, radio relay, tropospheric scatter links and
radiocommunication stations; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6
AM, 6 FM, 3 (5 repeaters) TV; satellite earth stations - 3 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT and 12 domestic satellite

@Gabon, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Guard, National Gendarmerie,
National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 270,501; fit for military service 136,995; reach
military age (20) annually 10,107 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $102 million, 3.2% of GDP (1990 est.)

@The Gambia, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean almost completely
surrounded by Senegal
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
11,300 sq km
land area:
10,000 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Delaware
Land boundaries:
total 740 km, Senegal 740 km
Coastline:
80 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
18 nm
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
short section of boundary with Senegal is indefinite
Climate:
tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season
(November to May)
Terrain:
flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
16%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
9%
forest and woodland:
20%
other:
55%
Irrigated land:
120 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; desertification; water-borne diseases prevalent
natural hazards:
rainfall has dropped by 30% in the last thirty years
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of
Africa

@The Gambia, People

Population:
959,300 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.08% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
46.39 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
15.64 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
123.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
50.08 years
male:
47.83 years
female:
52.39 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.29 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Gambian(s)
adjective:
Gambian
Ethnic divisions:
African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%,
other 4%), non-Gambian 1%
Religions:
Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages:
English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous
vernaculars
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
27%
male:
39%
female:
16%
Labor force:
400,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 75.0%, industry, commerce, and services 18.9%, government
6.1%
note:
55% population of working age (1983)

@The Gambia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of The Gambia
conventional short form:
The Gambia
Digraph:
GA
Type:
republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Banjul
Administrative divisions:
5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower River, MacCarthy Island, North
Bank, Upper River, Western
Independence:
18 February 1965 (from UK; The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement
on 12 December 1981 that called for the creation of a loose
confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was
dissolved on 30 September 1989)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 February (1965)
Constitution:
24 April 1970
Legal system:
based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law, and customary
law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Alhaji Sir Dawda Kairaba JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice
President Saihou SABALLY (since NA); election last held on 29 April
1992 (next to be held April 1997); results - Sir Dawda JAWARA (PPP)
58.5%, Sherif Mustapha DIBBA (NCP) 22.2%, Assan Musa CAMARA (GPP) 8.0%
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president from members of the House of
Representatives
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of Representatives:
elections last held on 29 April 1992 (next to be held April 1997);
results - PPP 58.1%, seats - (43 total, 36 elected) PPP 30, NCP 6
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda K. JAWARA, secretary general;
National Convention Party (NCP), Sheriff DIBBA; Gambian People's Party
(GPP), Hassan Musa CAMARA; United Party (UP), leader NA; People's
Democratic Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS), leader
NA; People's Democratic Party (PDP), Jabel SALLAH
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH
chancery:
Suite 1000, 1155 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone:
(202) 785-1399, 1379, or 1425
FAX:
(202) 785-1430
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Arlene RENDER
embassy:
Fajara, Kairaba Avenue, Banjul
mailing address:
P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul
telephone:
[220] 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971
FAX:
(220) 92475
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and
green

@The Gambia, Economy

Overview:
The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural resources and has
a limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's poorest
countries with a per capita income of roughly $800. About 75% of the
population is engaged in crop production and livestock raising, which
contribute 30% to GDP. Small-scale manufacturing activity - processing
peanuts, fish, and hides - accounts for less than 10% of GDP. A
sustained structural adjustment program, including a liberalized trade
policy, has fostered a respectable 4% rate of growth in recent years.
Re-export trade constitutes one-third of economic activity; however,
border closures associated with Senegal's monetary crisis in late 1993
led to a 50% decline in re-export trade, reducing government revenues
in turn. Devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 has made
Senegalese goods more competitive, and is likely to prompt a
relaxation of Senegalese controls, paving the way for a comeback in
re-exports.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $740 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.5% (FY92 est)
National product per capita:
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5% (FY 92 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$94 million
expenditures:
$80 million, including capital expenditures of $25 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$164 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities:
peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels
partners:
Japan 60%, Europe 29%, Africa 5%, US 1%, other 5% (1989)
Imports:
$214 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery and transport
equipment
partners:
Europe 57%, Asia 25%, USSR and Eastern Europe 9%, US 6%, other 3%
(1989)
External debt:
$336 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.7% (year NA); accounts for 5.8% of GDP (FY90)
Electricity:
capacity:
30,000 kW
production:
65 million kWh
consumption per capita:
75 kWh (1991)
Industries:
peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery
assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing
Agriculture:
accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the population;
imports one-third of food requirements; major export crop is peanuts;
other principal crops - millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava, palm
kernels; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats; forestry and fishing
resources not fully exploited
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $93 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $535
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $39 million
Currency:
1 dalasi (D) = 100 butut
Exchange rates:
dalasi (D) per US$1 - 9.440 (November 1993), 8.888 (1992), 8.803
(1991), 7.883 (1990), 7.5846 (1989), 6.7086 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@The Gambia, Communications

Highways:
total:
3,083 km
paved:
431 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone 501 km; unimproved earth 2,151 km
Inland waterways:
400 km
Ports:
Banjul
Merchant marine:
1 bulk ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,194 GRT/19,394 DWT
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
adequate network of radio relay and wire; 3,500 telephones; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 2 FM; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@The Gambia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, National Gendarmerie, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 207,754; fit for military service 105,100
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Gaza Strip

Header
Note:
The war between Israel and Egypt, Syria, and Jordan in June 1967 ended
with Israel in control of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Gaza
Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights. Israel withdrew
from the Sinai Peninsula pursuant to a 1979 peace treaty with Egypt.
The Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government
Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13 September 1993,
provides for a transitional period not exceeding five years of
Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the West
Bank. Under the DOP, final status negotiations are to begin no later
than the beginning of the third year of the transitional period.

@Gaza Strip, Geography

Location:
Middle East, bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt
and Israel
Map references:
Middle East
Area:
total area:
360 sq km
land area:
360 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 62 km, Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km
Coastline:
40 km
Maritime claims:
Israeli occupied with status to be determined
International disputes:
West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with interim status
subject to Israeli/Palestinian negotiations - final status to be
determined
Climate:
temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers
Terrain:
flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
13%
permanent crops:
32%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
55%
Irrigated land:
200 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
desertification
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
there are 24 Jewish settlements and civilian land use sites in the
Gaza Strip (April 1994)

@Gaza Strip, People

Population:
731,296 (July 1994 est.)
note:
in addition, there are 4,500 Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip (1994
est.)
Population growth rate:
3.53% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
45.01 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.45 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-4.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
36.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.78 years
male:
66.47 years
female:
69.16 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.39 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
NA
adjective:
NA
Ethnic divisions:
Palestinian Arab and other 99.8%, Jewish 0.2%
Religions:
Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish 0.3%
Languages:
Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers), English (widely
understood)
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
construction 33.4%, agriculture 20.0%, commerce, restaurants, and
hotels 14.9%, industry 10.0%, other services 21.7% (1991)
note:
excluding Jewish settlers

@Gaza Strip, Government

Note:
Under the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arragements ("the DOP"), Israel agreed to transfer
certain powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian Authority, and
subsequently to an elected Palestinian Council, as part of interim
self-governing arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A
transfer of powers and responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho
has taken place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement
on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area. The DOP provides that Israel
will retain responsibility during the transitional period for external
security and for internal security and public order of settlements and
Israelis. Final status is to be determined through direct negotiations
within five years.
Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Gaza Strip
local long form:
none
local short form:
Qita Ghazzah
Digraph:
GZ

@Gaza Strip, Economy

Overview:
In 1991 roughly 40% of Gaza Strip workers were employed across the
border by Israeli industrial, construction, and agricultural
enterprises, with worker remittances accounting for about one-third of
GNP. The construction, agricultural, and industrial sectors account
for about 18%, 16%, and 12% of GNP, respectively. Gaza depends upon
Israel for nearly 90% of its external trade. Aggravating the impact of
Israeli military administration, unrest in the territory since 1988
(intifadah) has raised unemployment and lowered the standard of living
of Gazans. The Persian Gulf crisis and its aftershocks also have dealt
blows to Gaza since August 1990. Worker remittances from the Gulf
states have dropped, unemployment has increased, and exports have
fallen. The withdrawal of Israel from the Gaza Strip in May 1994
brings a new set of adjustment problems.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $840 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,275 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$33.6 million
expenditures:
$34.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports:
$75 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
citrus
partners:
Israel, Egypt
Imports:
$370 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
food, consumer goods, construction materials
partners:
Israel, Egypt
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 11% (1991 est.); accounts for about 12% of GNP
Electricity:
power supplied by Israel
Industries:
generally small family businesses that produce textiles, soap,
olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have
established some small-scale modern industries in an industrial center
Agriculture:
accounts for about 16% of GNP; olives, citrus and other fruits,
vegetables, beef, dairy products
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot
Exchange rates:
new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.9760 (February 1994), 2.8301
(1993), 2.4591 (1992), 2.2791 (1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

@Gaza Strip, Communications

Railroads:
one line, abandoned and in disrepair, some trackage remains
Highways:
total:
NA
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
note:
small, poorly developed road network
Ports:
facilities for small boats to service the city of Gaza
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - no AM, no FM, no TV

@Gaza Strip, Defense Forces

Branches:
NA
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Georgia

Note:
Georgia is currently besieged by interethnic strife in its Abkhazian
and South Ossetian enclaves.

@Georgia, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
Map references:
Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States,
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
69,700 sq km
land area:
69,700 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
total 1,461 km, Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km,
Turkey 252 km
Coastline:
310 km
Maritime claims:
note:
12 nm in 1973 USSR-Turkish Protocol concerning the sea boundary
between the two states in the Black Sea; Georgia claims the coastline
along the Black Sea as its international waters, although it cannot
control this area and the Russian navy and commercial ships transit
freely
International disputes:
none
Climate:
warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Terrain:
largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and
Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland opens to the
Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in
river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
Natural resources:
forest lands, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ores, copper, minor
coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important
tea and citrus growth
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
4,660 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari
River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of safe drinking water;
soil pollution from toxic chemicals
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA

@Georgia, People

Population:
5,681,025 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.81% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
16.11 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.69 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
23.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.84 years
male:
69.16 years
female:
76.7 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.18 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Georgian(s)
adjective:
Georgian
Ethnic divisions:
Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%,
Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%
Religions:
Georgian Orthodox 65%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Muslim 11%, Armenian
Orthodox 8%, unknown 6%
Languages:
Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, other 7%
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
2.763 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry 25%, other 44%
(1990)

@Georgia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Georgia
conventional short form:
Georgia
local long form:
Sak'art'velos Respublika
local short form:
Sak'art'velo
former:
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
GG
Type:
republic
Capital:
T'bilisi
Administrative divisions:
2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom
respublika); Abkhazia (Sokhumi), Ajaria (Bat'umi)
note:
the administrative centers of the autonomous republics are included in
parentheses; there are no oblasts - the rayons around T'bilisi are
under direct republic jurisdiction
Independence:
9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 April (1991)
Constitution:
adopted NA February 1921; currently amending constitution for
Parliamentary and popular review by late 1995
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Chairman of Parliament Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (since 10
March 1992); election last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA
1995); results - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 95%
head of government:
Prime Minister Otar PATSATSIA (since September 1993); Deputy Prime
Ministers Avtandil MARGIANI, Zurab KERVALISHVILI (since NA), Tamaz
NADARISHVILI (since September 1993), Teimuraz BASILIA (since NA)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Georgian Parliament (Supreme Soviet):
elections last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA 1995); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (225 total) number of seats by
party NA; note - representatives of 26 parties elected; Peace Bloc,
October 11, Unity, National Democratic Party, and the Greens Party won
the largest representation
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Merab Kostava Society, Vazha ADAMIA, chairman; Traditionalists' Union,
Akaki ASATIANI, chairman; Georgian Social Democratic Party, Guram
MUCHAIDZE, chairman; Green Party, Zurab ZHVANIA, chairman; Georgian
Popular Front (GPF), Nodar NATADZE, chairman; National Democratic
Party (NDP), Gia CHANTURIA, chairman; National Independence Party
(NIP), Irakliy TSERETELI, chairmen; Charter 1991 Party, Tedo
PATASHVILI, chairman; Peace Bloc; Unity; October 11
Other political or pressure groups:
supporters of ousted President Zuiad GAMSAKHURDIA (deceased 1 January
1994) boycotted the October elections and remain a source of
opposition and instability
Member of:
BSEC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IBRD, IDA, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC,
ITU, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Petr CHKHEIDZE
chancery:
(temporary) Suite 424, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC
telephone:
(202) 393-6060
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kent N. BROWN
embassy:
#25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
(7) 8832-98-99-68
FAX:
(7) 8832-93-37-59
Flag:
maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner;
rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below

@Georgia, Economy

Overview:
Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved around Black Sea tourism;
cultivation of citrus fruits, tea, and grapes; mining of manganese and
copper; and a small industrial sector producing wine, metals,
machinery, chemicals, and textiles. The country imports the bulk of
its energy needs, including natural gas and coal. Its only sizable
domestic energy resource is hydropower. Since 1990, widespread
conflicts, e.g., in Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Mengrelia, severely
aggravated the economic crisis resulting from the disintegration of
the Soviet command economy in December 1991. Throughout 1993, much of
industry was functioning at only 20% of capacity; heavy disruptions in
agricultural cultivation were reported; and tourism was shut down. The
country is precariously dependent on US and EU humanitarian grain
shipments, as most other foods are priced beyond reach of the average
citizen. Georgia is also suffering from an acute energy crisis, as it
is having problems paying for even minimal imports. Georgia is pinning
its hopes for recovery on reestablishing trade ties with Russia and on
developing international transportation through the key Black Sea
ports of P'ot'i and Bat'umi.

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