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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; famine
natural hazards:
geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes,
volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the
Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note:
landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de
jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993

@Ethiopia, People

Population:
54,927,108 (July 1994 est.)
note:
Ethiopian demographic data, except population and population growth
rate, include Eritrea
Population growth rate:
3.4% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
45.01 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
13.89 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
106.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
52.67 years
male:
51 years
female:
54.38 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.81 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ethiopian(s)
adjective:
Ethiopian
Ethnic divisions:
Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%,
Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 5%
Languages:
Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic,
English (major foreign language taught in schools)
Literacy:
age 10 and over can read and write (1984)
total population:
24%
male:
33%
female:
16%
Labor force:
18 million
by occupation:
agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services 12%,
industry and construction 8% (1985)

@Ethiopia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Ethiopia
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ityop'iya
Digraph:
ET
Type:
transitional government
note:
on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front
(EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam
and took control in Addis Ababa; the Transitional Government of
Ethiopia (TGE), announced a two-year transitional period
Capital:
Addis Ababa
Administrative divisions:
14 administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader
akababi) Addis Ababa, Afar, Amhara, Benishangul, Gambela,
Gurage-Hadiya-Kambata, Harer, Kefa, Omo, Oromo, Sidamo, Somali,
Tigray, Wolayta
Independence:
oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the
world - at least 2,000 years
National holiday:
National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu regime)
Constitution:
to be redrafted by 1993
Legal system:
NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President MELES Zenawi (since 1 June 1991); election last held 10
September 1987; next election planned after new constitution drafted;
results - MENGISTU Haile-Mariam elected by the now defunct National
Assembly, but resigned and left Ethiopia on 21 May 1991
head of government:
Prime Minister TAMIRAT Layne (since 6 June 1991)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; designated by the chairman of the Council of
Representatives
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Constituent Assembly:
elections were held on 5 June 1994 (next to be held NA); results - NA;
a major task of the new Assembly will be to ratify the constitution to
drafted by the end of 1994
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), MELES
Zenawi; Oromo People's Democratic Organization (OPDO), Kuma DEMEKSA
Other political or pressure groups:
Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party
(EPRP); numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since
Mengistu's resignation, including several Islamic militant groups
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
chancery:
2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 234-2281 or 2282
FAX:
(202) 328-7950
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Marc A. BAAS
embassy:
Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone:
[251] (1) 550-666
FAX:
[251] (1) 552-191
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red; Ethiopia
is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her
flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon
independence that they became known as the pan-African colors

@Ethiopia, Economy

Overview:
With the independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993, Ethiopia continues
to face difficult economic problems as one of the poorest and least
developed countries in Africa. (The accompanying analysis and figures
predate the independence of Eritrea.) Its economy is based on
subsistence agriculture, which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of
exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee generates 60% of export
earnings. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from
the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less
than 10% of agriculture, is state run; the government is considering
selling off a portion of state-owned plants. Favorable agricultural
weather largely explains the 4.5% growth in output in FY89, whereas
drought and deteriorating internal security conditions prevented
growth in FY90. In 1991 the lack of law and order, particularly in the
south, interfered with economic development and growth. In 1992,
because of some easing of civil strife and aid from the outside world,
the economy substantially improved.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $22.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
7.8% (FY93 est)
National product per capita:
$400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
21% (1992 est)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$189 million (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities:
coffee, leather products, gold, petroleum products
partners:
Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, France, Italy
Imports:
$472 million (c.i.f., FY91)
commodities:
capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
partners:
US, Germany, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Japan
External debt:
$3.48 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -3.3% (FY92); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
330,000 kW
production:
650 million kWh
consumption per capita:
10 kWh (1991)
Industries:
food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing,
cement
Agriculture:
accounts for 47% of GDP and is the most important sector of the
economy even though frequent droughts and poor cultivation practices
keep farm output low; famines not uncommon; export crops of coffee and
oilseeds grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of agricultural
production at subsistence level; principal crops and livestock -
cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and other
vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats
Illicit drugs:
transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and
destined for Europe and North America as well as cocaine destined for
southern African markets; cultivates qat (chat) for local use and
regional export
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.4
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $2 billion
Currency:
1 birr (Br) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.0000 (fixed rate since 1992); fixed at 2.070
before 1992
Fiscal year:
8 July - 7 July

@Ethiopia, Communications

Highways:
total:
24,127 km
paved:
3,289 km
unpaved:
gravel 6,664 km; improved earth 1,652 km; unimproved earth 12,522 km
(1993)
Ports:
none; landlocked
Merchant marine:
12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,627 GRT/88,909 DWT, cargo 8,
livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 2, roll on/roll off cargo 1
Airports:
total:
120
usable:
84
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
15
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
83
Telecommunications:
open-wire and radio relay system adequate for government use;
open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and
Djibouti; broadcast stations - 4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 100,000 TV sets;
9,000,000 radios; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
and 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

@Ethiopia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 13,229,078; fit for military service 6,867,582; reach
military age (18) annually 596,691 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Europa Island

Header
Affiliation:
(possession of France)

@Europa Island, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the southern Mozambique Channel about halfway
between Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total area:
28 sq km
land area:
28 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
22.2 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
NA
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA% (heavily wooded)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
wildlife sanctuary

@Europa Island, People

Population:
uninhabited

@Europa Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Europa Island
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ile Europa
Digraph:
EU
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic;
resident in Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
none (possession of France)

@Europa Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Europa Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,439-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
1 meteorological station

@Europa Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Header
Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Geography

Location:
Southern South America, in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the southern
coast of Argentina
Map references:
Antarctic Region, South America
Area:
total area:
12,170 sq km
land area:
12,170 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
note:
includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200
small islands
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,288 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
100-m depth
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
Climate:
cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more
than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January
and February, but does not accumulate
Terrain:
rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Natural resources:
fish, wildlife
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
99%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
1%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing
season

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), People

Population:
2,261 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.43% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
NA
Death rate:
NA
Net migration rate:
NA
Infant mortality rate:
NA
Life expectancy at birth:
NA
Total fertility rate:
NA
Nationality:
noun:
Falkland Islander(s)
adjective:
Falkland Island
Ethnic divisions:
British
Religions:
primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist
Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
English
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1,100 (est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding)

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Colony of the Falkland Islands
conventional short form:
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Digraph:
FA
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Stanley
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Constitution:
3 October 1985
Legal system:
English common law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government:
Governor David Everard TATHAM (since August 1992)
cabinet:
Executive Council; 3 members elected by the Legislative Council, 2
ex-officio members (chief executive and the financial secretary), and
the governor
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Council:
elections last held 11 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (10 total, 8 elected)
number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Member of:
ICFTU
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer
half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising
is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose
crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the
motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on sheep farming, which directly or indirectly
employs most of the work force. A few dairy herds are kept to meet
domestic consumption of milk and milk products, and crops grown are
primarily those for providing winter fodder. Exports feature shipments
of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins.
Rich stocks of fish in the surrounding waters are not presently
exploited by the islanders. So far, efforts to establish a domestic
fishing industry have been unsuccessful. In 1987 the government began
selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the
Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees amount to more
than $40 million per year and are a primary source of income for the
government. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development
Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the
abundant wildlife and trout fishing.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.4% (1980-87 average)
Unemployment rate:
NA%; labor shortage
Budget:
revenues:
$62.7 million
expenditures:
$42.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports:
at least $14.7 million
commodities:
wool, hides and skins, and meat
partners:
UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)
Imports:
at least $13.9 million
commodities:
food, clothing, fuels, and machinery
partners:
UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
9,200 kW
production:
17 million kWh
consumption per capita:
8,940 kWh (1992)
Industries:
wool and fish processing
Agriculture:
predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds; some fodder and
vegetable crops
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1992-93), $87 million
Currency:
1 Falkland pound (#F) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Falkland pound (#F) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6658 (1993),
0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5604 (1990), 0.6099 (1989); note - the
Falkland pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Communications

Highways:
total:
510 km
paved:
30 km
unpaved:
gravel 80 km; unimproved earth 400 km
Ports:
Stanley
Airports:
total:
5
usable:
5
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radio networks
provide effective service to almost all points on both islands; 590
telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station with links through London to other countries

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Defense Forces

Branches:
British Forces Falkland Islands (including Army, Royal Air Force,
Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Faroe Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(part of the Danish realm)

@Faroe Islands, Geography

Location:
Nordic States, Northern Europe in the north Atlantic Ocean, located
half way between Norway and Iceland
Map references:
Arctic Region
Area:
total area:
1,400 sq km
land area:
1,400 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than eight times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
764 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy
Terrain:
rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
98%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
NA
Note:
archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited islets;
strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern
Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal
lowlands

@Faroe Islands, People

Population:
48,427 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.83% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
17.97 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.56 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
78.1 years
male:
74.71 years
female:
81.62 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.47 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Faroese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Faroese
Ethnic divisions:
Scandinavian
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran
Languages:
Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
17,585
by occupation:
largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing, transportation, and
commerce

@Faroe Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Faroe Islands
local long form:
none
local short form:
Foroyar
Digraph:
FO
Type:
part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
division of Denmark
Capital:
Torshavn
Administrative divisions:
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Independence:
none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
division of Denmark)
National holiday:
Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Constitution:
5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Legal system:
Danish
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High
Commissioner Bent KLINTE (since NA)
head of government:
Prime Minister Marita PETERSEN (since 18 January 1993)
cabinet:
Landsstyri; elected by the local legislature
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Faroese Parliament (Lgting):
elections last held 17 November 1990 (next to be held November 1994);
results - Social Democratic 27.4%, People's Party 21.9%, Cooperation
Coalition Party 18.9%, Republican Party 14.7%, Home Rule 8.8%,
PFIP-CPP 5.9%, other 2.4%; seats - (32 total) two-party coalition 17
(Social Democratic 10, People's Party 7), Cooperation Coalition Party
6, Republican Party 4, Home Rule 3, PFIP-CPP 2
Danish Parliament:
elections last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December
1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) Social
Democratic 1, People's Party 1; note - the Faroe Islands elects two
representatives to the Danish Parliament
Judicial branch:
none
Political parties and leaders:
three-party ruling coalition:
Social Democratic Party, Marita PETERSEN; Republican Party, Signer
HANSEN; Home Rule Party, Hilmar KASS
opposition:
Cooperation Coalition Party, Pauli ELLEFSEN; Progressive and Fishing
Industry Party-Christian People's Party (PFIP-CPP), leader NA;
Progress Party, leader NA; People's Party, Jogvan SUND-STEIN
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
US diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag:
white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

@Faroe Islands, Economy

Overview:
The Faroese, who have long enjoyed the affluent living standards of
the Danes and other Scandinavians, now must cope with the decline of
the all-important fishing industry and one of the world's heaviest per
capita external debts of nearly $30,000. When the nations of the world
extended their fishing zones to 200 nautical miles in the early 1970s,
the Faroese no longer could continue their traditional long-distance
fishing and subsequently depleted their own nearby fishing areas. The
government's tight controls on fish stocks and its austerity measures
have caused a recession, and subsidy cuts will force nationalization
in the fishing industry, which has already been plagued with
bankruptcies. Copenhagen has threatened to withhold its annual subsidy
of $130 million - roughly one-third of the islands' budget revenues -
unless the Faroese make significant efforts to balance their budget.
To this extent the Faroe government is expected to continue its tough
policies, including introducing a 20% value-added tax (VAT) in 1993,
and has agreed to an IMF economic-political stabilization plan. In
addition to its annual subsidy, the Danish government has bailed out
the second largest Faroe bank to the tune of $140 million since
October 1992.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $662 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1989 est.)
National product per capita:
$14,000 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
2.5% (1993 est)
Budget:
revenues:
$425 million
expenditures:
$480 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
$386 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs, transport equipment
(ships) (1989)
partners:
Denmark 20%, Germany 18.3%, UK 14.2%, France 11.2%, Spain 7.9%, US
4.5%
Imports:
$322 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 24.4%, manufactures 24%, food and
livestock 19%, fuels 12%, chemicals 6.5%
partners:
Denmark 43.8%, Norway 19.8%, Sweden 4.9%, Germany 4.2%, US 1.3%
External debt:
$1.3 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
80,000 kW
production:
280 million kWh
consumption per capita:
5,760 kWh (1992)
Industries:
fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts
Agriculture:
accounts for 27% of GDP and employs 27% of labor force; principal
crops - potatoes and vegetables; livestock - sheep; annual fish catch
about 360,000 metric tons
Economic aid:
recipient:
receives an annual subsidy from Denmark of about $130 million
Currency:
1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates:
Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.771 (January 1994), 6.484 (1993),
6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Faroe Islands, Communications

Highways:
total:
200 km
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Torshavn, Tvoroyri
Merchant marine:
7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,943 GRT/18,399 DWT, cargo 5,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1
note:
a subset of the Danish register
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
good international communications; fair domestic facilities; 27,900
telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 3 (10 repeaters) FM, 3 (29
repeaters) TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables

@Faroe Islands, Defense Forces

Branches:
small Police Force, no organized native military forces
Note:
defense is the responsibility of Denmark

@Fiji, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Melanesia, 2,500 km north of New Zealand in the South Pacific
Ocean
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
18,270 sq km
land area:
18,270 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,129 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources:
timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
65%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion
natural hazards:
cyclonic storms can occur from November to January
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
Note:
includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited

@Fiji, People

Population:
764,382 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.05% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
24.18 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
18.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.14 years
male:
62.88 years
female:
67.51 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.92 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Fijian(s)
adjective:
Fijian
Ethnic divisions:
Fijian 49%, Indian 46%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas
Chinese, and other 5%
Religions:
Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%, Muslim
8%, other 2%
note:
Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim
minority (1986)
Languages:
English (official), Fijian, Hindustani
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1985 est.)
total population:
86%
male:
90%
female:
81%
Labor force:
235,000
by occupation:
subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary earners 15%
(1987)

@Fiji, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Fiji
conventional short form:
Fiji
Digraph:
FJ
Type:
republic
note:
military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji
a republic on 6 October 1987
Capital:
Suva
Administrative divisions:
4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*,
Western
Independence:
10 October 1970 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 10 October (1970)
Constitution:
10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new Constitution was
proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25 July 1990; the
1990 Constitution is under review; the review will be complete by 1997
Legal system:
based on British system
Suffrage:
none
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 12 January 1994); First Vice
President Ratu Sir Josaia TAIVAIQIA (since 12 January 1994); Second
Vice President Ratu Inoke TAKIVEIKATA (since 12 January 1994); note -
President GANILAU died on 15 December 1993 and Vice President MARA
became acting president; MARA was elected president by the Great
Council of Chiefs on 12 January 1994
head of government:
Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June 1992)
Presidential Council:
appointed by the governor general
Great Council of Chiefs:
(highest ranking members of the traditional chiefly system)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by prime minister from members of Parliament and
responsible to Parliament
Legislative branch:
the bicameral Parliament was dissolved following the coup of 14 May
1987
Senate:
nonelective body containing 34 seats, 24 reserved for Melanesians, 9
for Indians and others, 1 for the island of Rotuma
House of Representatives:
elections last held 18-25 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1997);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (70 total, with ethnic
Fijians allocated 37 seats, ethnic Indians 27 seats, and independents
and other 6 seats) number of seats by party SVT 31, NFP 20, FLP 7, FA
5, GVP 4, independents 2, ANC 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Fijian Political Party (SVT - primarily Fijian), leader Maj. Gen.
Sitivini RABUKA; National Federation Party (NFP; primarily Indian),
Jai Ram REDDY; Christian Fijian Nationalist Party (CFNP), Sakeasi
BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor Party (FLP), Mahendra CHAUDHRY; All National
Congress (ANC), Apisai TORA; General Voters Party (GVP), Max OLSSON;
Fiji Conservative Party (FCP), Isireli VUIBAU; Conservative Party of
Fiji (CPF), Jolale ULUDOLE and Viliame SAVU; Fiji Indian Liberal
Party, Swami MAHARAJ; Fiji Indian Congress Party, Ishwari BAJPAI; Fiji
Independent Labor (Muslim), leader NA; Four Corners Party, David
TULVANUAVOU; Fijian Association (FA), Josevata KAMIKAMICA
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, PCA,
SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOMUR,
UNTAC, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Pita Kewa NACUVA
chancery:
Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 337-8320
FAX:
(202) 337-1996
consulate(s):
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires William ROPE
embassy:
31 Loftus Street, Suva
mailing address:
P. O. Box 218, Suva
telephone:
[679] 314-466
FAX:
[679] 300-081
Flag:
light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the
shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the
cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree,
bananas, and a white dove

@Fiji, Economy

Overview:
Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large subsistence
sector. Sugar exports and tourism are the major sources of foreign
exchange. Industry contributes 13% to GDP, with sugar processing
accounting for one-third of industrial activity. Roughly 250,000
tourists visit each year. Political uncertainty and drought, however,
contribute to substantial fluctuations in earnings from tourism and
sugar. In 1992, growth was approximately 3%, based on growth in
tourism and a lessening of labor-management disputes in the sugar and
gold-mining sectors. In 1993, the government's budgeted growth rate of
3% was not achieved because of a decline in non-sugar agricultural
output and damage from Cyclone Kina.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.6% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5.9% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$455 million
expenditures:
$546 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$417 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
sugar 40%, clothing, processed fish, gold, lumber
partners:
EC 26%, Australia 15%, Pacific Islands 11%, Japan 6%
Imports:
$517 million (c.i.f., 1992 est)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, consumer
goods, chemicals
partners:
Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%
External debt:
$670 million (1994 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.5% (1992 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
215,000 kW
production:
420 million kWh
consumption per capita:
560 kWh (1992)
Industries:
sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing, lumber, small cottage
industries
Agriculture:
accounts for 23% of GDP; principal cash crop is sugarcane; coconuts,
cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; small livestock sector
includes cattle, pigs, horses, and goats; fish catch nearly 33,000
tons (1989)
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-89), $815 million
Currency:
1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.5239 (January 1994), 1.5418 (1993),
1.5030 (1992), 1.4756 (1991), 1.4809 (1990), 1.4833 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Fiji, Communications

Railroads:
644 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, belonging to the government-owned
Fiji Sugar Corporation
Highways:
total:
3,300 km
paved:
1,590 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 1,290 km; unimproved earth 420
km (1984)
Inland waterways:
203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges
Ports:
Labasa, Lautoka, Savusavu, Suva
Merchant marine:
8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,911 GRT/54,490 DWT, cargo 1,
chemical tanker 2, container 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2
Airports:
total:
25
usable:
22
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated)
public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter
facilities; regional radio center; important COMPAC cable link between
US-Canada and NZ-Australia; 53,228 telephones (71 telephones per 1,000
persons); broadcast stations - 7 AM, 1 FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Fiji, Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; including a naval division,
police)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 197,767; fit for military service 109,026; reach
military age (18) annually 8,154 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22.4 million, about 2% of GDP (FY91/92)

@Finland, Geography

Location:
Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea between Sweden
and Russia
Map references:
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
337,030 sq km
land area:
305,470 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
total 2,628 km, Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km
Coastline:
1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
6 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
territorial sea:
4 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because
of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and
more than 60,000 lakes
Terrain:
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low
hills
Natural resources:
timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
76%
other:
16%
Irrigated land:
620 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid
rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals;
habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic
Treaty, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands,
Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital
on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern
coastal plain

@Finland, People

Population:
5,068,931 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.34% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
12.41 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.84 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.93 years
male:
72.18 years
female:
79.86 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.79 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Finn(s)
adjective:
Finnish
Ethnic divisions:
Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%
Languages:
Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small Lapp- and
Russian-speaking minorities
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population:
100%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
2.533 million
by occupation:
public services 30.4%, industry 20.9%, commerce 15.0%, finance,
insurance, and business services 10.2%, agriculture and forestry 8.6%,
transport and communications 7.7%, construction 7.2%

@Finland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Finland
conventional short form:
Finland
local long form:
Suomen Tasavalta
local short form:
Suomi
Digraph:
FI
Type:
republic
Capital:
Helsinki
Administrative divisions:
12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Ahvenanmaa, Hame,
Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala,
Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa
Independence:
6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Constitution:
17 July 1919
Legal system:
civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request
legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994); election last held 31
January - 6 February 1994 (next to be held January 2000); results -
Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46%
head of government:
Prime Minister Esko AHO (since 26 April 1991); Deputy Prime Minister
Pertti SALOLAINEN (since at least January 1992)
cabinet:
Council of State (Valtioneuvosto); appointed by the president,
responsible to Parliament
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament (Eduskunta):
elections last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1995);
results - Center Party 24.8%, Social Democratic Party 22.1%, National
Coalition (Conservative) Party 19.3%, Leftist Alliance (Communist)
10.1%, Green League 6.8%, Swedish People's Party 5.5%, Rural 4.8%,
Finnish Christian League 3.1%, Liberal People's Party 0.8%; seats -
(200 total) Center Party 55, Social Democratic Party 48, National
Coalition (Conservative) Party 40, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 19,
Swedish People's Party 12, Green League 10, Finnish Christian League
8, Rural 7, Liberal People's Party 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)
Political parties and leaders:
government coalition:
Center Party, Esko AHO; National Coalition (conservative) Party, Perti
SALOLAINEN; Swedish People's Party, (Johan) Ole NORRBACK; Finnish
Christian League, Toimi KANKAANNIEMI
other parties:
Social Democratic Party, Paavo LIPPONEN, acting chairman; Leftist
Alliance (Communist) People's Democratic League and Democratic
Alternative, Claes ANDERSON; Green League, Pekka SAURI; Rural Party,
Tina MAKELA; Liberal People's Party, Kalle MAATTA
Other political or pressure groups:
Finnish Communist Party-Unity, Yrjo HAKANEN; Constitutional Rightist
Party; Finnish Pensioners Party; Communist Workers Party, Timo
LAHDENMAKI
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN,
COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, G-9,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP,
UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI
chancery:
3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone:
(202) 363-2430
FAX:
(202) 363-8233
consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John H. KELLY
embassy:
Itainen Puistotie 14A, SF-00140, Helsinki
mailing address:
APO AE 09723
telephone:
[358] (0) 171931
FAX:
[358] (0) 174681
Flag:
white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the
vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style
of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

@Finland, Economy

Overview:
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market economy, with
per capita output two-thirds of the US figure. Its key economic sector
is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, and engineering
industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods representing
about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland
depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for
manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development
is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. The
economy, which experienced an average of 4.9% annual growth between
1987 and 1989, sank into deep recession in 1991 as growth contracted
by 6.5%. The recession - which continued in 1992 with growth
contracting by 4.1% - has been caused by economic overheating,
depressed foreign markets, and the dismantling of the barter system
between Finland and the former Soviet Union under which Soviet oil and
gas had been exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finnish
Government has proposed efforts to increase industrial competitiveness
and efficiency by an increase in exports to Western markets, cuts in
public expenditures, partial privatization of state enterprises, and
changes in monetary policy. In June 1991 Helsinki had tied the markka
to the European Union's (EU) European Currency Unit (ECU) to promote
stability. Ongoing speculation resulting from a lack of confidence in
the government's policies forced Helsinki to devalue the markka by
about 12% in November 1991 and to indefinitely break the link in
September 1992. The devaluations have boosted the competitiveness of
Finnish exports to the extent the recession bottomed out in 1993 with
renewed economic growth expected in 1994. Unemployment probably will
remain a serious problem during the next few years, with the majority
of Finnish firms facing a weak domestic market and the troubled German
and Swedish export markets. Declining revenues, increased transfer
payments, and extensive funding to bail out the banking system pushed
the central government's budget deficit to nearly 13% in 1993.
Helsinki continues to harmonize its economic policies with those of
the EU during Finland's current EU membership bid. In early 1995,
Finland is expected to join the European Union (formerly the European
Community), thus broadening European economic unity.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $81.1 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
-2.6% (1993)
National product per capita:
$16,100 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.1% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
22% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$26.8 billion
expenditures:
$40.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$23.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and footwear
partners:
EC 53.2% (Germany 15.6%, UK 10.7%), EFTA 19.5% (Sweden 12.8%), US
5.9%, Japan 1.3%, Russia 2.8% (1992)
Imports:
$18 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport
equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder
grains
partners:
EC 47.2% (Germany 16.9%, UK 8.7%), EFTA 19.0% (Sweden 11.7%), US 6.1%,
Japan 5.5%, Russia 7.1% (1992)
External debt:
$30 billion (December 1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.6% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
13,500,000 kW
production:
55.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
11,050 kWh (1992)
Industries:
metal products, shipbuilding, forestry and wood processing (pulp,
paper), copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Agriculture:
accounts for 5% of GDP (including forestry); livestock production,
especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an important export
earner and a secondary occupation for the rural population; main crops
- cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of
foodgrains and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric
tons
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.7 billion
Currency:
1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia
Exchange rates:
markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 5.6920 (January 1994), 5.7123 (1993), 4.4794
(1992), 4.0440 (1991), 3.8235 (1990), 4.2912 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Finland, Communications

Railroads:
5,924 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a total of 5,863
km 1,524-mm gauge, of which 480 km are multiple track and 1,710 km are
electrified
Highways:
total:
76,631 km (1991)
paved:
bituminous concrete, bituminous treated soil 46,745 km
unpaved:
gravel 29,886 km
Inland waterways:
6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for
steamers
Pipelines:
natural gas 580 km
Ports:
Helsinki, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku
Merchant marine:
93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,040,905 GRT/1,143,276 DWT,
bulk 7, cargo 20, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 3, oil tanker 15,
passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 30,
short-sea passenger 9
Airports:
total:
160
usable:
157
with permanent-surface runways:
66
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
26
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
20
Telecommunications:
good service from cable and microwave radio relay network; 3,140,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 105 FM, 235 TV; 1 submarine
cable; INTELSAT satellite transmission service via Swedish earth
station and a receive-only INTELSAT earth station near Helsinki

@Finland, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,323,322; fit for military service 1,089,300; reach
military age (17) annually 33,594 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.6 billion, about 1.5% of GDP (1993)

@France, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Spain and
Germany
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
547,030 sq km
land area:
545,630 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Colorado
note:
includes Corsica and the rest of metropolitan France, but excludes the
overseas administrative divisions
Land boundaries:
total 2,892.4 km, Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy
488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573
km
Coastline:
3,427 km (mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km)
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12-24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands,
Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims Mayotte;
Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin Island;
Suriname claims part of French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton
Island; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); Saint Pierre
and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and
France
Climate:
generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot
summers along the Mediterranean
Terrain:
mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west;
remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
Natural resources:
coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash
Land use:
arable land:
32%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
23%
forest and woodland:
27%
other:
16%
Irrigated land:
11,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and
vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural
runoff
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea
Note:
largest West European nation; occasional warm tropical wind known as
mistral

@France, People

Population:
57,840,445 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.47% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.13 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
9.3 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
78.19 years
male:
74.27 years
female:
82.3 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective:
French
Ethnic divisions:
Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese,
Basque minorities
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North African
workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%
Languages:
French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages
(Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
24.17 million
by occupation:
services 61.5%, industry 31.3%, agriculture 7.2% (1987)

@France, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
French Republic
conventional short form:
France
local long form:
Republique Francaise
local short form:
France
Digraph:
FR
Type:
republic
Capital:
Paris
Administrative divisions:
22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne,
Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne,
Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France,
Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees,
Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes,
Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
note:
the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate
entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe,
Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon)
Dependent areas:
Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Polynesia,
French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova
Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna
note:
the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence:
486 (unified by Clovis)
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Constitution:
28 September 1958, amended concerning election of president in 1962,
amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty in 1992;
amended to tighten immigration laws 1993
Legal system:
civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative
but not legislative acts
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); election last held
8 May 1988 (next to be held by May 1995); results - Second Ballot
Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%
head of government:
Prime Minister Edouard BALLADUR (since 29 March 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the suggestion of
the prime minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
Senate (Senat):
elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held September 1995
- nine-year term, elected by thirds every three years); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (321 total; 296 metropolitan
France, 13 for overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French
nationals abroad) RPR 91, UDF 142 (UREI 51, UC 68, RDE 23), PS 66, PCF
16, independents 2, other 4
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale):
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (577 total) RPR 247,
UDF 213, PS 67, PCF 24, independents 26
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (Cour Constitutionnelle)
Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Jacques CHIRAC; Union for French
Democracy (UDF, federation of UREI, UC, RDE), Valery Giscard
d'ESTAING; Republican Party (PR), Gerard LONGUET; Center for Social
Democrats (CDS), Pierre MEHAIGNERIE; Radical (RAD), Yves GALLAND;
Socialist Party (PS), Henri EMMAMUELLI, interim party leader; Left
Radical Movement (MRG), Jean-Francois HORY; Communist Party (PCF),
Robert HUE; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN; Union of
Republican and Independents (UREI); Centrist Union (UC); Democratic
Assembly (RDE); The Greens, Antoine WAECHTER, Jean-Louis VIDAL, Guy
CAMBOT; Generation Ecology (GE), Brice LALONDE
Other political or pressure groups:
Communist-controlled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail -
CGT) nearly 2.4 million members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor
union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about
800,000 members (est.); independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1
million members (est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation
Generale des Cadres) 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of
French Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais - CNPF or
Patronat)
Member of:
ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB
(non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE,
ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, GATT, G-5, G-7, G-10, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC,
NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UN
Security Council, UNTAC, UN Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI
chancery:
4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 944-6000
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Pamela C. HARRIMAN
embassy:
2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
mailing address:
Unit 21551, Paris; APO AE 09777
telephone:
[33] (1) 4296-12-02 or 42-61-80-75
FAX:
[33] (1) 4266-9783
consulate(s) general:
Bordeaux, Marseille, Strasbourg
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known
as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors are similar
to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland,
Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all French
dependent areas

@France, Economy

Overview:
One of the world's most developed economies, France has substantial
agricultural resources and a highly diversified modern industrial
sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern
technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading
agricultural producer in Western Europe. Largely self-sufficient in
agricultural products, France is a major exporter of wheat and dairy
products. The industrial sector generates about one-quarter of GDP,
and the growing services sector has become crucial to the economy.
Although French GDP contracted by 0.7% in 1993, the economy showed
signs of life by yearend. GDP growth, however, will remain sluggish in
1994 - perhaps reaching only 1.0%. Rapidly increasing unemployment
will still pose a major problem for the government. Paris remains
committed to maintaining the franc-deutsche mark parity, which has

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