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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

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Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of Quito)
Constitution:
10 August 1979
Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages
18-65, optional for other eligible voters
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Sixto DURAN BALLEN Cordovez (since 10 August 1992); Vice
President Alberto DAHIK Garzoni (since 10 August 1992); election
runoff election held 5 July 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
Sixto DURAN BALLEN elected as president and Alberto DAHIK elected as
vice president
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Congress (Congreso Nacional):
elections last held 17 May 1992 (next to be held 1 May 1994); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (77 total) PSC 20, PRE 15, PUR
12, ID 7, PC 6, DP 5, PSE 3, MPD 3, PLRE 2, CFP 2, FRA 1, APRE 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Political parties and leaders:
Center-Right parties:
Social Christian Party (PSC), Jaime NEBOT Saadi, president; Republican
Unity Party (PUR), President Sixto DURAN BALLEN, leader; Conservative
Party (PC), Vice President Alberto DAHIK, president
Center-Left parties:
Democratic Left (ID), Andres VALLEJO Arcos, Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos,
leaders; Popular Democracy (DP), Jamil MANUAD Witt, president;
Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party (PLRE), Carlos Luis PLAZA Aray,
director; Radical Alfarista Front (FRA), Jaime ASPIAZU Seminario,
director
Populist parties:
Roldista Party (PRE), Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director; Concentration of
Popular Forces (CFP), Rafael SANTELICES, director; Popular
Revolutionary Action (APRE), Frank VARGAS Passos, leader; Assad
Bucaram Party (PAB), Avicena BUCARAM, leader; People, Change, and
Democracy (PCD), Raul AULESTIA, director
Far-Left parties:
Popular Democratic Movement (MPD), Jorge Fausto MORENO, director;
Ecuadorian Socialist Party (PSE), Leon ROLDOS, leader; Broad Leftist
Front (FADI), Jose Xavier GARAYCOA, president; Ecuadorian National
Liberation (LN), Alfredo CASTILLO, director
Communists:
Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-North Korea), Rene Leon Mague
MOSWUERRA, secretary general (5,000 members); Communist Party of
Ecuador/Marxist-Leninist (PCMLE, Maoist), leader NA (3,000 members)
Member of:
AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edgar TERAN
chancery:
2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 234-7200
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San
Diego, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Peter F. ROMERO
embassy:
Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
mailing address:
P. O. Box 538, Unit 5309, Quito, or APO AA 34039-3420
telephone:
[593] (2) 562-890, 561-623 or 624
FAX:
[593] (2) 502-052
consulate(s) general:
Guayaquil
Flag:
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red
with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar
to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of
arms

@Ecuador, Economy

Overview:
Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas.
Growth has been uneven because of natural disasters, fluctuations in
global oil prices, and government policies designed to curb inflation.
Banana exports, second only to oil, have suffered as a result of
import quotas of the European Union and banana blight. The new
President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN, has a much more favorable attitude
toward foreign investment than did his predecessor. Ecuador has
implemented trade agreements with Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and
Venezuela and has applied for GATT membership. At the end of 1991,
Ecuador received a standby IMF loan of $105 million, which will permit
the country to proceed with the rescheduling of Paris Club debt. In
September 1992, the government launched a new, macroeconomic program
that gives more play to market forces. In 1993, the DURAN-BALLEN
administration adopted a rigorous austerity program that resulted in
economic stabilization, with inflation cut in half and international
reserves boosted to a record $1.3 billion. Growth in 1993 was perhaps
only 2% due to falling export prices, notably oil, and slow progress
on privatization.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $41.8 billion
National product real growth rate:
2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
31% (1993)
Unemployment rate:
8% (1992)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.9 billion
expenditures:
$1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
petroleum 42%, bananas, shrimp, cocoa, coffee
partners:
US 53.4%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries
Imports:
$2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
transport equipment, vehicles, machinery, chemicals
partners:
US 32.7%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries, Japan
External debt:
$12.7 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.9% (1991); accounts for almost 30% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity:
capacity:
2,921,000 kW
production:
7.676 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
700 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal works, paper products,
wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, timber
Agriculture:
accounts for 18% of GDP and 35% of labor force (including fishing and
forestry); leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood;
other exports - coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; crop production - rice,
potatoes, manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock sector - cattle,
sheep, hogs, beef, pork, dairy products; net importer of foodgrains,
dairy products, and sugar
Illicit drugs:
significant transit country for derivatives of coca originating in
Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of coca; importer
of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics;
important money-laundering hub
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $498 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.15
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $64 million
Currency:
1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
sucres (S/) per US$1 - 1,947.1 (October 1993), 1,534.0 (1992),
1,046.25 (1991), 767.8 (1990), 767.78 (1990), 526.35 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Ecuador, Communications

Railroads:
965 km total; all 1.067-meter-gauge single track
Highways:
total:
28,000 km
paved:
3,600 km
unpaved:
gravel or improved earth 17,400 km; unimproved earth 7,000 km
Inland waterways:
1,500 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km
Ports:
Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, Esmeraldas
Merchant marine:
40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 263,752 GRT/378,675 DWT, bulk 1,
cargo 3, container 2, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 14, passenger 3,
refrigerated cargo 15, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
Airports:
total:
211
usable:
208
with permanent-surface runways:
56
with runway over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
21
Telecommunications:
domestic facilities generally adequate; 318,000 telephones; telephone
density - 30 per 1,000 persons; broadcast stations - 272 AM, no FM, 33
TV, 39 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Ecuador, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana), Air Force
(Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,734,988; fit for military service 1,850,989; reach
military age (20) annually 111,707 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Egypt, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea,
between Sudan and Libya
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,001,450 sq km
land area:
995,450 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 2,689 km, Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan
1,273 km
Coastline:
2,450 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with
international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area
of 20,580 sq km; the dispute over this area escalated in 1993, this
area continues to be in dispute
Climate:
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain:
vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone,
gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
95%
Irrigated land:
25,850 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands;
increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam; desertification;
oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats;
other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, untreated sewage,
and industrial effluents; water scarcity away from the Nile which is
the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population
overstraining natural resources
natural hazards:
periods of drought; subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides,
volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in
spring
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and
remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea
link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean; size, and juxtaposition
to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

@Egypt, People

Population:
60,765,028 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.95% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
28.69 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
8.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
76.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
60.79 years
male:
58.91 years
female:
62.76 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.77 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Egyptian(s)
adjective:
Egyptian
Ethnic divisions:
Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greek,
Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%
Religions:
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic Christian and
other 6% (official estimate)
Languages:
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated
classes
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
48%
male:
63%
female:
34%
Labor force:
15 million (1992 est.)
by occupation:
government, public sector enterprises, and armed forces 36%,
agriculture 34%, privately owned service and manufacturing enterprises
20% (1984)
note:
shortage of skilled labor; 2,500,000 Egyptians work abroad, mostly in
Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab states (1993 est.)

@Egypt, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form:
Egypt
local long form:
Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form:
none
former:
United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Digraph:
EG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Cairo
Administrative divisions:
26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al
Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah,
Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al
Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyu't,
Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh,
Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj
Independence:
28 February 1922 (from UK)
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)
Constitution:
11 September 1971
Legal system:
based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes;
judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (was made acting President on 6
October 1981 upon the assassination of President SADAT and sworn in as
president on 14 October 1981); national referendum held 4 October 1993
validated Mubarak's nomination by the People's Assembly to a third
6-year presidential term
head of government:
Prime Minister Atef Mohammed Najib SEDKY (since 12 November 1986)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral
People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b):
elections last held 29 November 1990 (next to be held NA November
1995); results - NDP 86.3%, NPUG 1.3%, independents 12.4%; seats -
(454 total, 444 elected, 10 appointed by the president) NDP 383, NPUG
6, independents 55; note - most opposition parties boycotted; NDP
figures include NDP members who ran as independents and other
NDP-affiliated independents
Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura):
functions only in a consultative role; elections last held 8 June 1989
(next to be held NA June 1995); results - NDP 100%; seats - (258
total, 172 elected, 86 appointed by the president) NDP 172
Judicial branch:
Supreme Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Party (NDP), President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK,
leader, is the dominant party; legal opposition parties are; New Wafd
Party (NWP), Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN; Socialist Labor Party, Ibrahim
SHUKRI; National Progressive Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid
MUHYI-AL-DIN; Socialist Liberal Party (SLP), Mustafa Kamal MURAD;
Democratic Unionist Party, Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Umma Party,
Ahmad al-SABAHI; Misr al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party), Ali al-Din
SALIH; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party, Dia' al-din DAWUD; Democratic
Peoples' Party, Anwar AFIFI; The Greens Party, Kamal KIRAH
note:
formation of political parties must be approved by government
Other political or pressure groups:
the constitution bans religious-based political parties; nonetheless,
the government tolerates limited political activity by the technically
illegal Muslim Brotherhood, which constitutes Mubarak's chief
political opposition; trade unions and professional associations are
officially sanctioned
Member of:
ABEDA, ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF,
CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC,
OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, UNRWA, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ahmed Maher El SAYED
chancery:
2310 Decatur Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 232-5400
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward WALKER
embassy:
(North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Saleh Street, Garden City, Cairo
mailing address:
APO AE 09839-4900
telephone:
[20] (2) 355-7371
FAX:
[20] (2) 357-3200
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the
national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the
hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic)
centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a
plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green
stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an
Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

@Egypt, Economy

Overview:
Egypt has one of the largest public sectors of all the Third World
economies, most industrial plants being owned by the government.
Overregulation holds back technical modernization and foreign
investment. Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s
and early 1980s, but in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an
increasingly heavy burden of debt servicing led Egypt to begin
negotiations with the IMF for balance-of-payments support. Egypt's
first IMF standby arrangement concluded in mid-1987 was suspended in
early 1988 because of the government's failure to adopt promised
reforms. Egypt signed a follow-on program with the IMF and also
negotiated a structural adjustment loan with the World Bank in 1991.
In 1991-93 the government made solid progress on administrative
reforms such as liberalizing exchange and interest rates but resisted
implementing major structural reforms like streamlining the public
sector. As a result, the economy has not gained momentum and
unemployment has become a growing problem. Egypt probably will
continue making uneven progress in implementing the successor programs
with the IMF and World Bank it signed onto in late 1993. In 1992-93
tourism plunged 20% or so because of sporadic attacks by Islamic
extremists on tourist groups. President MUBARAK has cited population
growth as the main cause of the country's economic troubles. The
addition of about 1.4 million people a year to the already huge
population of 60 million exerts enormous pressure on the 5% of the
land area available for agriculture.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $139 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$16.8 billion
expenditures:
$19.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.4 billion (FY94
est.)
Exports:
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., FY93 est.)
commodities:
crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw cotton, textiles,
metal products, chemicals
partners:
EC, Eastern Europe, US, Japan
Imports:
$10.5 billion (c.i.f., FY93 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood products, durable
consumer goods, capital goods
partners:
EC, US, Japan, Eastern Europe
External debt:
$32 billion (March 1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -0.4% (FY92 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
14,175,000 kW
production:
47 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
830 kWh (1992)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum,
construction, cement, metals
Agriculture:
accounts for 20% of GDP and employs more than one-third of labor
force; dependent on irrigation water from the Nile; world's
sixth-largest cotton exporter; other crops produced include rice,
corn, wheat, beans, fruit, vegetables; not self-sufficient in food for
a rapidly expanding population; livestock - cattle, water buffalo,
sheep, goats; annual fish catch about 140,000 metric tons
Illicit drugs:
a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and
opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for Nigerian
couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish from Lebanon and Syria
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15.7 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $10.1
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $2.4 billion
Currency:
1 Egyptian pound (#E) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates:
Egyptian pounds (#E) per US$1 - 3.369 (November 1993), 3.345 (November
1992), 2.7072 (1990), 2.5171 (1989), 2.2233 (1988), 1.5183 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Egypt, Communications

Railroads:
5,110 km total; 4,763 km 1,435-meter standard gauge, 347 km
0.750-meter gauge; 951 km double track; 25 km electrified
Highways:
total:
45,500 km
paved:
18,300 km
unpaved:
gravel 12,503 km; earth 14,697 km
Inland waterways:
3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway,
and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5 km long
(including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1
meters of water
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km
Ports:
Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, Bur Safajah, Damietta
Merchant marine:
171 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,08,208 GRT/1,617,890 DWT,
bulk 16, cargo 88, container 1, oil tanker 14, passenger 27,
refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 15, short-sea passenger 7
Airports:
total:
92
usable:
82
with permanent-surface runways:
66
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
45
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
23
Telecommunications:
large system by Third World standards but inadequate for present
requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading; 600,000 telephones
(est.) - 11 telephones per 1,000 persons; principal centers at
Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia Suez, and Tanta are connected
by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; international traffic is
carried by satellite - one earth station for each of Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT, Indian Ocean INTELSAT, ARABSAT and INMARSAT; by 5 coaxial
submarine cables, microwave troposcatter (to Sudan), and microwave
radio relay (to Libya, Israel, and Jordan); broadcast stations - 39
AM, 6 FM, and 41 TV

@Egypt, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 15,335,889; fit for military service 9,961,128; reach
military age (20) annually 625,748 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.05 billion, 6% of GDP (FY92/93)

@El Salvador, Geography

Location:
Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean between Guatemala
and Honduras
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
21,040 sq km
land area:
20,720 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
total 545 km, Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km
Coastline:
307 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes:
land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly resolved by 11 September
1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision; ICJ referred the
maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca to an earlier agreement in
this century and advised that some tripartite resolution among El
Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be required
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to
April)
Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Natural resources:
hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum
Land use:
arable land:
27%
permanent crops:
8%
meadows and pastures:
29%
forest and woodland:
6%
other:
30%
Irrigated land:
1,200 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils
from disposal of toxic wastes
natural hazards:
known as the Land of Volcanoes, subject to frequent and sometimes very
destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on
Caribbean Sea

@El Salvador, People

Population:
5,752,511 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.04% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
32.81 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
40.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
66.99 years
male:
64.41 years
female:
69.71 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.78 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Salvadoran(s)
adjective:
Salvadoran
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 94%, Indian 5%, white 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 75%
note:
Roman Catholic about 75%; there is extensive activity by Protestant
groups throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an
estimated 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador
Languages:
Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
73%
male:
76%
female:
70%
Labor force:
1.7 million (1982 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%, government 13%,
financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%
note:
shortage of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled labor, but
manpower training programs improving situation (1984 est.)

@El Salvador, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form:
El Salvador
local long form:
Republica de El Salvador
local short form:
El Salvador
Digraph:
ES
Type:
republic
Capital:
San Salvador
Administrative divisions:
14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan,
Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union,
Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate,
Usulutan
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution:
20 December 1983
Legal system:
based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Armando CALDERON SOL (since 1 June 1994); Vice President
Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994) election last held 20
March 1994 (next to be held March 1999); results - Armando CALDERON
SOL (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel
CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other 10.49%; because no candidate received
a majority, run off election was held 24 April 1994; results - Armando
CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 68.35%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65%
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa):
elections last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held March 1997);
results - ARENA 46.4%, FMLN 25.0%, PDC 21.4%, PCN 4.8%, other 2.4%;
seats - (84 total) ARENA 39, FMLN 21, PDC 18, PCN 4, other 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Political parties and leaders:
National Republican Alliance (ARENA); Farabundo Marti National
Liberation Front (FMLN) has five factions - Popular Liberation Forces
(FPL), Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN), Popular Expression
of Renewal (ERP), Salvadoran Communist Party (PCES), and
Central American Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC); Christian
Democratic Party (PDC); National Conciliation Party (PCN); Democratic
Convergence (CD), a coalition of three parties - the Social Democratic
Party (PSD), Democratic Nationalist Union (UDN), and the Popular
Social Christian Movement (MPSC); Authentic Christian Movement (MAC)
note:
new party leaders not yet designated at time of publication
Other political or pressure groups:
labor organizations:
Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant association; General
Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate; United Workers Front (FUT)
business organizations:
Productive Alliance (AP), conservative; National Federation of
Salvadoran Small Businessmen (FENAPES), conservative
Member of:
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA
(observer), LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ana Cristina SOL
chancery:
2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-9671 or 9672
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San
Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Alan H. FLANIGAN
embassy:
Final Boulevard, Station Antigua Cuscatlan, San Salvador
mailing address:
Unit 3116, San Salvador; APO AA 34023
telephone:
[503] 78-4444
FAX:
[503] 78-6011
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL
SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua,
which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it
features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on
top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of
Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered
in the white band

@El Salvador, Economy

Overview:
The agricultural sector accounts for 24% of GDP, employs about 40% of
the labor force, and contributes about 66% to total exports. Coffee is
the major commercial crop, accounting for 45% of export earnings. The
manufacturing sector, based largely on food and beverage processing,
accounts for 19% of GDP and 15% of employment. In 1992-93 the
government made substantial progress toward privatization and
deregulation of the economy. Growth in national output in 1990-93
exceeded growth in population for the first time since 1987, and
inflation in 1993 of 12% was down from 17% in 1992
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $14.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
6.7% (1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$846 million
expenditures:
$890 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$730 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
coffee, sugarcane, shrimp
partners:
US, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Germany
Imports:
$1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods
partners:
US, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela, Germany
External debt:
$2.6 billion (December 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.6% (1993)
Electricity:
capacity:
713,800 kW
production:
2.19 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
390 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food processing, beverages, petroleum, nonmetallic products, tobacco,
chemicals, textiles, furniture
Agriculture:
accounts for 24% of GDP and 40% of labor force (including fishing and
forestry); coffee most important commercial crop; other products -
sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy products, shrimp;
not self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for local
consumption
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $2.95 billion (plus $250
million for 1992-96); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF
bilateral commitments (1970-89), $525 million
Currency:
1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.720 (January 1994), 8.670 (1993),
8.4500 (1992), 8.080 (1991), 8.0300 (1990), fixed rate of 5.000
(1986-1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@El Salvador, Communications

Railroads:
602 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; some sections abandoned,
unusable, or operating at reduced capacity
Highways:
total:
10,000 km
paved:
1,500 km
unpaved:
gravel 4,100 km; improved, unimproved earth 4,400 km
Inland waterways:
Rio Lempa partially navigable
Ports:
Acajutla, Cutuco
Airports:
total:
107
usable:
76
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
6
Telecommunications:
nationwide trunk microwave radio relay system; connection into Central
American Microwave System; 116,000 telephones (21 telephones per 1,000
persons); broadcast stations - 77 AM, no FM, 5 TV, 2 shortwave; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@El Salvador, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,351,641; fit for military service 866,010; reach
military age (18) annually 74,181 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $104 million, 1.1% of GDP (1994 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Cameroon
and Gabon
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
28,050 sq km
land area:
28,050 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 539 km, Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km
Coastline:
296 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty
over islands in Corisco Bay
Climate:
tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain:
coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
Natural resources:
timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits of gold, manganese,
uranium
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
51%
other:
33%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
desertification
natural hazards:
subject to violent windstorms
international agreements:
party to - Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note:
insular and continental regions rather widely separated

@Equatorial Guinea, People

Population:
409,550 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.59% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
40.65 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
14.73 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
102.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
52.09 years
male:
49.97 years
female:
54.27 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.28 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective:
Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
Ethnic divisions:
Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni (primarily Fang),
Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish
Religions:
nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices
Languages:
Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
50%
male:
64%
female:
37%
Labor force:
172,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 66%, services 23%, industry 11% (1980)
note:
labor shortages on plantations; 58% of population of working age
(1985)

@Equatorial Guinea, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form:
Equatorial Guinea
local long form:
Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial
local short form:
Guinea Ecuatorial
former:
Spanish Guinea
Digraph:
EK
Type:
republic in transition to multiparty democracy
Capital:
Malabo
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte,
Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
Independence:
12 October 1968 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 October (1968)
Constitution:
new constitution 17 November 1991
Legal system:
partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3
August 1979) election last held 25 June 1989 (next to be held 25 June
1996); results - President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO was reelected without opposition
head of government:
Prime Minister Silvestre SIALE BILEKA (since 17 January 1992); Vice
Prime Minister Anatolio NDONG MBA (since November 1993);
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of People's Representatives:
(Camara de Representantes del Pueblo) elections last held 21 November
1993; seats - (82 total) PDGE 72, various opposition parties 10
Judicial branch:
Supreme Tribunal
Political parties and leaders:
ruling - Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig. Gen.
(Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO, party leader; Progressive
Democratic Alliance (ADP), Antonio-Ebang Mbele Abang, president;
Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea (APGE),Casiano Masi Edu, leader;
Liberal Democratic Convention (CLD), Alfonso Nsue MOKUY, president;
Convergence for Social Democracy (CPDS),Santiago Obama Ndong,
president; Social Democratic and Popular Convergence (CSDP), Secundino
Oyono Agueng Ada, general secretary; Party of the Social Democratic
Coalition (PCSD), Buenaventura Moswi M'Asumu, general coordinater;
Liberal Party (PL), leaders unknown; Party of Progress (PP), Severo
MOTO Nsa, president; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Benjamin-Gabriel
Balingha Balinga Alene, general secretary; Socialist Party of
Equatorial Guinea (PSGE), Tomas MICHEBE Fernandez, general secretary;
National Democratic Union (UDENA), Jose MECHEBA Ikaka, president;
Democratic Social Union (UDS), Jesus Nze Obama Avomo, general
secretary; Popular Union (UP), Juan Bitui, president
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador DAMASO Obiang Ndong
chancery:
(temporary) 57 Magnolia Avenue, Mount Vernon, NY 10553
telephone:
(914) 738-9584 or 667-6913
FAX:
(914) 667-6838
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John E. BENNETT
embassy:
Calle de Los Ministros, Malabo
mailing address:
P.O. Box 597, Malabo
telephone:
[240] (9) 2185, 2406, 2507
FAX:
[240] (9) 2164
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a
blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms
centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow
six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore
islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below
which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace,
Justice)

@Equatorial Guinea, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing account for about half of GDP and
nearly all exports. Subsistence farming predominates. Although
pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for
hard currency earnings, the deterioration of the rural economy under
successive brutal regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led
growth. A number of AID programs sponsored by the World Bank and the
international donor community have failed to revitalize export
agriculture. There is little industry; businesses for the most part
are owned by government officials and their family members. Commerce
accounts for about 8% of GDP and the construction, public works, and
service sectors for about 38%. Undeveloped natural resources include
titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil
exploration, taking place under concessions offered to US, French, and
Spanish firms, has been moderately successful. Increased production
from recently discovered natural gas fields will provide a greater
share of exports by 1995.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $280 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA
National product per capita:
$700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$32.5 million
expenditures:
$35.9 million, including capital expenditures of $3 million (1992
est.)
Exports:
$52.8 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
coffee, timber, cocoa beans
partners:
Spain 55.2%, Nigeria 11.4%, Cameroon 9.1% (1992)
Imports:
$63.6 million (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
partners:
Cameroon 23.1%, Spain 21.8%, France 14.1%, US 4.3%
External debt:
$260 million (1992 est)
Industrial production:
growth rate -6.5% (1992 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
23,000 kW
production:
60 million kWh
consumption per capita:
160 kWh (1991)
Industries:
fishing, sawmilling
Agriculture:
accounts for almost 50% of GDP, cash crops - timber and coffee from
Rio Muni, cocoa from Bioko; food crops - rice, yams, cassava, bananas,
oil palm nuts, manioc, livestock
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY81-89), $14 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $130
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $55 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 273,16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Equatorial Guinea, Communications

Highways:
total:
2,760 km (2,460 km on Rio Muni and 300 km on Bioko)
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Ports:
Malabo, Bata
Merchant marine:
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,412 GRT/6,699 DWT, cargo 1,
passenger-cargo 1
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
poor system with adequate government services; international
communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries;
2,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Equatorial Guinea, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 86,957; fit for military service 44,174
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Eritrea, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea between Djibouti and Sudan
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
121,320 sq km
land area:
121,320 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
total 1,630 km, Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km
Coastline:
1,151 km (land and island coastline is 2,234 km)
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the
central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in
western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September
except on coast desert
Terrain:
dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands,
descending on the east to a coastal desert plan, on the northwest to
hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
Natural resources:
gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil, fish
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
2% (coffee)
meadows and pastures:
40%
forest and woodland:
5%
other:
50%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
famine; deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of
infrastructure from civil warfare
natural hazards:
frequent droughts
international agreements:
NA
Note:
strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes
and close to Arabian oilfields, Eritrea retained the entire coastline
of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia
on 27 April 1993

@Eritrea, People

Population:
3,782,543 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.41% (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Eritrean(s)
adjective:
Eritrean
Ethnic divisions:
ethnic Tigrays 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast
dwellers) 3%
Religions:
Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant
Languages:
Tigre and Kunama, Cushitic dialects, Tigre, Nora Bana, Arabic
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

@Eritrea, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
State of Eritrea
conventional short form:
Eritrea
local long form:
none
local short form:
none
former:
Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia
Digraph:
ER
Type:
transitional government
note:
on 29 May 1991 ISSAIAS Afeworke, secretary general of the Eritrean
People's Liberation Front (EPLF), announced the formation of the
Provisional Government in Eritrea (PGE), in preparation for the 23-25
April 1993 referendum on independence for the autonomous region of
Eritrea; the result was a landslide vote for independence that was
announced on 27 April 1993
Capital:
Asmara (formerly Asmera)
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces; Akale Guzay, Baraka, Denakil, Hamasen, Samhar, Seraye,
Sahil (1993)
Independence:
27 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea Autonomous Region)
National holiday:
National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May (1993)
Constitution:
transitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993
Legal system:
NA
Suffrage:
NA
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President ISSAIAS Afeworke (since 22 May 1993)
cabinet:
State Council; the collective executive authority
note:
election to be held before 20 May 1997
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly:
EPLF Central Committee serves as the country's legislative body until
multinational elections are held (before 20 May 1997)
Judicial branch:
Judiciary
Political parties and leaders:
Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) (Christian Muslim), ISSAIAS
Aferworke, PETROS Solomon; Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) (Muslim),
ABDULLAH Muhammed; Eritrean Liberation Front - United Organization
(ELF-UO), Mohammed Said NAWUD; Eritrean Liberation Front -
Revolutionary Council (ELF-RC), Ahmed NASSER
Other political or pressure groups:
Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ); Islamic Militant Group
Member of:
OAU, ACP, AfDB, ECA, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), ITU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate Hagos GEBREHIWOT
chancery:
Suite 400, 910 17th Street NW, Washington DC 20006
telephone:
(202) 429-1991
FAX:
(202) 429-9004
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert G. HOUDEK
embassy:
34 Zera Yacob St., Asmara
mailing address:
P.O. Box 211, Asmara
telephone:
[291] (1) 123-720
FAX:
[291] (1) 127-584
Flag:
red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag
into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one
is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on
the hoist side of the red triangle

@Eritrea, Economy

Overview:
With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993, Eritrea faces the
bitter economic problems of a small, desperately poor African country.
Most of the population will continue to depend on subsistence farming.
Domestic output is substantially augmented by worker remittances from
abroad. Government revenues come from custom duties and income and
sales taxes. Eritrea has inherited the entire coastline of Ethiopia
and has long-term prospects for revenues from the development of
offshore oil, offshore fishing and tourism. For the time being,
Ethiopia will be largely dependent on Eritrean ports for its foreign
trade.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
NA kW
production:
NA kWh
consumption per capita:
NA kWh
Industries:
food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles
Agriculture:
products - sorghum, livestock (including goats), fish, lentils,
vegetables, maize, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal (for making rope)
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 birr (Br) = 100 cents; at present, Ethiopian currency used
Exchange rates:
1 birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.000 (fixed rate since 1992)
Fiscal year:
NA

@Eritrea, Communications

Railroads:
307 km total; 307 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km 0.950-meter gauge
(nonoperational) linking Ak'ordat and Asmara (formerly Asmera) with
the port of Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa; 1993 est.)
Highways:
total:
3,845 km
paved:
807 km
unpaved:
gravel 840 km; improved earth 402 km; unimproved earth 1,796 km
Ports:
Assab (formerly Aseb), Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)
Merchant marine:
none
Airports:
total:
5
usable:
5
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
NA

@Eritrea, Defense Forces

Branches:
Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Estonia, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia
Map references:
Arctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
45,100 sq km
land area:
43,200 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
note:
includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Land boundaries:
total 557 km, Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km
Coastline:
1,393 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Terrain:
marshy, lowlands
Natural resources:
shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber
Land use:
arable land:
22%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
11%
forest and woodland:
31%
other:
36%
Irrigated land:
110 sq km (1990)
Environment:
current issues:
air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power
plants in northeast; contamination of soil and ground water with
petroleum products, chemicals at military bases
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified
- Biodiversity, Climate Change
Population:
1,616,882 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.52% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.98 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
12.04 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
19.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.96 years
male:
64.98 years
female:
75.19 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Estonian(s)
adjective:
Estonian
Ethnic divisions:
Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.17%, Byelorussian 1.8%,
Finn 1.1%, other 2.13% (1989)
Religions:
Lutheran
Languages:
Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1989)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
750,000 (1992)
by occupation:
industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 20%, other 38%
(1990)

@Estonia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Estonia
conventional short form:
Estonia
local long form:
Eesti Vabariik
local short form:
Eesti
former:
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
EN
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tallinn
Administrative divisions:
15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond) and 6 municipalities*:
Harju maakond (Tallinn), Hiiu maakond (Kardla), Ida-Viru maakond
(Johvi), Jarva maakond (Paide), Jogeva maakond (Jogeva),
Kohtla-Jarve*, Laane maakond (Haapsalu), Laane-Viru maakond (Rakvere),
Narva*, Parnu*, Parnu maakond (Parnu), Polva maakond (Polva), Rapla
maakond (Rapla), Saare maakond (Kuessaare), Sillamae*, Tallinn*,
Tartu*, Tartu maakond (Tartu), Valga maakond (Valga), Viljandi maakond
(Viljandi), Voru maakond (Voru)
note:
county centers are in parentheses
Independence:
6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 February (1918)
Constitution:
adopted 28 June 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Lennart MERI (since 21 October 1992); election last held 20
September 1992; (next to be held NA 1997); results - no candidate
received majority; newly elected Parliament elected Lennart MERI (21
October 1992)
head of government:
Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since 21 October 1992)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister, authorized by
the legislature
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament (Riigikogu):
elections last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held NA); results -
Fatherland 21%, Safe Haven 14%, Popular Front 13%, M 10%, ENIP 8%, ERP
7%, ERL 7%, EP 2%, other 18%; seats - (101 total) Fatherland 29, Safe
Haven 18, Popular Front 15, M 12, ENIP 10, ERP 8, ERL 8, EP 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
National Coalition Party 'Pro Patria' (Isamaa of Fatherland), Mart
LAAR, president, made up of 4 parties: Christian Democratic Party
(KDE), Aivar KALA, chairman; Christian Democratic Union (KDL), Illar
HALLASTE, chairman; Conservative People's Party (KR), Enn TARTO,
chairman; Republican Coalition Party (VK), Leo STARKOV, chairman;
Moderates (M), made up of two parties: Estonian Social Democratic
Party (ESDB), Marju LAURISTIN, chairman; Estonian Rural Center Pary
(EMK), Ivar RAIG, chairman; Estonian National Independence Party
(ENIP), Tunne KELAM, chairman; Liberal Democratic Party (LDP),
Paul-Eerik RUMMO, chairman; Safe Haven, made up of three parties:
Estonian Coalition Party (EK), Tiit VAHI, chairman; Estonian Rural
Union (EM), Arvo SIRENDI, chairman; Estonian Democratic Justice
Union/Estonian Pensioners' League (EDO/EPU), Harri KARTNER, chairman;
Estonian Centrist Party (EK), Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman; Estonian
Democratic Labor Party (EDT), Vaino VALJAS, chairman; Estonian Green
Party (ERL), Tonu OJA; Estonian Royalist Party (ERP), Kalle KULBOK,
chairman; Entrepreneurs' Party (EP), Tiit MADE; Estonian Citizen
(EKL), Juri TOOMEPUU, chairman
Member of:
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Toomas Hendrik ILVES
chancery:
1030 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005, Suite 1000
telephone:
(202) 789-0320
FAX:
(202) 789-0471
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert C. FRASURE
embassy:
Kentmanni 20, Tallin EE 0001
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
011-[372] (6) 312-021 through 024
FAX:
[372] (6) 312-025
Flag:
pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal
horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

@Estonia, Economy

Overview:
Bolstered by a widespread national desire to reintegrate into Western
Europe, the Estonian government has pursued a program of market
reforms and rough stabilization measures, which is rapidly
transforming the economy. Two years after independence - and one year
after the introduction of the kroon - Estonians are beginning to reap
tangible benefits; inflation is low; production declines appear to
have bottomed out; and living standards are rising. Economic
restructuring is clearly underway with the once-dominant
energy-intensive heavy industrial sectors giving way to
labor-intensive light industry and the underdeveloped service sector.
The private sector is growing rapidly; the share of the state
enterprises in retail trade has steadily declined and by June 1993
accounted for only 12.5% of total turnover, and 70,000 new jobs have
reportedly been created as a result of new business start-ups.
Estonia's foreign trade has shifted rapidly from East to West with the
Western industrialized countries now accounting for two-thirds of
foreign trade.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8.8 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Estonian statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate:
-5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,480 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.6% per month (1993 average)
Unemployment rate:
3.5% (May 1993); but large number of underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues:
$223 million
expenditures:
$142 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$765 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
textile 14%, food products 11%, vehicles 11%, metals 11% (1993)
partners:
Russia, Finland, Latvia, Germany, Ukraine
Imports:
$865 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
machinery 18%, fuels 15%, vehicles 14%, textiles 10% (1993)
partners:
Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany, Netherlands
External debt:
$650 million (end of 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -27% (1993)
Electricity:
capacity:
3,700,000 kW
production:
22.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
14,245 kWh (1992)
Industries:
accounts for 42% of labor force; oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates,
electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles,
paper, shoes, apparel
Agriculture:
employs 20% of work force; very efficient by Soviet standards; net
exports of meat, fish, dairy products, and potatoes; imports of
feedgrains for livestock; fruits and vegetables
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia
and Latin America to Western Europe; limited illicit opium producer;
mostly for domestic consumption
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million
Currency:
1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 cents (introduced in August 1992)
Exchange rates:
kroons (EEK) per US$1 - 13.9 (January 1994), 13.2 (1993); note -
kroons are tied to the German Deutschmark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Estonia, Communications

Railroads:
1,030 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
total:
30,300 km
paved or gravelled:
29,200 km
unpaved:
earth 1,100 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
500 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
natural gas 420 km (1992)
Ports:
coastal - Tallinn, Novotallin, Parnu; inland - Narva
Merchant marine:
69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 406,405 GRT/537,016 DWT, bulk 6,
cargo 50, container 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6,
short-sea passenger 4
Airports:
total:
29
usable:
18
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
8
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
Estonia's telephone system is antiquated and supports about 400,000
domestic telephone circuits, i.e. 25 telephones for each 100 persons;
improvements are being made piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs
and international connections; there are still about 150,000
unfulfilled requests for telephone service; broadcast stations - 3 TV
(provide Estonian programs as well Moscow Ostenkino's first and second
programs); international traffic is carried to the other former USSR
republics by land line or microwave and to other countries partly by
leased connection to the Moscow international gateway switch, and
partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber optic submarine cable which
gives Estonia access to international circuits everywhere; substantial
investment has been made in cellular systems which are operational
throughout Estonia and also Latvia and which have access to the
international packet switched digital network via Helsinki

@Estonia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Maritime Border Guard, National Guard (Kaitseliit),
Security Forces (internal and border troops), Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 392,135; fit for military service 308,951; reach
military age (18) annually 11,789 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
124.4 million kroons, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993); note -
conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

@Ethiopia, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, between Somalia and Sudan
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,127,127 sq km
land area:
1,119,683 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,311 km, Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km, Somalia
1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
International disputes:
southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional
Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden
Climate:
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Terrain:
high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Natural resources:
small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash
Land use:
arable land:
12%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
41%
forest and woodland:
24%
other:
22%
Irrigated land:
1,620 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:

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