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The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 11 out of 46

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note:
the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and
bottom with a red crescent and red star on a white field

@Cyprus, Economy

Overview:
The Greek Cypriot economy is small, diversified, and prosperous.
Industry contributes 16% to GDP and employs 29% of the labor force,
while the service sector contributes 60% to GDP and employs 57% of the
labor force. An average 6.8% rise in real GDP between 1986 and 1990
was temporarily checked in 1991, because of the adverse effects of the
Gulf War on tourism. Economic growth surged again in 1992, bolstered
by strong foreign and domestic demand. As the economy gained momentum,
however, it began to overheat; inflation reached 6.5%. The economy has
likely recorded a sharp drop in growth in 1993, due to the recession
in Western Europe, Cyprus' main trading partner, but probably will
pick up again in 1994. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less than
one-third the per capita GDP in the south. Because it is recognized
only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign
financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there. The
economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture, which employs more
than one-quarter of the workforce. Moreover, because the Turkish lira
is legal tender, the Turkish Cypriot economy has suffered the same
high inflation as mainland Turkey. To compensate for the economy's
weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to nearly every
sector; financial support has reached about one-third of Turkish
Cypriot GDP.
National product:
Greek area:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.7 billion (1992)
Turkish area:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $550 million (1992)
National product real growth rate:
Greek area:
8.2% (1992)
Turkish area:
7.3% (1992)
National product per capita:
Greek area:
$11,390 (1992)
Turkish area:
$3,130 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Greek area:
6.5% (1992)
Turkish area:
63.4% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
Greek area:
1.8% (1992)
Turkish area:
1.2% (1992)
Budget:
revenues:
Greek area - $1.7 billion
Turkish area - $273 million
expenditures:
Greek area - $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $350
million
Turkish area - $360 million, including capital expenditures of $78
million (1994)
Exports:
$1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes
partners:
UK 19%, Greece 8%, Lebanon 2%, Egypt 7%
Imports:
$3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains,
machinery
partners:
UK 11%, Japan 11%, Italy 10%, Germany 9%, US 8%
External debt:
$1.6 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4% (1993 est.); accounts for 16.0% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
620,000 kW
production:
1.77 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,530 kWh (1991)
Industries:
food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood
products
Agriculture:
contributes 7% to GDP and employs 26% of labor force in the south;
major crops - potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, citrus
fruits; vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues
Illicit drugs:
transit point for heroin via air routes and container traffic to
Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $250
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $24 million
Currency:
1 Cypriot pound (#C) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus
Exchange rates:
Cypriot pounds per $US1 - 0.5148 (December 1993), 0.4970 (1993),
0.4502 (1992), 0.4615 (1991), 0.4572 (1990), 0.4933 (1989); Turkish
liras (TL) per US$1 - 15,196.1 (January 1994), 10,983.3 (1993),
6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Cyprus, Communications

Highways:
total:
10,780 km
paved:
5,170 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, earth 5,610 km
Ports:
Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos
Merchant marine:
1,399 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,743,484 GRT/39,874,985
DWT, bulk 469, cargo 496, chemical tanker 27, combination bulk 48,
combination ore/oil 32, container 82, liquefied gas 3, multifunction
large load carrier 4, oil tanker 122, passenger 4, passenger-cargo 2,
railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 67, roll-on/roll-off cargo 24,
short-sea passenger 12, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 3
note:
a flag of convenience registry; Cuba owns 26 of these ships, Russia
owns 61, Latvia owns 7, Croatia owns 2, and Romania owns 4
Airports:
total:
14
usable:
14
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
excellent in both the area controlled by the Cypriot Government (Greek
area), and in the Turkish-Cypriot administered area; 210,000
telephones; largely open-wire and microwave radio relay; broadcast
stations - 11 AM, 8 FM, 1 (34 repeaters) TV in Greek sector and 2 AM,
6 FM and 1 TV in Turkish sector; international service by tropospheric
scatter, 3 submarine cables, and satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and EUTELSAT earth stations

@Cyprus, Defense Forces

Branches:
Greek area:
Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; including air and naval elements),
Greek Cypriot Police
Turkish area:
Turkish Cypriot Security Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 186,807; fit for military service 128,444; reach
military age (18) annually 5,233 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $407 million, 6.5% of GDP (1993)

@Czech Republic, Geography

Location:
Central Europe, between Germany and Slovakia
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
78,703 sq km
land area:
78,645 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
total 1,880 km, Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km,
Slovakia 214 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
Liechtenstein claims l,606 square miles of Czech territory confiscated
from its royal family in 1918; Sudeten German claims for restitution
of property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World
War II versus the Czech Republic claims that restitution does not
proceed before February 1948 when the Communists seized power;
unresolved property issues with Slovakia over redistribution of
property of the former Czechoslovak federal government
Climate:
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:
two main regions: Bohemia in the west, consisting of rolling plains,
hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; and Moravia in the
east, consisting of very hilly country
Natural resources:
hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia centered around
Zeplica and in northern Moravia around Ostrava presents health
hazards; acid rain damaging forests
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
Note:
landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most
significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional
military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in
central Europe

@Czech Republic, People

Population:
10,408,280 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.21% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
13.23 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
11.14 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
9.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.08 years
male:
69.38 years
female:
76.99 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.84 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Czech(s)
adjective:
Czech
Ethnic divisions:
Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Gypsy 0.3%,
Hungarian 0.2%, other 1%
Religions:
atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%,
other 13.4%
Languages:
Czech, Slovak
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
5.389 million
by occupation:
industry 37.9%, agriculture 8.1%, construction 8.8%, communications
and other 45.2% (1990)

@Czech Republic, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Czech Republic
conventional short form:
Czech Republic
local long form:
Ceska Republika
local short form:
Cechy
Digraph:
EZ
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Prague
Administrative divisions:
8 regions (kraje, kraj - singular); Jihocesky, Jihomoravsky, Praha,
Severocesky, Severomoravsky, Stredocesky, Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky
Independence:
1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)
National holiday:
National Liberation Day, 9 May; Founding of the Republic, 28 October
Constitution:
ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993
Legal system:
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line
with Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993); election last held 26
January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998); results - Vaclav HAVEL
elected by the National Council
head of government:
Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992); Deputy Prime
Ministers Ivan KOCARNIK, Josef LUX, Jan KALVODA (since NA June 1992)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime
minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Council (Narodni rada)
Senate:
elections not yet held; seats (81 total)
Chamber of Deputies:
elections last held 5-6 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (200 total) Civic Democratic
Party/Christian Democratic Party 76, Left Bloc 35, Czech Social
Democratic Party 16, Liberal Social Union 16, Christian Democratic
Union/Czech People's Party 15, Assembly for the Republic/Republican
Party 14, Civic Democratic Alliance 14, Movement for Self-Governing
Democracy for Moravia and Silesia 14
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Civic Democratic Party (ODS), Vaclav KLAUS, chairman; Christian
Democratic Union-Czech People's Party (KDU-CSL), Josef LUX, chairman;
Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA), Jan KALVODA, chairman; Christian
Democratic Party (KDS), Ivan PILIP, chairman; Czech Social Democratic
Party, Milos ZEMAN, chairman; Czech-Moravian Center Party, Jan KYCER,
chairman; Liberal Social Union (LSU), Frantisek TRNKA; Communist Party
of Bohemia/Moravia (KSCM), Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman; Association
for the Republic - Republican Party, Miroslav SLADEK, chairman; Left
Bloc, Marie STIBOROVA, chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
Left Bloc; Liberal Party; Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade Unions
Member of:
BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IFCTU, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NSG,
PCA, UN (as of 8 January 1993), UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNOMIG, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Michael ZANTOVSKY
chancery:
3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 363-6315 or 6316
FAX:
(202) 966-8540
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Adrian A. BASORA
embassy:
Trziste 15, 11801, Prague 1
mailing address:
Unit 25402; APO AE 09213
telephone:
[42] (2) 251-0847
FAX:
[42] (2) 531-193
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost identical to the
flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

@Czech Republic, Economy

Overview:
The dissolution of Czechoslovakia into two independent nation states -
the Czech Republic and Slovakia - on 1 January 1993 has complicated
the task of moving toward a more open and decentralized economy. The
old Czechoslovakia, even though highly industrialized by East European
standards, suffered from an aging capital plant, lagging technology,
and a deficiency in energy and many raw materials. In January 1991,
approximately one year after the end of communist control of Eastern
Europe, the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic launched a sweeping
program to convert its almost entirely state-owned and controlled
economy to a market system. In 1991-92 these measures resulted in
privatization of some medium- and small-scale economic activity and
the setting of more than 90% of prices by the market - but at a cost
in inflation, unemployment, and lower output. For Czechoslovakia as a
whole inflation in 1991 was roughly 50% and output fell 15%. In 1992,
in the Czech lands, inflation dropped to an estimated 12.5% and GDP
was down a more moderate 5%. In 1993, Czech aggregate output remained
unchanged, prices rose about 19%, and unemployment hovered above 3%;
exports to Slovakia fell roughly 30%. An estimated 40% of the economy
was privately owned. In 1994, Prague expects 2% to 3% growth in GDP,
roughly 9% inflation, and 5% unemployment. Economic growth in 1994 is
less important than continued economic restructuring; a mere 1% growth
would be noteworthy if restructuring is accompanied by rising
unemployment and enterprise bankruptcies.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $75 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$7,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
19% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3.3% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$11.9 billion
expenditures:
$11.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$12.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals,
fuels, minerals, and metals
partners:
Germany, Slovakia, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Italy, France, US, UK,
CIS republics
Imports:
$12.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manfactured
goods, raw materials, chemicals, agricultural products
partners:
Slovakia, CIS republics, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland,
Hungary, UK, Italy
External debt:
$8.6 billion (October 1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate -5.5% (December 1993 over December 1992)
Electricity:
capacity:
16,500,000 kW
production:
62.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
6,030 kWh (1992)
Industries:
fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal, motor
vehicles, glass, armaments
Agriculture:
largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and
livestock production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops,
fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American
cocaine to Western Europe
Economic aid:
donor:
the former Czechoslovakia was a donor - $4.2 billion in bilateral aid
to non-Communist less developed countries (1954-89)
Currency:
1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru
Exchange rates:
koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 30.122 (January 1994), 29.153 (1993), 28.26
(1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989)
note:
values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Czech Republic, Communications

Railroads:
9,434 km total (1988)
Highways:
total:
55,890 km (1988)
paved:
NA
unpaved:
NA
Inland waterways:
NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river
Pipelines:
natural gas 5,400 km
Ports:
coastal outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin), Croatia
(Rijeka), Slovenia (Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal
river ports are Prague on the Vltava, Decin on the Elbe (Labe)
Merchant marine:
18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 225,934 GRT/350,330 DWT, bulk 7,
cargo 11
Airports:
total:
155
usable:
123
with permanent-surface runways:
27
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
17
with runways 1,060-2,439 m:
52
note:
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications:
NA

@Czech Republic, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Railroad Units
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,747,126; fit for military service 2,091,532; reach
military age (18) annually 93,342 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
23 billion koruny, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of
defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results

@Denmark, Geography

Location:
Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea on a peninsula
north of Germany
Map references:
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
43,070 sq km
land area:
42,370 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Massachusetts
note:
includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of
metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Land boundaries:
total 68 km, Germany 68 km
Coastline:
3,379 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
4 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland, Ireland, and the
UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall
area); dispute between Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in
Arctic Ocean between Greenland and Jan Mayen has been settled by the
International Court of Justice
Climate:
temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Terrain:
low and flat to gently rolling plains
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone
Land use:
arable land:
61%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
12%
other:
21%
Irrigated land:
4,300 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea;
drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes
natural hazards:
NA
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note:
controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; about
one-quarter of the population lives in Copenhagen

@Denmark, People

Population:
5,187,821 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.23% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
12.45 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
11.28 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.81 years
male:
72.93 years
female:
78.86 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.68 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Dane(s)
adjective:
Danish
Ethnic divisions:
Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 2%,
other 7% (1988)
Languages:
Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), German (small
minority)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
2,553,900
by occupation:
private services 37.1%, government services 30.4%, manufacturing and
mining 20%, construction 6.3%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing
5.6%, electricity/gas/water 0.6% (1991)

@Denmark, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form:
Denmark
local long form:
Kongeriget Danmark
local short form:
Danmark
Digraph:
DA
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Copenhagen
Administrative divisions:
metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter, singular - amt) and 1 city*
(stad); Arhus, Bornholm, Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kbenhavn, Nordjylland,
Ribe, Ringkbing, Roskilde, Snderjylland, Staden Kbenhavn*, Storstrm,
Vejle, Vestsjaelland, Viborg
note:
see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which are
part of the Danish realm and self-governing administrative divisions
Independence:
1849 (became a constitutional monarchy)
National holiday:
Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Constitution:
5 June 1953
Legal system:
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen MARGRETHE II (since NA January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26 May 1968)
head of government:
Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since NA January 1993)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament (Folketing):
elections last held 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December
1994); results - Social Democratic Party 37.4%, Conservative Party
16.0%, Liberal 15.8%, Socialist People's Party 8.3%, Progress Party
6.4%, Center Democratic Party 5.1%, Radical Liberal Party 3.5%,
Christian People's Party 2.3%, other 5.2%; seats - (179 total;
includes 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands) Social
Democratic 69, Conservative 30, Liberal 29, Socialist People's 15,
Progress Party 12, Center Democratic 9, Radical Liberal 7, Christian
People's 4
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Party, Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN; Conservative Party,
Torben RECHENDORFF; Liberal Party, Uffe ELLEMANN-JENSEN; Socialist
People's Party, Holger K. NIELSEN; Progress Party, Johannes SORENSEN;
Center Democratic Party, Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN; Radical Liberal
Party, Marianne JELVED; Christian People's Party, Jann SJURSEN; Common
Course, Preben Moller HANSEN; Danish Workers' Party
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN,
COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC,
NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNMOGIP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG
chancery:
3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 234-4300
FAX:
(202) 328-1470
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward E. ELSON
embassy:
Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen O
mailing address:
APO AE 09716
telephone:
[45] (31) 42-31-44
FAX:
[45] (35) 43-0223
Flag:
red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the
vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that
design element of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted
by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

@Denmark, Economy

Overview:
This modern economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date
small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare
measures, comfortable living standards, and high dependence on foreign
trade. Denmark's new center-left coalition government will concentrate
on reducing the persistent high unemployment rate and the budget
deficit as well as following the previous government's policies of
maintaining low inflation and a current account surplus. In the face
of recent international market pressure on the Danish krone, the
coalition has also vowed to maintain a stable currency. The coalition
hopes to lower marginal income taxes while maintaining overall tax
revenues; boost industrial competitiveness through labor market and
tax reforms and increased research and development funds; and improve
welfare services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays.
Prime Minister RASMUSSEN's reforms will focus on adapting Denmark to
the criteria for European integration by 1999; although Copenhagen has
won from the European Union (EU) the right to opt out of the European
Monetary Union (EMU) if a national referendum rejects it. Denmark is,
in fact, one of the few EU countries likely to fit into the EMU on
time. Denmark is weathering the current worldwide slump better than
many West European countries. As the EU's single market (formally
established on 1 January 1993) gets underway, Danish economic growth
is expected to pickup to around 2% in 1994. Danish approval of the
Maastricht treaty on EU political and economic union in May 1993 has
reversed the drop in investment, further boosting growth. The current
account surplus remains strong as limitations on wage increases and
low inflation - expected to be around 2% in 1994 - improve export
competitiveness. Although unemployment is high, it remains stable
compared to most European countries.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $95.6 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
0.5% (1993)
National product per capita:
$18,500 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
11.8% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$48 billion
expenditures:
$55.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)
Exports:
$36.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
meat and meat products, dairy products, transport equipment
(shipbuilding), fish, chemicals, industrial machinery
partners:
EC 54.3% (Germany 23.6%, UK 10.1%, France 5.7%), Sweden 10.5%, Norway
5.8%, US 4.9%, Japan 3.6% (1992)
Imports:
$29.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs,
textiles, paper
partners:
EC 53.4% (Germany 23.1%, UK 8.2%, France 5.6%), Sweden 10.8%, Norway
5.4%, US 5.7%, Japan 4.1% (1992)
External debt:
$40 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -2.5% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
11,215,000 kW
production:
34.17 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
6,610 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing,
chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other
wood products, shipbuilding
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP and employs 5.6% of labor force (includes
fishing and forestry); farm products account for nearly 15% of export
revenues; principal products - meat, dairy, grain, potatoes, rape,
sugar beets, fish; self-sufficient in food production
Economic aid:
donor:
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.9 billion
Currency:
1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates:
Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.771 (January 1994), 6.484 (1993),
6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Denmark, Communications

Railroads:
2,770 km; Danish State Railways (DSB) operate 2,120 km (1,999 km rail
line and 121 km rail ferry services); 188 km electrified, 730 km
double tracked; 650 km of standard-gauge lines are privately owned and
operated
Highways:
total:
66,482 km
paved:
concrete, asphalt, stone block 64,551 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 1,931 km
Inland waterways:
417 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas 700 km
Ports:
Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia; numerous secondary and
minor ports
Merchant marine:
347 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,974,494 GRT/6,820,067 DWT,
bulk 15, cargo 110, chemical tanker 24, combination bulk 1, container
51, liquefied gas 36, livestock carrier 4, oil tanker 33, railcar
carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 21, roll-on/roll-off cargo 39, short-sea
passenger 12
note:
Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet
Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience
within the Danish register; by the end of 1990, 308 of the Danish-flag
ships belonged to the DIS
Airports:
total:
118
usable:
109
with permanent-surface runways:
28
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
9
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
7
Telecommunications:
excellent telephone, telegraph, and broadcast services; 4,509,000
telephones; buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay
support trunk network; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 50 TV; 19
submarine coaxial cables; 7 earth stations operating in INTELSAT,
EUTELSAT, and INMARSAT

@Denmark, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Home
Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,360,050; fit for military service 1,168,940; reach
military age (20) annually 36,800 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.6 billion, 2% of GDP (1993)

@Djibouti, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, at the entrance to the Red Sea between Eritrea and
Somalia
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
22,000 sq km
land area:
21,980 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
total 508 km, Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km
Coastline:
314 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
desert; torrid, dry
Terrain:
coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Natural resources:
geothermal areas
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
9%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
91%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
desertification
natural hazards:
prone to earthquakes, droughts
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution; signed,
but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to
Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; a vast
wasteland

@Djibouti, People

Population:
412,599 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.71% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
42.94 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
15.8 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
111 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
49.23 years
male:
47.42 years
female:
51.1 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.21 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Djiboutian(s)
adjective:
Djiboutian
Ethnic divisions:
Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian 5%
Religions:
Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
Languages:
French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
48%
male:
63%
female:
34%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
a small number of semiskilled laborers at the port and 3,000 railway
workers
note:
52% of population of working age (1983)

@Djibouti, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form:
Djibouti
former:
French Territory of the Afars and Issas French Somaliland
Digraph:
DJ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Djibouti
Administrative divisions:
5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); 'Ali Sabih, Dikhil,
Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura
Independence:
27 June 1977 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
Constitution:
multiparty constitution approved in referendum 4 September 1992
Legal system:
based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic
law
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977); election last
held 7 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); results - President Hassan
GOULED Aptidon was reelected
head of government:
Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30 September 1978)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; responsible to the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes):
elections last held 18 December 1992; results - RPP is the only party;
seats - (65 total) RPP 65
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party:
People's Progress Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon
other parties:
Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Mohamed Jama ELABE; Democratic
National Party (PND), ADEN Robleh Awaleh
Other political or pressure groups:
Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) and
affiliates; Movement for Unity and Democracy (MUD)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UNCTAD, UNIDO,
UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roble OLHAYE
chancery:
Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone:
(202) 331-0270
FAX:
(202) 331-0302
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Martin CHESES
embassy:
Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
mailing address:
B. P. 185, Djibouti
telephone:
[253] 35-39-95
FAX:
[253] 35-39-40
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a
white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red
five-pointed star in the center

@Djibouti, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on service activities connected with the
country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in
northeast Africa. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port
for the region and an international transshipment and refueling
center. It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation
is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance (an important
supplement to GDP) to help support its balance of payments and to
finance development projects. An unemployment rate of over 30%
continues to be a major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an
estimated 35% over the last five years because of recession, civil
war, and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and
refugees).
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $500 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-1% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
over 30% (1989)
Budget:
revenues:
$170 million
expenditures:
$203 million, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$158 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
partners:
Africa 47%, Middle East 40%, Western Europe 12%
Imports:
$334 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
partners:
Western Europe 48%, Asia 25%, Africa 8%
External debt:
$355 million (December 1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3% (1991 est.); manufacturing accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
115,000 kW
production:
200 million kWh
consumption per capita:
580 kWh (1991)
Industries:
limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy products and
mineral-water bottling
Agriculture:
accounts for only 2% of GDP; scanty rainfall limits crop production to
mostly fruit and vegetables; half of population pastoral nomads
herding goats, sheep, and camels; imports bulk of food needs
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $39 million; Western
(non-US) countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $149 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $35 million
Currency:
1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate since 1973)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Djibouti, Communications

Railroads:
the Ethiopian-Djibouti railroad extends for 97 km through Djibouti
Highways:
total:
2,900 km
paved:
280 km
unpaved:
improved, unimproved earth 2,620 km (1982)
Ports:
Djibouti
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
Airports:
total:
13
usable:
11
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate as are the
microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country;
international connections via submarine cable to Saudi Arabia and by
satellite to other countries; one ground station each for Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and ARABSAT; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV

@Djibouti, Defense Forces

Branches:
Djibouti National Army (including Navy and Air Force), National
Security Force (Force Nationale de Securite), National Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 99,811; fit for military service 58,346
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $26 million, NA% of GDP (1989)

@Dominica, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about halfway between Puerto
Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
750 sq km
land area:
750 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
148 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall
Terrain:
rugged mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources:
timber
Land use:
arable land:
9%
permanent crops:
13%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
41%
other:
34%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
NA
natural hazards:
flash floods are a constant threat; occasional hurricanes
international agreements:
party to - Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection

@Dominica, People

Population:
87,696 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.32% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
20.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
10.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.96 years
male:
74.12 years
female:
79.95 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.99 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Dominican(s)
adjective:
Dominican
Ethnic divisions:
black, Carib Indians
Religions:
Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%, Pentecostal 3%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none 2%, unknown 1%,
other 5%
Languages:
English (official), French patois
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
94%
male:
94%
female:
94%
Labor force:
25,000
by occupation:
agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services 28% (1984)

@Dominica, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Commonwealth of Dominica
conventional short form:
Dominica
Digraph:
DO
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Roseau
Administrative divisions:
10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John,
Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint
Peter
Independence:
3 November 1978 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 November (1978)
Constitution:
3 November 1978
Legal system:
based on English common law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO (since 25 October 1993) election
last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October 1998); results -
President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO was elected by the House of
Assembly to a five year term
head of government:
Prime Minister (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES (since 21 July 1980, elected for
a third term 28 May 1990)
cabinet:
Cabinet; appointed by the president on the advice of the prime
minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of Assembly:
elections last held 28 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30 total; 9 appointed senators
and 21 elected representatives) DFP 11, UWP 6, DLP 4
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), Brian ALLEYNE; Dominica Labor Party
(DLP), Rosie DOUGLAS; United Workers Party (UWP), Edison JAMES
Other political or pressure groups:
Dominica Liberation Movement (DLM), a small leftist group
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
Dominica has no chancery in the US
consulate(s) general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica
Flag:
green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part
is yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the horizontal part is
yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the
cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green
five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10
administrative divisions (parishes)

@Dominica, Economy

Overview:
The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is highly vulnerable
to climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and
employs 40% of the labor force. Principal products include bananas,
citrus, mangoes, root crops, and coconuts. Development of the tourist
industry remains difficult because of the rugged coastline and the
lack of an international airport.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $185 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,100 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.2% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$70 million
expenditures:
$84 million, including capital expenditures of $26 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$54.6 million (1992)
commodities:
bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges
partners:
UK 50%, CARICOM countries, Italy, US
Imports:
$97.5 million (1992)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food, chemicals
partners:
US 25%, CARICOM, UK, Canada
External debt:
$92.8 million (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.2% (1992); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
7,000 kW
production:
16 million kWh
consumption per capita:
185 kWh (1992)
Industries:
soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes
Agriculture:
accounts for 30% of GDP; principal crops - bananas, citrus, mangoes,
root crops, coconuts; bananas provide the bulk of export earnings;
forestry and fisheries potential not exploited
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and
Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $120 million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

@Dominica, Communications

Highways:
total:
750 km
paved:
370 km
unpaved:
gravel or earth 380 km
Ports:
Roseau, Portsmouth
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
4,600 telephones in fully automatic network; VHF and UHF link to Saint
Lucia; new SHF links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations
- 3 AM, 2 FM, 1 cable TV

@Dominica, Defense Forces

Branches:
Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

@Dominican Republic, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the northern Caribbean Sea, about halfway between Cuba
and Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
48,730 sq km
land area:
48,380 sq km
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries:
total 275 km, Haiti 275 km
Coastline:
1,288 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the outer edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
6 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal
variation in rainfall
Terrain:
rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed
Natural resources:
nickel, bauxite, gold, silver
Land use:
arable land:
23%
permanent crops:
7%
meadows and pastures:
43%
forest and woodland:
13%
other:
14%
Irrigated land:
2,250 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs;
deforestation
natural hazards:
subject to occasional hurricanes (July to October)
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but
not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note:
shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds is the
Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)

@Dominican Republic, People

Population:
7,826,075 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.8% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
24.87 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
51.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.35 years
male:
66.22 years
female:
70.6 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.8 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Dominican(s)
adjective:
Dominican
Ethnic divisions:
white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
83%
male:
85%
female:
82%
Labor force:
2.3 million to 2.6 million
by occupation:
agriculture 49%, services 33%, industry 18% (1986)

@Dominican Republic, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Dominican Republic
conventional short form:
none
local long form:
Republica Dominicana
local short form:
none
Digraph:
DR
Type:
republic
Capital:
Santo Domingo
Administrative divisions:
29 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 district*
(distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*,
Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La
Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor
Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata,
Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro
De Macoris, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde
Independence:
27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 February (1844)
Constitution:
28 November 1966
Legal system:
based on French civil codes
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory or married persons
regardless of age
note:
members of the armed forces and police cannot vote
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, fifth
elected term began 16 August 1990); Vice President Carlos A. MORALES
Troncoso (since 16 August 1986); election last held 16 May 1990 (next
to be held May 1994); results - Joaquin BALAGUER (PRSC) 35.7%, Juan
BOSCH Gavino (PLD) 34.4%, Jose Francisco PENA Gomez (PRD) 22.9%
cabinet:
Cabinet; nominated by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate (Senado):
elections last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30 total) PRSC 16, PLD 12, PRD 2
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados):
elections last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) PLD 44, PRSC 41, PRD
33, PRI 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Political parties and leaders:
Major parties:
Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo;
Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), Juan BOSCH Gavino; Dominican
Revolutionary Party (PRD), Jose Franciso PENA Gomez; Independent
Revolutionary Party (PRI), Jacobo MAJLUTA
Minor parties:
National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan Rene BEAUCHAMPS
Javier; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic (PLRD), Andres Van Der
HORST; Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias WESSIN Chavez;
National Progressive Force (FNP), Marino VINICIO Castillo; Popular
Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert; Dominican Communist
Party (PCD), Narciso ISA Conde; Dominican Workers' Party (PTD), Ivan
RODRIGUEZ; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union (UPA), Ignacio RODRIGUEZ
Chiappini; Alliance for Democracy Party (APD), Maximilano Rabelais
PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS, Vicente BENGOA
note:
in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to form the
Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain individual
party structures
Other political or pressure groups:
Collective of Popular Organzations (COP), leader NA
Member of:
ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest), OAS, OPANAL,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jose del Carmen ARIZA Gomez
chancery:
1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-6280
FAX:
(202) 265-8057
consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New
Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto
Rico)
consulate(s):
Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston, Jacksonville,
Minneapolis, Mobile, Ponce (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert S. PASTORINO
embassy:
corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo
Domingo
mailing address:
Unit 5500, Santo Domingo; APO AA 34041-0008
telephone:
(809) 541-2171 and 541-8100
FAX:
(809) 686-7437
Flag:
a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the flag
into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, the
bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at
the center of the cross

@Dominican Republic, Economy

Overview:
Rapid growth of free trade zones has led to a substantial expansion of
manufacturing for export, especially of wearing apparel. Over the past
decade, tourism has also increased in importance and is a major earner
of foreign exchange and a source of new jobs. Agriculture remains a
key sector of the economy. The principal commercial crop is sugarcane,
followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco. Domestic industry is
based on the processing of agricultural products, oil refining,
minerals, and chemicals. Unemployment is officially reported at about
30%, but there is considerable underemployment. Growth fell to a
moderate 3% in 1993 because of power shortages in industry and
political uncertainty which slowed down foreign investment.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $23 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.4 billion
expenditures:
$1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$769 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa
partners:
US 56%, EC 22%, Puerto Rico 8% (1991)
Imports:
$2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and
pharmaceuticals
partners:
US 50%
External debt:
$4.7 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -0.1% (1991); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
2,283,000 kW
production:
5 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
660 kWh (1992)
Industries:
tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles,
cement, tobacco
Agriculture:
accounts for 18% of GDP and employs 49% of labor force; sugarcane is
the most important commercial crop, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa,
and tobacco; food crops - rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; animal
output - cattle, hogs, dairy products, meat, eggs; not self-sufficient
in food
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and
Europe
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $575 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $655
million
Currency:
1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 12.841 (January 1994), 12.679 (1993),
12.774 (1992), 12.692 (1991), 8.525 (1990), 6.340 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Dominican Republic, Communications

Railroads:
1,655 km total in numerous segments; 4 different gauges from 0.558 m
to 1.435 m
Highways:
total:
12,000 km
paved:
5,800 km
unpaved:
gravel or improved earth 5,600 km; unimproved earth 600 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km
Ports:
Santo Domingo, Haina, San Pedro de Macoris, Puerto Plata
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
Airports:
total:
36
usable:
31
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
relatively efficient domestic system based on islandwide microwave
relay network; 190,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 120 AM, no FM,
18 TV, 6 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Dominican Republic, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,114,606; fit for military service 1,333,049; reach
military age (18) annually 81,919 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $110 million, 0.7% of GDP (1993 est.)

@Ecuador, Geography

Location:
Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator
between Colombia and Peru
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
283,560 sq km
land area:
276,840 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Nevada
note:
includes Galapagos Islands
Land boundaries:
total 2,010 km, Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Coastline:
2,237 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
three sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute
Climate:
tropical along coast becoming cooler inland
Terrain:
coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and
flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, timber
Land use:
arable land:
6%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
17%
forest and woodland:
51%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
5,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution
natural hazards:
subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
periodic droughts
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber, Wetlands
Note:
Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

@Ecuador, People

Population:
10,677,067 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.01% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
25.82 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.67 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
39.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.98 years
male:
67.46 years
female:
72.62 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.08 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ecuadorian(s)
adjective:
Ecuadorian
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian 25%, Spanish 10%, black
10%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Spanish (official), Indian languages (especially Quechua)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
88%
male:
90%
female:
86%
Labor force:
2.8 million
by occupation:
agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%, commerce 16%, services and other
activities 28% (1982)

@Ecuador, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form:
Ecuador
local long form:
Republica del Ecuador
local short form:
Ecuador
Digraph:
EC
Type:
republic
Capital:
Quito
Administrative divisions:
21 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar,
Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos,
Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo,
Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Independence:
24 May 1822 (from Spain)
National holiday:

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